Discussion created on 06/21/2011

Prolapse in commercial layers

Forum: Prolapse in commercial layers

Could anybody suggest me a medicine for prolapse problem in deep litter of bovans breed which are in 23 week and the weigtht is 1.500kg of bovans breed kindly suggest me the lighting program. I am incurring daily mortality of 5 birds per day. Please help me.

Chandra Sekhar

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June 22, 2011

Prolapse during production is usually related to poor skeleton development during rearing, even if body weight during production is at target. In future, try to achieve upper limit of target weight from 4 to 8 weeks of age. The following tips may help to reduce losses in this flock.
1. Do not exceed 16 hours light duration (better 15 hours). Also reduce light intensity (maximum 40 lux in open house, 20-30 lux in environment control house).
2. Adjust ME in feed to lower limit of recommendations.
3. Supplement Vitamin C @ 1 g/l drinking water in morning hours.

Steps 1 and 2 may slightly decrease egg produciton and egg size BUT you have to opt mortality or reduced production. Adopt these measures until 28 weeks of age. Thereafter resume normal practices.

March 13, 2018
Ahmed Din Anjum
Sir can we do these practices at 38 week of age
August 9, 2018
Ahmed Din Anjum
Thank you for the advice.
June 13, 2019

Ahmed Din Anjum thanks for your advice
But can you explain please how ME may cause uterine prolapse?

And what about using Vitamin B complex?

August 5, 2019
manar mohie
ME influences egg size.
August 5, 2019
Azhar Hussain

yes - applicable to all ages.
August 15, 2019

Ahmed Din Anjum Sir, I am facing the same problem in week of 18th in layer.6 to 8 hens are the daily mortality due to prolapse. I am using 40 kg of Pathar powder and 10 kg of pathar in one ton of feed. About twenty percent of production is over. Kindly suggest how to control this and how much density of light I can give to layer hens at this point.

August 22, 2019
Ahmed Din Anjum Thanks for the advice. Please can prolapse cause death for a bird without other birds pecking her? Thanks
April 24, 2020
Ogunlana Adetayo Johnson kindly note that prolapse can pose vent pecking and cannibalism and can expose the flock to the act if not managed or contains on time
May 5, 2020
Ahmed Din Anjum good day Dr. Sir can a prolapse case be revers in a bird that already has it?
May 5, 2020

Adetoro Abdulrahman Yes, it recurs. it gives other birds opportunity to peck and cannibalism starts. Such birds should be culled.

May 5, 2020
Ogunlana Adetayo Johnson it depends on how long was the prolapse period. Prolapse for a small time will little inflammation and reduced aseptically, bird may survive. Longer period inflicts higher degree of inflammation. Proper reduction not effective and birds may die.
June 24, 2020
Manish Kumar there are multiple reasons of prolaps
1 Poor boday skeleton development
2 Low calcium to phosphorous ratio in diet
3 Light intensity
4 Light duration
5 Over size of egg
6 improper mixing of feed ingredient and unequal distribution
for all these reasons there different remedies which i will share in detail later this time i was a little busy.
so we will discuss it in detail.
September 26, 2020

manar mohie ME can be increased by higher inclusion of grain and this is only achieved by the reduction of insoluble fibres in feed bcoz you can not reduce the requirement of protein so the higher inclusion Of grain is responsible for higher ME in your feed that also increases the incidence of Abdominal fat deposition, higher inclusion of fibre will need a longer period for digestion so this higher percentage of fibre will reduce a pecking behaviour of birds... pecking itself a one of the major cause of prolapse.

June 23, 2011
Thank you Dr Anjum
Maqsood Jaffery Maqsood Jaffery
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 30, 2011
As Bones/ Skelton of the bird mainly grows upto the age of 10 to 11 weeks, so growth of the bird up to this age must be cared. It should be emphasized that birds body weight and shank length must be as per requirement of commercial guide of relavant layer breed. If bones are not fully developed, then during production, bird is more prone to prolapse.
Moreover layer birds of present day require higher calcium percentage. It is important to follow the nutritional tables of commercial guide both in percentage and feed intake in grams per bird per day. What I mean to say is that during laying period in particular if layer bird is consuming lesser feed in grams/ day than recomended/ required, Calcium deficiency result in Calcium tetany. Calcium tetany is also one of the major causes of prolapse.
Poor debeaking is also one of the causes of prolapse in layer birds. Please observe/ check beak status, if not properly trimmed, have retouching/ debeaking again to control prolapse by preventing cannibalism.
Present day commercial layer bird strictly requires feed as per nutritional tables mentioned in commercial layer guides of that concerned layer bird, so please have nutritionaly balanced feed as per requirement.
Light stimulation/ increase should be gradual and as per recomendation. First light stimulus of light should be given when the bird acquires the required body weight (generally 1250 grams, but consult the concerned commercial layer guide). Over light stimulation will result in prolapse and small sized eggs for longer period.
Recomendations given by Ahmed Din Anjum are important really. By taking corrective measures prolapse can be controlled.
Dr. Maqsood Jaffery
August 22, 2019
Maqsood Jaffery Thanks so much for these you said,I learn a lot from it. But pls what should be the percentage analysis for calcium and phosphorus in layers complete feeds. Thanks
April 24, 2020

Maqsood Jaffery one of the overlooked factor you mentioned on beak trimming it's a factor as it could affect the feeding pattern and rate of a bird if poorly and/or cut roughy.
Other points are very important too and these advice will greatly help in managing prolapse.

Dr Jaydip Mulik Dr Jaydip Mulik
Master Of Veterinary Science & Master of Business Administration
July 1, 2011

Dear Mr Chandra,

I totally agree with Mr Ahmed Din Anjum & really thankful for the same.

Apart from that, please check the Calcium & phosphorus sources using in the Feed formulations.

Wish to suggest you to use the Meat cum Bone meal for the same but is from the renown sources for better skeleton development along with the Phytase enzyme.

I hope this practice will overcome your problems of prolapse and small size eggs too.


Dr Jaydip

Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
July 1, 2011

Very good suggestions are given in this forum.

As we know, one of the first sign of a prolapse problem is the blood-streaked eggs and careful & vigilant management will lower the rate of prolapse problem.

We are also aware of following major causes which induce problem of prolapse in commercial laying hens:

• Over or under weight birds
• Increasing day length to stimulate for early maturity (Early Photo Stimulation)
• Unbalanced feed formulations
• Early reproductive age of the birds
• Laying double yolk eggs
• High light intensity
• Over crowding

It is better to spend some time at farms to observe vent pecking behavior. Those birds should be isolated immediately from the flock.

Litter pests like “Lesser mealworm” or “Darkling beetles” (A.diaperinus) also create problem of vent pecking in deep litter system to complicate the problems.

Lighting a very low watt red colored bulb may also help to reduce prone problem as birds will not be able to distinguish the colour of eversioned shell gland (Oviduct) in the back ground of red colour.

Thanks !

August 27, 2019

Ganesh Kumar Dahal Good one sir, comprehensive approach. Thank u

July 1, 2011
not debaked - do immediate debeaking, provide salt 0.25 % in diet, 18 % cp, 8% fibre, floor space 2 sq.ft, switch off light for one week, then slowly increase lighting period 5-7pm , 5- 6 am, provide mud pot at corner of house for laying
Ahmed Dayain Ahmed Dayain
Beef producer
July 1, 2011
Dear both Dr Ahmed Din Anjum and Dr. Maqsood Jaffery ,
Thank you for your good recommendation about alleviation prolapses which occur in commercial layers
Dr Muhammad Arshad  Manj Dr Muhammad Arshad Manj
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 2, 2011

Assalam o alakum, all the respected participants have shared the valuable information regarding prolapses in commrcial layers, it is suggested that 2-3rd week body wt must b achieved . this will reduce 50% of prolapse chances. a well balanced feed is necessay i.e having all the essential a.acids.minerals ,&vitamins. light stimulation to the birds must b gradually. if the flock isnot on target wt , never stimulate the flock bcs an under wt flock is a threat to production when it is early stimulated.when flock is at 60% production then light should b 15hrs. at 80% light will b 16hrs. try not to go for more light but u can go up to 16.30hrs. socking density must b observed. ventilation must b adequate.a moderate increase in light stimulation is very beneficial. TREATMENT; an antibiotic like amoxycillin can b used to control secondary infections. light intensity should b b/w 40-60 lux. do not exceed. feed distribution must b equal.feeder/drinker must b adequate &at proper height. Ca, phosphorrous must be balanced. aA HIGH LEVEL OF Ca ALSO LEADS TO PROLAPSE bcs MUSCLES INVOLVED IN CONTRACTION &RELAXATION OF VENT ARE EFFECTED WITH Ca LEVEL. AVOID EXTRA Ca IN DIET IN EARLY STAGE OF PRODUCTIN.

Mohammad Hafeez Mohammad Hafeez
July 2, 2011
Dear Mr Chandra
After going through all the technical persons comments and suggestions, I think you will be benefited. With my experience, I have seen in many occasions Toxicity and E collie causes prolapse too. You may look in to this factor also.
Tarusenga Munyanyi Tarusenga Munyanyi
Animal health technologist
July 3, 2011

prolapse has predisposal facters which are overcrowding, low levels of salt, calcium,phosphorus, poor development of the pelvice as result of low levels of estrogen levels in circulation due to poor nutrition which is not balanced,Over feeding during time of peak production resulting in large eggs. Early introduction of lighting period tostimualte early laying can cause cannibalisms. inadquate feeders and drinkers
beak trimming need to done properly to avoid cannibalism. It is important to note that this vices is difficulty to control once it has started. Try addressing the above mentioned facotor and give vitamins and salt that is 50 to 100 grams of salt in drinking water for 7 days. Paying attention to feed formulation, stocking density and feeder and drinker ratio

Ram Prasad Poudyal Ram Prasad Poudyal
Veterinary Doctor
July 7, 2011

Regarding prolapsed
1. Light intensity management
In day light there will be 180 lux unit to 240 lux unit light intensity so with the addition of this light in night it still needs light for proper phosphorelation propose.(use of Ca+ and P+Vit D3) it needs about 5 lux unit to 20 lux unit light .
2. Use of Vit D 3 in diets : with the use of this vitamins properly Ca= and phosphorus will be used.
3. Decrease energy level because with it fat will increased in muscular layer and weakens the muscles and prolapsed occurs .
4. Feeding time should be monitored
5. Use of choline chloride in double quantity.
6. Intestinal scraping should be tested for coccidia population
7. Observing typical sound performing birds that may canabolise nex birds.
8. Make proper dark for 8-9 hours .
9. Adust prelayers feed (105 to 135 days.
10. Reduced more vitamins through drinking water.
11. Use citric acid to dissolve inorganic as well as organic ca through feed supplements.

Danka Maslic-Strizak Danka Maslic-Strizak
Veterinary Doctor
July 14, 2011

Prolapse during production could be due to the presence mycotoxin in food and feed should be added to mycotoxin adsorbent.

Badr Alfadil Badr Alfadil
Veterinary Doctor
July 19, 2011
Dear All,
Assalm Alaikom
Thanks for all for their valuable comments on prolapse in layers,in addition the E.Coli infection of the oviduct- Salbengitis will also lead to prolapse n this is usually occurs in old flocks.
Chlorination - Iodization of the water.
Treatment of E.Coli with suitable antibiotic (after sensetivity test)will also contribute to the cure of the case.
Arasi Ibrahim Arasi Ibrahim
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 19, 2011

Managing prolapse and pecking can be effectively carried out by first identifying the cause/predisposing factors. Unfortunately, this may be difficult. Some of the factors to look out for include:

A. Overcrowding: overcrowded birds are more predisposed to this behaviors. This is particularly important for floor managed bird/ deep litter system. When birds are overcrowded, litter microbial profile increases rapidly beyond manageable level, exposing birds to increased microbial contamination. Such contamination results in increased susceptibility to salpingitis, causing poor lubrication of uterine wall. During passage of egg through this tube, movement is impeded and inorder for such eggs to be laid, uterine eversion results. Neighbouring bird may peck result in bleeding and death. Managing this condition may require reduction of population with good litter management practice.

B. Ecotparasites infestation: e.g. lice infestation must be investigated and once present, must be treated using ectoparaiticides locally available. Efforts must be concentrated on removal of such ectoparasites that may be residing on both the birds and surrounding.

C. Nutritional factors: This may vary between low salt intake to increased microbial contamination in feed. Low salt level in feed may be caused by inadequate addition of salt to feed to improper mixing of salt to feed. the latter may be caused by high moisture in salt to be added. Short term remedy may include addition of salt in drinking water at 1 gram per litter to manage the resultant pecking behaviours..
High energy diets are also capable of predisposing to prolapse as a result of large egg sizes and increase fat deposits. The use of choline chloride has been particularly helpful. However, long measures include the reduction of Metabilzable energy while ensuring overfeeding is not a problem. Among other nutritional causes are high micro-nutrients levels in feed. Microbial contaminations in feed such as E. coli, Klebiella, Salmonella e.t.c . are other important factors to consider. Organic acids are commercially available to help reduce such exposures.

D. Water quality: poor water quality often results in salpingitis and proplapse with resultant pecking behaviours.

The use of water santisers along with water filters have been used with considerable success in regions where water contamination is a challenge.

July 20, 2011
I agree with the comments of Dr. A.D. Anjum. In addition to those points also consider the intestinal health and internal parasites. Increase the level of B complex vitamin especially choline.
Salah El Safty Salah El Safty
July 20, 2011

Thanks for all, those recommendations are very practically good, but we can focus also on
1. Providing good ventilation,
2. Add England Salt to facilitate the oviposion process.
3. Minimum bird's density.
4. Increasing feed protein level.
5. Add mineral mixture to water.
6. Decrease lighting intensity to minimum level.

Good Luck

January 30, 2012
I agree with all the listed above
1.Body weight at lay
2.Uniformity >90%
3.Light intensity
4.Gut health-NE and subclinical cocci
5.Intestinal worms
6.Low fibre in diet
7.High ca and low P indiet
8.Too high CP indiet
June 13, 2019

Dr.g.karthikeya CP is for calcium and phosphorus or for crude protein?

September 9, 2019
manar mohie Calcium and Phosphorus
May 2, 2012
Valuable suggestions have been given here. I totally agree with all of the contributors.
However, Overcrowding is an essential parameter that needs to be looked into in this regard. Also check the level of salt inclusion in the diet.
Ahmad Ali Ahmad Ali
March 13, 2013

I am facing the problem of prolapse in commercial layer. Birds are placed in local cages and the age of the birds is 34 week of age. Daily mortality is 8 to 10 birds. So kindly suggest me its prevention.

Joko Prihanto Joko Prihanto
December 25, 2013
Mr Anjum is completely right and follow him right away
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