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Secondary Infection after Infectious Bronchitis, Became more of an issue than the IB itself

Published: June 18, 2018
I will be Glad if you help me in this regard, Currently in Pakistan 90% off Broiler Farmer are badly suffering Infectious Bronchitis. Repeatedly Every Year in wheat harvesting season we are facing this problem duration is ‘’March April May and June’’ Most of Farmer is doing Live and even that Killed Vaccine to protect Broiler Bird but nothing work Secondary Infection after IB, Became more of an issue than the IB itself Kidney damage, Fatty Liver, Fever, uro-genital tract , E Coli , Reducing Feed Intake, Although morbidity is very high, Nothing to do with Bio-Security People are Throwing dead Bird on the Passage everywhere. Environment is highly contaminated with IB Virus Poor Result of antibiotic [only wastage of Money] No Result, we did Lab Culture also No- Antibiotic are Responding Regards Aftab Anwar raoaftab@gmail.com 923036668272 Pakistan
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Yair Saar
15 de julio de 2018

Infectious bronchitis is a viral disease, there is a blurring in the nomenclature of the IB strains in the world (according to the different countries) in poultry that are vaccinated in the right serotypes and their immune system is healthy. There is no need to use antibiotics. Today's approach is to avoid antibiotics resistance. Current trends are to reduce the use of antibiotics and even poultry grown without antibiotics ever. A method that is globally expanding successfully.

ANIEL Tesaluna
22 de julio de 2018

If the hygiene of the farm is very poor, the farm cannot survive without using antibiotics. Mycoplasma and E. coli infection will always enter the farm when the immune system of the flock goes down due to IB infection. The strain of the virus should be identified first before giving the vaccine cause it will result in wastage if the strain that was vaccinated is not correct.

Maqsood Jaffery
15 de julio de 2018

Other than immunization anyway (updated homologous variants or existing strains both classic & variants for IB), exposure of the bird to ammonia also creates damage to respiratory system. It causes ciliostasis at lower concentration for shorter duration & deciliation when exposed to Ammonia in more concentrations (above 25PPM) for longer duration. In winter there is lesser air circulation of air in shed. If it is not properly managed, then dead areas of ventilation are created in some parts of shed, which helps for Ammonia to concentrate in that part of shed. In that area, air quality is compromised, which opens way for Viral primarily & 2ndry bacterial infection establishment resulting into outbreak of disease/diseases.
In summer as there is more ventilation to manage high temperatures within shed so there is no problem of Ammonia but in winter if ventilation is not proper ( both distribution within shed & flow of air through shed) it helps in disease establishment.
It is important for control of respiratory diseases in chicken to give properly designed/organised ventilation.
It is further confirmed by disappearing of such disease problems in summer. Because by increase in rate of ventilation in summer, respiratory problems particularly IB outbreaks significantly decrease.

Muhammad Hassan
15 de julio de 2018
Dear Sir What your opinion for the same above mentioned question while we face a lot Regards Hassan
Zargham Khan
16 de julio de 2018

Respiratory diseases particularly in broiler flocks are very frequent on Pakistan. Be it IB, LPAI H9, E coli, MG interaction with live vaccines or excess ammonia levels (lesser chances during summer seasons due to higher ventilation rates). Little effort is made to accurate lab diagnosis and treatment is attempted by use of Abs. Epidemiological data is scarce. In such situations, farmers are left at the mercy of vets/consultants writing antibiotics and the medicine companies promoting Abs. The situation cannot be improved until extensive field and lab data are available to probe and reach meaningful conclusions.

Jodh singh
Nright Nutrition Pvt. Ltd
23 de julio de 2018

Dear Sir,
What is the treatment for mycoplasma in breeders.
And please suggest me schedule of totally mycoplasma free birds if passable.

Begerano Albert
16 de julio de 2018

Dear Dr. Perelman,
Very enlightening information, thanks.

Aoun Khan
17 de julio de 2018

Hi, everyone... Can we go wd IB killed vaccination in broilers? What should be the schedule, please?

Dr.hardeep singh
22 de julio de 2018
Aoun Khan in upper case 1 day nd + ib killed 5 th day ib lasota live combine 12 day Ibd 21 day ib lasota combine
Emmanuel Nwaotule
17 de julio de 2018

Yes, secondary infection after Infectious Bronchitis would be more of an issue than the IB itself, since it is obvious that nearly all diseases of poultry manifest respiratory symptoms. So there is confusion and doubt already on the ground towards a correct diagnosis. In this manner, the only sure guide is a definitive diagnosis. This might be difficult under field condition in Nigeria, hence the condition and diagnosis is delayed and thus progresses from bad to worse allowing secondary bacteria infection to complicate the condition. In a worse situation, broad-spectrum antibiotic and multivitamin could be resorted to.

Omolade Oladele
18 de julio de 2018

Dear Anwar,
It appears there are challenges with poultry farm biosecurity and antibiotic resistance in Pakistan.
Some of the signs you mentioned i.e. urogenital and kidney involvement as well as anorexia are part of what is observed in Infectious Bronchitis. I suggest a proper identification of circulating strains of IB virus in your country in order to pursue homologous vaccination. Also, only cases with secondary bacterial infection be treated and not a routine approach.

Dr. Mohammad Akram
19 de julio de 2018

Detoriation of egg quality (weak & misshapen eggshell with watery albumen) is often seen by me in com. laying & breeding flocks of Pakistan and Middle East.

Usually farmers, particularly in Pakistan, are not using IB Variant vaccines during the rearing period.

Is it advisable & beneficial to use IB Variant vaccines, like 4/91 during laying period in the presence of IB problem?

Based on my experience, I agree that use of both classical IB-H120 & Variant IB 4/91, generally resulting in better control of IB problem in layers & breeders.

Is it possible for MSD to introduce safe combined IB vaccine, containing IB-H120+IB 4/91 in a single vial? I am sure this could make the life of farmers easy.


Dr. M. Akram, Micro Lab, Karachi.

Dr. Beny Perelman
21 de julio de 2018

Dr. Mohammad Akram Dear Dr.
Control of IB in breeders and layers depends on two main factors:
1. What IB (Variants) are causing the problem?
2. What vaccines are available and what vaccination program are you using during the rearing period.
The combination of 4-91 (IB-Var1 group= 793B) with any Manchester vaccination strain Ma5 or H-120, may help to reduce the economic damage but it is not always enough.
If you are dealing with IB-Var2 the situation is very different as this variant needs a more specific vaccine to be controlled.
IB-var2 has spread in all the middle east to Turkey, Poland, etc.
Control has been achieved only by vaccination every 6-8 weeks with the IB-Var 2 vaccine during the rearing as well as during the laying period every 8 weeks.

Dr Nati Elkin
22 de julio de 2018

Dr. Beny Perelman
1. Massachusetts Not Manchester
2. Var ll strain was controlled perfectly with vaccines from group 793B + Mass type in layer pullets and heavy pullets in Israel (Against the "False Layer" manifestation). The protectotype concept works very well. Later in age Var ll was added to heavy pullets to confer more specific immunity to the flock (for the production period).
3. The Var ll vaccine was needed especially in Broilers to control the disease.

Md.Helal Uddin
23 de julio de 2018
Sir, Thank you very much for your suggestions regarding IB control at Layers & Breeder farms.
Udi Ashash
Phibro Animal Health
23 de julio de 2018

Dr. Nati Elkin
The combination of 793B and Mass strains in Turkey, Lithuania, Belorussia, Poland and other countries was unable to protect from IS1494/06 (Var2). Veterinarians and farmers in these countries have tried the combination for a long time in various programs but all failed. One of the problems are drop in production and the 2nd infections arising even after a very mild clinical sign. Only the homologous VAR2 vaccine was able to provide the true protection from bot clinical signs 2nd infection and economic damage.
Generally speaking, there is no magic bullet. Once you have a field strain that is not homologous to the vaccines strains you must try different programs and vaccines until you find the best solution.

Dr Nati Elkin
25 de julio de 2018

Udi Ashash
Dear Dr Ashash. Please read accurately what I have wrote. There is no contradiction with your reply.
+ Take in consideration that a good application of live vaccines is a huge problem among farmers.

Magdalena Escorcia Martínez
UNAM - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
31 de julio de 2018
Udi Ashash We must remember that the importance of using vaccines with homologous strains against challenges of BIA is the prevention of the emergence of variant strains. Do not forget that the very evolution of this virus predisposes to genetic recombination.
Muhammad Kashif
1 de agosto de 2018

Udi Ashash Instead of trying blindly why not isolate, characterize circulating strain and try for new vaccine development.

Udi Ashash
Phibro Animal Health
1 de agosto de 2018

Muhammad Kashif
I 100% agree on that! this is what was done in the case of IS1494/06, we could not control it with 793B&MAss combinations so a homologous vaccine was developed.
The homologous vaccine was the only one controlling the disease.
What I mean is when you do not have the homologous vaccine then you should do? you should be looking for the best solution using available vaccines. there is no "one solution fits all" situation.
One more interesting data is that Lab trials, using SPF birds the cilia movement test may show good protection against challenge with IS1494/06 however, in the VAR2 case, there is no correlation between the protection that you get in the lab and the actual protection in the field.
Therefore, on top of the data from lab trials in SPF birds, one should try the solution in the field...

Dr.Joyanto saha
9 de agosto de 2018
Thanks for your suggestions sir.
Muhammad Faeooq Qureshi
20 de julio de 2018
Nice suggestions
rommel manlapig
20 de julio de 2018

Dear SIr,

Biosecurity, correct management and strategic vaccination are required to eliminate the occurrence of Infectious Bronchitis in broiler farms - easier said than done? YES, it will be a long shot!

First, we must fix the biosecurity issues in the area. We are still hopeful to encourage the farmers to promote basic biosecurity protocols in the farm with the help of private and government veterinarians. The moment we give up on biosecurity, the farms will be vulnerable to many infectious diseases and the economic impact would be really great.

Second, strategic vaccination would be necessary. Know the immune status of day old chicks against IB for example thru ELISA and to determine the age to vaccinate in broiler farms. We can check the strain of IB circulating in the area thru PCR. Once we identify the culprit strain of IBV, then we can design a vaccination program. In our country, the trend in broiler vaccination is going into "no or less vaccination at farm level" due to many errors related to vaccination procedure, majority of vaccines are being given in the hatchery by trained personnel.
For farms having problem with IB, we might want to check also the vaccination procedure in the farm and we can also check the effectiveness of vaccination thru serology (CV% and titer levels).

Third is management, Dr.Jaffery was right about the contributory factors to the occurrence and severity of infections in the farm. Regardless of how frequent vaccinations against IBV are, if management issues (such as crowding, high ammonia level, extreme temperatures, biosecurity issues etc.,) are present, it is impossible to control the infection at farm level.
One unique feature of viral infection is immunosuppression. Antimicrobial therapy is necessary to minimize the losses to IB. Correct choice of antimicrobials (based on sensitivity testing) with accurate dosage is required to treat the secondary bacterial infections. Ensure also the correct distribution and volume amount of antimicrobial solution per house based on flock population.

Hope this suggestion may help you, sir.

Dr.Mujahid Kamran
21 de julio de 2018

Dear Colleagues My suggestion is to use IB variants if isolate is filed virus, please do not confuse with field and vaccinal virus. Excessive use of variant vaccines without knowing vaccination period results in collapse of immunity.

Eduardo Lucio
Merial Mexico
21 de julio de 2018

Coinfection with LPAI as well as Mycoplasma has proven to increase losses significantly.

Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni
Indbro Research & Breeding Farms
22 de julio de 2018

IB vaccine H120 is widely used on day one. This is done at hatchery by spray. At brooder house by beak dipping before releasing on day one. Possible for small flocks where Labour is available.
H 120 + nd lasota is given on day 5 by eye drop or sinking water.
The variants given during growing and laying are MA5 or 4/91. 4/91 is opted when results with MA5 are not up to the mark.
Most of the killed vaccines are combined with ND, ND, IBD &TWO. The strain used in killed vaccines are generally M41 or M49.
Live vaccine for layers in drinking water can be given safely to boost the titers. MA5 is the strain of choice. If found not working go for 4/91. The problem in vaccinated layers is seen as misshapen and white colour eggs in brown layers.
Live MA5 in drinking water does help in boosting the titets and improving the egg quality.

23 de julio de 2018

Seroconversion of IB killed vaccine are very low in broiler breed, as well killed vaccine available for common strain not variant type so using such as techniques of strategy a kind of hopeless efforts and wasting time, I prefer to boost the breeder flocks with killed vaccine at 40 weeks neither vaccination of broiler flocks.

Dr. M.Mazhar Khan
23 de julio de 2018

I 100% agree with Dr.Ahmed Anjum that during the wheat threshing period, this stat of non pathogenic problem erupted due to not only due to dust particles but along the dust very tiny particle of wheat plant stem are very harmful as the particle penetrate into respiratory system right from the trachea, bronchi even in to the lungs & there is no way to take these particles out. There is little hope that Bronchi dilator can help a little bit but these will damage the lungs, path gins specially IBV can attack in these favorable conditions. I would like to suggest that during these months, direct air suction should be avoided. Air suction can be done through cooling pad with single tunnel fan subject to the cooling pad should be wet all the time, if it down the temperature, wet garden green cloth can be used over the pads to stop the dust to avoid inside the house.
Other tan these month IB-H 120 & 4/91 after each vaccine on third day Antibiotic which is according to sensitivity test can be given for 3 to 5 days I am sure it will pay an important roll to protect secondary infection. I am suggesting in my long personal experience.

Wish to be successes full.
Kind regards to all viewers.

Islam Masoud Raslsn
23 de julio de 2018

Hello Francisco.
Could you write the time vaccination for this Ma5, 4/91 you prefer?

Aliyu Elayo
23 de julio de 2018

Thank you very much for this informative and well educative article. Haven't gone through this, I have learned so much from you, while considering the biosecurity.

Muhammad Hassan
23 de julio de 2018

Dear Sir, 

Can we use vit c during IB outbreak? It will be helpful and which type of immunity. Will be enchanted.

Wijaya Saputra
31 de julio de 2018

I am responsible for supervising the health of broiler breeder chickens at several farm sites. One of the farms is currently in production. from 30 hen houses, there is a hen house at the age of 27 weeks of egg production is difficult to ride is 11 days still the egg production below 70%. there are 29 hen houses have good production, there is even one hen house can reach % EP = 90.
At the time grower IB vaccine program that I use start from the first age is as follows:
Age 1 day with IB Ma5 vaccine spray in hatchery.
Age 21 days with mass ib live vaccine and ib killed vaccine.
Age 7 weeks with ib ma5 vaccine and ib killed vaccine.
Age 12 weeks with mass ib live vaccine and ib killed
Age 18 weeks with ib mass live
Age 24 weeks with vaccine ib killed.
I do surgical carcasses both against dead chickens or culled chickens. The obvious pathological change is the presence of clear fluid in the oviduct of about 400-500 ml, the wall of the oviduct becomes thin and width of the size can reach 5-7 times the normal size. The order of egg follicles is normal and the number is 7-8 folikel from the largest to small. Temporary suspicion on the cage is infected with IB QX virus.
The question is:
1. Whether the vaccine is not protective against IB QX virus field.
2. Why the oviduct is infected while the egg follicle remains normal. Approximately start when virus infects the chicken.
3. What action should be taken to avoid transmission to another chicken coop.
Please advice and opinion.

Magdalena Escorcia Martínez
UNAM - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
11 de agosto de 2018
Distinguished Mr. Wijaya Saputra What you describe about the oviduct was an injury that was observed with the H7N3 strain in Mexico. One of the managements that was successful in our egg birds, was the forced muda and the use of the emulsified vaccine. The change was initiated as soon as the virus was detected, IMMEDIATELY, if it was delayed, the management no longer worked. In our case, it was a way to protect our production. Our research team found that when performing the forced moult, the number of receptors for the virus in the mucous membrane of the oviduct was decreased. If you enter the following league you can find the article: http://veterinariamexico.unam.mx/index.php/vet/article/view/416 Maybe this handling can help in your case.
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