Fowl Cholera in poultry

Published on: 04/16/2016
Author/s : Yosef Huberman and Horacio Terzolo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Balcarce (INTA EEA Balcarce). Argentina (Images provided by the authors)

IntroductionFowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This species is named “multocida”, which may be interpreted as a bacterium that "kills" (cida) "many" (multo). In 1879, Pasteur was able to cultivate this bacterium; this was the first time that disease-causing bacteria were grown in culture media, outside the animal host. Pasteur inadverte...

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 17, 2020
Will most likely occured on or around age 26-28weeks in.laying flocks ,however if the farm is endemic, subsequent re occurrences will take an interval of 12 weeks to re occure wether you treat or opt for vaccination
In our practice we discovered that liver degeneration is pathognomonic in fowl cholera and to get a lasting treatment the liver parenchyma cells must be regenerated ,so we need to devise a dietary approach to the management of this disease in the tropics
We do this by re formulating a layers diet lower in energy ,higher in protein but we'll fortified with methionine
This dietary adjustment and Mycotoxin mitigation must go on concurrently while treating this problem and the results often show a lasting treatment
Dr Stephen Adejoro is an international poultry consultant and founder of livestock Industry Foundation for Africa
https://blog.lifango.org
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July 17, 2020

Stephen Adejoro Dr. Thank you for your very important comments and for sharing your experience

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Dr Algis Martinez Dr Algis Martinez
Veterinary Doctor
July 20, 2020
We all know that rodents, cats and pigs are the main source of Pasteurella multocida for commercial poultry and therefore, POOR HYGIENE is the main culprit for fowl cholera.
Those farms where hygiene, rodent extermination and proper Biosecurity have been ignored, are the ones that keep breaking with the disease.
Hundreds of thousands of dollars are lost not just due to the economic impact of the disease itself through mortality and production losses but also because all the money and resources spent on programs that don’t work and proper farm hygiene, which is the key to success, is not taking seriously.
Vaccination by itself does not prevent the infection. Vaccination helps but for a vaccination program to be successful it requires proper farm hygiene; clean surroundings, strict Biosecurity.
Feel free to visit our website for additional information.

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July 29, 2020
Dr Algis Martinez Thank you so much for pointing this out. Biosecurity is probably the main instrument for improving birds’ health as well as productivity. Prevention is much better than treatment. Moreover, mostly, much cheaper. This applies not only to Fowl Cholera but also to all other diseases.
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September 26, 2020

Dr. Algis Martinez 100% agreed as per my observation Rodent itself is responsible for the outbreak of FC if you are able to control the rodents in your area not only In your premises, you are one step closer to eliminate the FC from your farm .vaccination itself not a complete remedy for FC because every time with the changes of weather we have observed the mortalities of FC in Vaccinated Flock too. So practical approach is likewise
1 Control rodents at your farm Along with Biosecurity measures.
2 Go for FC Vaccination
3 Opt a broadspectrum antimicrobial against the Pasteurella multocida.

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August 2, 2020

Many thanks. Please how do I reduce lice to the barest minimum in my farm? Especially considering that I have used ivermectin and sprayed cypermethrine severally, yet they persist.

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August 4, 2020
Folarin Fale

This is not related to Fowl Cholera but treatment for lice (Menopon gallinae or Goniocotes gallinae), distributed throughout the body, is quite effective with permethrins in spray or powder (according to manufacturer's recommendation), and disinfection of the environment - removal of nests. Covering the nits in petroleum jelly prevents them from hatching and they then fall off.
If your chickens are caged chickens try spraying with pyrethroids, carbaryl, coumaphos, malathion, or stirofos. On the other hand, if they are raised on the floor you may try treatment by scattering carbaryl, coumaphos, malathion, or stirofos dust on the litter. Note that the eggs will not be affected so treatment should be repeated after 10 days.
(Thanks to Vet. Valeria Corbalan from UNLP who provided some of this Information)
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
August 22, 2020

Fowl cholera is very difficult to control but needs to maintain the highest standards of biosecurity plus proper vaccination schedule. In commercial layers, once it enters the flock it is recurrent after 12 weeks but sometimes within 4 weeks of time. Liver parenchyma tissue needs regeneration by proper treatment. My experience with fowl cholera in commercial layers multiple aged farms are in risk factors.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Narayan Banik Banik your findings in this report correspond with our case studies from Nigeria with the need to rehabilitate the liver and take note of the possible 12 weeks cyclical occurrences of fowl cholera in endemic farms here in the tropics.
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
August 22, 2020

Thanks to Stephen Adejoro for giving practical suggestions regarding F cholera treatment and control. Please tell the roles of mycotoxins in the treatment of F cholera. How can we change feed formulation? Feeds are supplied by manufacturers company, so how it would be fortified with protein and methionine.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Narayan Banik This questions are very relevant and thank you Bank
Pasturela multocida produced as well in it's pathogenesis endotoxin which additionally damage the liver,my prescription for the holistic management of fowl cholera must include the use of toxin binder,however unfortunately I did not mention this in my lecture because we did not use it in the case study presented,but more understanding and in our recent treatment approach we do recognise the use of toxin binder especially in the tropics where feed hygine could be poor
On the role of dietary management,this reported case was making its own feed and we have the previledge to readjust the feed profile.
However,for commercial Miller's it's my advice that there should be option for the farmer to request for medicated ,or have access through his Veterinarians or nutritionist to request for a premium mordification of their feed in such lingering cases of fowl cholera
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Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
August 25, 2020

Good morning. After careful autopsy and in highly suggestive pasteurella multocida lesions, I sample several times from consolidated lungs a wood sample for PCR past multocida and bacterial gelose in sheep blood defibrin 90ML G COLOMBIA plus 10 / sheep blood but do not isolate pasteurelle when positive by PCR.

I would like to have your opinion because in bacteriology I cannot isolate, it is what you advise me with another culture medium or another method.

Thank you, fraternally.

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September 1, 2020
Bouayad
We use Columbia agar base plus 7% bovine defibrinated blood (CLBA) and we can isolate Pasteurella multocida very well. When samples might be contaminated, we also use Agar Base without blood but with 0.1% (V/V) of equine serum (previously treated 56ºC for 30 minutes). This way it is easier to identify suspected P. multocida colonies, as they grow with some blueish color when illuminated. Finally, we strike these suspected colonies onto new CLBA to see if they have typical P. multocida colonies and on MacConkey agar where we see no growth.
Hope this helps.
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Bouayad I think here blood Agar culture will display pasteurella multocida as bipolar rod-like organism ,but can not be cultured with Macko key medium.
I believe laboratory experts on this platform will explain furthet
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September 10, 2020

Dr. Stephen Adejoro, I have been working together with my colleague Yossi Huberman. I would like to add that in Columbia Blood agar without blood P. multocida but with added equine serum colonies can easily be distinguished because they grow smaller than any possible Enterobacteriaceae o usually contaminant bacteria and have a characteristic blue color, sometimes iridescent, and therefore you can pick up and purify easily. I hope is useful to you!
Regards.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 11, 2020
Horacio Raúl Terzolo Horacio thank you for this added. Knowledge ,it will be shared with practitioners in Nigeria
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September 22, 2020
Thank you.
Almaz Habtamu
Reply
October 11, 2021
Horacio Raúl.
Thank you for this insight.
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September 1, 2020

First, a presumptive diagnosis must be made & this is automatic. Once a presumptive diagnosis has been made, a provisional medication must be administered pending the tentative lab diagnosis.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Boston Mhango This is quite in order
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 9, 2020
*Livestock Industry Foundation for Africa* (LIFA) presented her first zoom lecture today (08/09/2020) on Epidemiology, Chemotherapy and Dietary Management of Fowl Cholera in Humid Tropical Climate: Case study from Nigeria by *Dr Stephen Adejoro (President of LIFA)*

The scope of his discussion were outlined as follows: Aetiology, Route of infection, Symptoms, Incubation, Predisposing factors, Clinical signs, Post mortem, Laboratory diagnosis and case study from Nigeria.

In his presentation, he refers to Fowl Cholera as a chronic disease of poultry which could linger on throughout the life cycle of a flock when endemic.

He further emphasize that the disease occur in cycle of 12 weeks starting from age 26 to 28 weeks. Dr Adejoro pointed out in his case study that there is a need for mutual responsibilities between the Nutritionist and the Veterinarian in the management of some metabolic diseases of poultry.

Click on the link below to download/watch his presentation.
https://youtu.be/IRnFy518OzU

This is one of the services LIFA is given in Africa to the well being of the industry. We appreciate collaboration for LIFA inorder to be consistent in most of her activities.

Follow LIFA activities on https://blog.lifango.org
likewise on our facebook page www.facebook.com/lifa.lifango
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Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
September 10, 2020

Thank you, Dr. Huberman and Dr. Terzolo

I focus mainly on having recently affected subjects still alive or with a hot body who have died to find pasteurels and have a better chance of having pasteurels in pure culture.

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Nestor Froyalde Nestor Froyalde
Veterinary Doctor
November 15, 2020
Stephen Adejoro Dr What is the pathognomonic lesions of fowl cholera? Thank you.
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January 12, 2021
Nestor Froyalde Miliary pin pointed necrotic areas in the liver in acute and per acute phase
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Nestor Froyalde Nestor Froyalde
Veterinary Doctor
January 12, 2021
Dr Charles Ibe Many thanks Dr.
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Dr. Jignesh Barot Dr. Jignesh Barot
M. V. Sc. (Avian Diseases)
September 11, 2020
Thank you for detailed information on FC. Especially you explained well on conventional isolation and identification of FC bacteria. To avoid contaminants when using "Columbia agar', the sample of choice should be femur bone-marrow which, I think, contains only FC bacteria (in FC positive case).
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September 17, 2020
jignesh barot I am not sure if this will be the sample of choice. Bone marrow might be cultured when birds are dead due to FC. Livers and noticeable swollen wattles are more suitable.
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September 24, 2020

Dear Jignesh Barot, of course tarsus-metatarsus bone marrow is a sample of choice if the only available sample is a dead bird as, for instance, only could happen when an hipper-acute presentation of the disease occurs in which the only clinical sign in the appearance of sudden deaths which may take place whilst the rest of the flock show any disease signs of fowl cholerae and you only available sample to collect is dead birds. In less acute forms of the disease you will find better samples in clinically depressed diseased birds, and taken all possible sampling sterile measures you could obtain livers and spleens from recently sacrificed birds depositing them into sterile plastic containers or swabbing the affected organs placing swabs into a carbon simple transport media (for instance Ames transport medium). In this work we are describing some chronic cases of fowl cholerae in which isolation is rather more difficult and the best sample is to directly to fetch a head of a cock or hen having swelling of the comb and wattles; afterwards in the laboratory you could sterilise the skin with an incandescent spatula before cutting to reach the yellowish cheesy material (proper samples should contain cheesy material that is not completely dry). Additionally, you may perform very careful pathological examinations of this sacrificed birds that you have taken the heads to search for cheese stuffs lying free into the peritoneum of as pseudo-hepatic membranes or cheesy stuff in air-sacs or even lung necrotic foci. Therefore, as fowl cholerae is a septicaemic disease bone marrow is a good sample in acute or hipper-acute cases but for chronic cases, the simple and better way is to sample organs or cheese stuff.

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December 1, 2020

Fowl cholera is a severe septicemic disease well known to be caused by a bacteria. Its entry into the farm should be prevented by good biosecurity and vaccination for safety.
Once fowl cholera is detected in one house treat it aggressively with antibiotics in water/ injections. Sulphonamides in feed gives consistent treatment. the nearby houses can be vaccinated to prevent the spread. Multi strain killed vaccines or autovaccines work very well.
Once septicemia sets in, the organs get damaged very fast and there is no time for leaf based liver tonics to work. Don't waste money on liver tonics, you are already suffering.

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December 2, 2020
Dr.Talapaneni.Kotaiah Thank you for your comments. Indeed, there is nothing better than good biosecurity measures to prevent infection!
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Akintunde Akintoye Akintunde Akintoye
Veterinary Doctor
December 23, 2020
This disease is endemic on our breeder farm.
One thing i discovered over time is that Pasteurella multocida tend to develop resistance to our choice antibiotics faster especially oral drugs while the injectables like Oxytetracycline reduce the morbidity and mortality by 60-75%.
There is a sharp increase in mortality especially in the acute form and also mortality is high in open sided houses than close sided due to the direct effect of HEAT.
FC stay longer on any infected farm which means even if you vaccinate against FC, anytime the birds are depressed, the disease with other bacteria like E.coli will strike. Therefore A VERY STRONG BIOSECURITY WITH ALL IN ALL OUT RULE is the key to reducing the incidence of this disease on any farm.
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December 23, 2020
Akintunde Akintoye
thank you for your comments. You are so right!
I amy add that breeders should be vaccinated, if possible, with the same strain during rearing.
Introduction of new birds should be minimized during production.
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
December 29, 2020
FC is a very devastating diseases for Layers farm particularly in open side houses .once it attacked it is very difficult to remove from the farm . In acute attack mortality is high needs treatment via injectable form of medicine like gentamicin. Oxytetracyline , .for better control multiple strategies is needed including vaccination regularly.maintain proper bio security. Rodent control,water management etc . Cages madeof bamboo is very worsted for diseases . Multiple age birds raring in same premises can aggravate the situation .
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December 29, 2020
Narayan Banik
I totally agree with your comments. Especially the control of rodents. Antibiotics treatments may vary according to the variation of resistance among P. multocida strains.
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July 13, 2021
Narayan Banikwhat is your suggestions on the vaccination protocol for FC
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July 14, 2021
Dr A. Abdulkadir
6th and 9th week for unaffected flocks. choose multi strain vaccine. if the farm is not vaccinating so far and got an out break first time,
vaccinate all flocks seen in the premises including the affected. repeat after 3 weeks.
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January 9, 2021
What's the best drugs to treat fowl cholera
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January 9, 2021
Dear Owodunni Olugemi: It is better to carry out sensitivity tests antibiograms. When this is not possible or the treatment is very urgent, in my experience, the best choice is oxi-tetracycline (Terramycin) administered according manufacturer’s instructions. Regards.
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ANIEL Tesaluna ANIEL Tesaluna
Student
May 16, 2021
Owodunni Olugemi my experience, Amoxycillin still working against pateurella. maybe depends on the area, here amoxiycillin works better than OTC. But the very best way is to do rodent control and drinking water sanitation.
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Amer Alazawy Amer Alazawy
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
January 11, 2021
It also a problem to infected with FC in my country(Iraq), but we used sulfa as a drug of choice for the treatment
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Poultry Mania Poultry Mania
Doctor Of Veterinary Medicine
March 18, 2021

Ceftriaxone is the drug of choice to successfully control the fowl typhoid scientifically due to bacteria is a gram-negative and ceftriaxone shows the strongest sensitivity to gram-negative bacteria.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 10, 2021
The mechanisms of action of probiotics include enhancement of the epithelial barrier, increased adhesion to intestinal mucosa, and concomitant inhibition of pathogen adhesion, competitive exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms, production of anti-microorganism substances and modulation of the immune system (from Google search)
From the above it is obvious that probiotics compete with Gram negative bacteria including pasteurella to adhere to the intestinal mucosa.
It is this competitiveness of probiotics to the intestinal mucosa at the exclusion of the flagellated gram negatives that gives probiotics the alternate prophylactic treatment to chemotherapy with antibiotics.
The issue of if it is advisable to vaccinate sick birds to me is debatable,because at any time in the spread of an infection of a flock the prognosis will determine the next line of action or therapeutic decision to be made
From my over 44 years of poultry practice in the humid tropical climate where most of these outbreaks are experienced , practitioners must be proactive in decision to minimise morbidity and mortality in pending epizootics.
I have severally used Vaccination successfully as an appropriate interventions in viral and bacteria vaccination failures or even in outbreak.
Among such interventions where I have documented evidences of success in vaccinating sick flocks are in several cases of Mareks , Newcastle,pox and even in fowl cholera outbreaks.
The guiding rule is your assessment of the flock morbidity and the flock prognosis.
What matters most in your intervention is your dosage determination .
You need to determine the lethal dosage to use when your flock is undergoing a disease process
You need to know that the flock are at different stages of the infection but are all exposed to the infecting agents from air ,water or feed.
What I do is to minimised my dosage of Vaccination challanges which do not overwhelmed the birds but allow them develop more antibodies.
In practice such exercise may cause a slight increase in mortality 2-3 days after the Vaccination but usually start to decline from Day 5 onwards untill mortality finally subsided.
This interventions must be supported with adequate medication with multivitamins and require accurate judgement of the morbidity and prognosls of the infection
Reply
August 4, 2021

How to control Haemorrhagic Enteritis in Broiler Breeder? It's always problems at the age of 29 -32 weeks and Mortality goes up to 1 % per week.

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October 11, 2021
It is very rear to have fowl cholera in Broiler chicken. In Nigeria E coli infection is more common.
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Dr. Md. Beplob Hossain(DVM, MS Medicine) Bangladesh Dr. Md. Beplob Hossain(DVM, MS Medicine) Bangladesh
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine(PSTU) & MS Medicine(HSTU)
November 20, 2021

I am from Bangladesh...
I shared my real farm experience to controlling FC

1. Schedule wise FC vaccination (8-9 wks 1st vaccine & then booster vaccine 13-14 wks age)
2. Maintain strict biosecurity management in farm
3. Water sanitizer blenching use to purify or sterilizing water
4. Organic Acid use in water for control FC bacterium.
5. Garlic Extract use in water & feed Sometimes.
6. Litter management & nipple drinker management with cleaning process is important guidelines to control FC bacterium.

Overall maintain strict good management practices in poultry farm to control FC

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November 27, 2021
Dr. Md. Beplob Hossain(DVM, MS Medicine) Bangladesh Rodent and lizard control are key to controling Fowl Cholera.It is not airborne! So keep your eyes on these pests . Their urine and fecal droppings are incriminating factors. Dr Charles C Ibe DVM FCVSN ( avian medicine)
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