Fowl Cholera in poultry

Published on: 04/16/2016
Author/s : Yosef Huberman and Horacio Terzolo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Balcarce (INTA EEA Balcarce). Argentina (Images provided by the authors)

Introduction Fowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This species is named “multocida”, which may be interpreted as a bacterium that "kills" (cida) "many" (multo). In 1879, Pasteur was able to cultivate this bacterium; this was the first time that disease-causing bacteria were grown in culture media, outside the animal host. Pasteur inadver...

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 17, 2020
Will most likely occured on or around age 26-28weeks in.laying flocks ,however if the farm is endemic, subsequent re occurrences will take an interval of 12 weeks to re occure wether you treat or opt for vaccination
In our practice we discovered that liver degeneration is pathognomonic in fowl cholera and to get a lasting treatment the liver parenchyma cells must be regenerated ,so we need to devise a dietary approach to the management of this disease in the tropics
We do this by re formulating a layers diet lower in energy ,higher in protein but we'll fortified with methionine
This dietary adjustment and Mycotoxin mitigation must go on concurrently while treating this problem and the results often show a lasting treatment
Dr Stephen Adejoro is an international poultry consultant and founder of livestock Industry Foundation for Africa
https://blog.lifango.org
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July 17, 2020

Stephen Adejoro Dr. Thank you for your very important comments and for sharing your experience

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Dr Algis Martinez Dr Algis Martinez
Veterinary Doctor
July 20, 2020
We all know that rodents, cats and pigs are the main source of Pasteurella multocida for commercial poultry and therefore, POOR HYGIENE is the main culprit for fowl cholera.
Those farms where hygiene, rodent extermination and proper Biosecurity have been ignored, are the ones that keep breaking with the disease.
Hundreds of thousands of dollars are lost not just due to the economic impact of the disease itself through mortality and production losses but also because all the money and resources spent on programs that don’t work and proper farm hygiene, which is the key to success, is not taking seriously.
Vaccination by itself does not prevent the infection. Vaccination helps but for a vaccination program to be successful it requires proper farm hygiene; clean surroundings, strict Biosecurity.
Feel free to visit our website for additional information.

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July 29, 2020
Dr Algis Martinez Thank you so much for pointing this out. Biosecurity is probably the main instrument for improving birds’ health as well as productivity. Prevention is much better than treatment. Moreover, mostly, much cheaper. This applies not only to Fowl Cholera but also to all other diseases.
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September 26, 2020

Dr. Algis Martinez 100% agreed as per my observation Rodent itself is responsible for the outbreak of FC if you are able to control the rodents in your area not only In your premises, you are one step closer to eliminate the FC from your farm .vaccination itself not a complete remedy for FC because every time with the changes of weather we have observed the mortalities of FC in Vaccinated Flock too. So practical approach is likewise
1 Control rodents at your farm Along with Biosecurity measures.
2 Go for FC Vaccination
3 Opt a broadspectrum antimicrobial against the Pasteurella multocida.

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August 2, 2020

Many thanks. Please how do I reduce lice to the barest minimum in my farm? Especially considering that I have used ivermectin and sprayed cypermethrine severally, yet they persist.

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August 4, 2020
Folarin Fale

This is not related to Fowl Cholera but treatment for lice (Menopon gallinae or Goniocotes gallinae), distributed throughout the body, is quite effective with permethrins in spray or powder (according to manufacturer's recommendation), and disinfection of the environment - removal of nests. Covering the nits in petroleum jelly prevents them from hatching and they then fall off.
If your chickens are caged chickens try spraying with pyrethroids, carbaryl, coumaphos, malathion, or stirofos. On the other hand, if they are raised on the floor you may try treatment by scattering carbaryl, coumaphos, malathion, or stirofos dust on the litter. Note that the eggs will not be affected so treatment should be repeated after 10 days.
(Thanks to Vet. Valeria Corbalan from UNLP who provided some of this Information)
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
August 22, 2020

Fowl cholera is very difficult to control but needs to maintain the highest standards of biosecurity plus proper vaccination schedule. In commercial layers, once it enters the flock it is recurrent after 12 weeks but sometimes within 4 weeks of time. Liver parenchyma tissue needs regeneration by proper treatment. My experience with fowl cholera in commercial layers multiple aged farms are in risk factors.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Narayan Banik Banik your findings in this report correspond with our case studies from Nigeria with the need to rehabilitate the liver and take note of the possible 12 weeks cyclical occurrences of fowl cholera in endemic farms here in the tropics.
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
August 22, 2020

Thanks to Stephen Adejoro for giving practical suggestions regarding F cholera treatment and control. Please tell the roles of mycotoxins in the treatment of F cholera. How can we change feed formulation? Feeds are supplied by manufacturers company, so how it would be fortified with protein and methionine.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Narayan Banik This questions are very relevant and thank you Bank
Pasturela multocida produced as well in it's pathogenesis endotoxin which additionally damage the liver,my prescription for the holistic management of fowl cholera must include the use of toxin binder,however unfortunately I did not mention this in my lecture because we did not use it in the case study presented,but more understanding and in our recent treatment approach we do recognise the use of toxin binder especially in the tropics where feed hygine could be poor
On the role of dietary management,this reported case was making its own feed and we have the previledge to readjust the feed profile.
However,for commercial Miller's it's my advice that there should be option for the farmer to request for medicated ,or have access through his Veterinarians or nutritionist to request for a premium mordification of their feed in such lingering cases of fowl cholera
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Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
August 25, 2020

Good morning. After careful autopsy and in highly suggestive pasteurella multocida lesions, I sample several times from consolidated lungs a wood sample for PCR past multocida and bacterial gelose in sheep blood defibrin 90ML G COLOMBIA plus 10 / sheep blood but do not isolate pasteurelle when positive by PCR.

I would like to have your opinion because in bacteriology I cannot isolate, it is what you advise me with another culture medium or another method.

Thank you, fraternally.

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September 1, 2020
Bouayad
We use Columbia agar base plus 7% bovine defibrinated blood (CLBA) and we can isolate Pasteurella multocida very well. When samples might be contaminated, we also use Agar Base without blood but with 0.1% (V/V) of equine serum (previously treated 56ºC for 30 minutes). This way it is easier to identify suspected P. multocida colonies, as they grow with some blueish color when illuminated. Finally, we strike these suspected colonies onto new CLBA to see if they have typical P. multocida colonies and on MacConkey agar where we see no growth.
Hope this helps.
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Bouayad I think here blood Agar culture will display pasteurella multocida as bipolar rod-like organism ,but can not be cultured with Macko key medium.
I believe laboratory experts on this platform will explain furthet
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September 10, 2020

Dr. Stephen Adejoro, I have been working together with my colleague Yossi Huberman. I would like to add that in Columbia Blood agar without blood P. multocida but with added equine serum colonies can easily be distinguished because they grow smaller than any possible Enterobacteriaceae o usually contaminant bacteria and have a characteristic blue color, sometimes iridescent, and therefore you can pick up and purify easily. I hope is useful to you!
Regards.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 11, 2020
Horacio Raúl Terzolo Horacio thank you for this added. Knowledge ,it will be shared with practitioners in Nigeria
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September 22, 2020
Thank you.
Almaz Habtamu
Reply
September 1, 2020

First, a presumptive diagnosis must be made & this is automatic. Once a presumptive diagnosis has been made, a provisional medication must be administered pending the tentative lab diagnosis.

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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2020
Boston Mhango This is quite in order
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 9, 2020
*Livestock Industry Foundation for Africa* (LIFA) presented her first zoom lecture today (08/09/2020) on Epidemiology, Chemotherapy and Dietary Management of Fowl Cholera in Humid Tropical Climate: Case study from Nigeria by *Dr Stephen Adejoro (President of LIFA)*

The scope of his discussion were outlined as follows: Aetiology, Route of infection, Symptoms, Incubation, Predisposing factors, Clinical signs, Post mortem, Laboratory diagnosis and case study from Nigeria.

In his presentation, he refers to Fowl Cholera as a chronic disease of poultry which could linger on throughout the life cycle of a flock when endemic.

He further emphasize that the disease occur in cycle of 12 weeks starting from age 26 to 28 weeks. Dr Adejoro pointed out in his case study that there is a need for mutual responsibilities between the Nutritionist and the Veterinarian in the management of some metabolic diseases of poultry.

Click on the link below to download/watch his presentation.
https://youtu.be/IRnFy518OzU

This is one of the services LIFA is given in Africa to the well being of the industry. We appreciate collaboration for LIFA inorder to be consistent in most of her activities.

Follow LIFA activities on https://blog.lifango.org
likewise on our facebook page www.facebook.com/lifa.lifango
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Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
September 10, 2020

Thank you, Dr. Huberman and Dr. Terzolo

I focus mainly on having recently affected subjects still alive or with a hot body who have died to find pasteurels and have a better chance of having pasteurels in pure culture.

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Nestor Froyalde Nestor Froyalde
Veterinary Doctor
November 15, 2020
Stephen Adejoro Dr What is the pathognomonic lesions of fowl cholera? Thank you.
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jignesh barot jignesh barot
M. V. Sc. (Avian Diseases)
September 11, 2020
Thank you for detailed information on FC. Especially you explained well on conventional isolation and identification of FC bacteria. To avoid contaminants when using "Columbia agar', the sample of choice should be femur bone-marrow which, I think, contains only FC bacteria (in FC positive case).
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September 17, 2020
jignesh barot I am not sure if this will be the sample of choice. Bone marrow might be cultured when birds are dead due to FC. Livers and noticeable swollen wattles are more suitable.
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September 24, 2020

Dear Jignesh Barot, of course tarsus-metatarsus bone marrow is a sample of choice if the only available sample is a dead bird as, for instance, only could happen when an hipper-acute presentation of the disease occurs in which the only clinical sign in the appearance of sudden deaths which may take place whilst the rest of the flock show any disease signs of fowl cholerae and you only available sample to collect is dead birds. In less acute forms of the disease you will find better samples in clinically depressed diseased birds, and taken all possible sampling sterile measures you could obtain livers and spleens from recently sacrificed birds depositing them into sterile plastic containers or swabbing the affected organs placing swabs into a carbon simple transport media (for instance Ames transport medium). In this work we are describing some chronic cases of fowl cholerae in which isolation is rather more difficult and the best sample is to directly to fetch a head of a cock or hen having swelling of the comb and wattles; afterwards in the laboratory you could sterilise the skin with an incandescent spatula before cutting to reach the yellowish cheesy material (proper samples should contain cheesy material that is not completely dry). Additionally, you may perform very careful pathological examinations of this sacrificed birds that you have taken the heads to search for cheese stuffs lying free into the peritoneum of as pseudo-hepatic membranes or cheesy stuff in air-sacs or even lung necrotic foci. Therefore, as fowl cholerae is a septicaemic disease bone marrow is a good sample in acute or hipper-acute cases but for chronic cases, the simple and better way is to sample organs or cheese stuff.

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