engormix
search
search
We will be present at:
September 9, 2021
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

Trypsin Inhibitor, the hidden enemy in Soyabean Meal

Published on: 06/28/2021
Author/s : Dr. Koushik De, Director-Technical Services, SCA Novus International

As global animal production has rapidly shifted towards reduced Antibiotic free, “Gut health” has become a popular expression and all-encompassing concept in the scientific community. The gastro-intestinal tract must provide a barrier function protecting against harmful environmental elements (e.g. toxins and pathogenic microbes), while simultaneously permitting appropriate nutrient ab...

remove_red_eye 1553 forum 21 bar_chart Statistics share print
Share :
close
brendon muko brendon muko
Student
June 28, 2021

What is the relationship between UA and over processed meal?

Reply
Reena Rani L C Reena Rani L C
SCA Sr. Marketing Communication Specialist
Novus International Novus International
St Charles, Missouri, United States
June 30, 2021

brendon muko, Urease values of soybean meal should not be used as the best measure of optimum processing. measurement of the urease activity do not reflect the intensity of heat treatment of soybean meal beyond the threshold of urease. Chen et.al (2019) conducted a study to determine the levels of TI and UA in 414 SBM samples from 19 different countries and to validate whether TI and UA are correlated. They found that TI were poorly correlated with UA in solvent extracted SBM samples, suggesting that UA should not be used as a surrogate indicator for TI content in soybean products.

Refer the studies in the article: Araujo et al (2019) conducted similar study to determine the correlation of TI and KOH Protein Solubility.

Reply
brendon muko brendon muko
Student
June 30, 2021
Reena Rani L C thanks, l understand. Can I please have the laboratory experiment procedure for KOH Protein solubility. I have been using the UA only but the challenge have been to see if it has been over processed and that's when the UA reaches its limitations and KOH Protein solubility is supposed to come up.
Reply
Taha Taibeh Taha Taibeh
Veterinary Doctor
June 28, 2021
Thanks for valuable information..
But what if I already add protease shall I increase the dose, if yes what is the recommended..
Reply
Reena Rani L C Reena Rani L C
SCA Sr. Marketing Communication Specialist
Novus International Novus International
St Charles, Missouri, United States
June 30, 2021
Taha Taibeh That depends on what type of protease you are using and how efficiently it can degrade the TI in Soyabean meal even when TI are present in higher amount. A good quality protease enzyme improves the amino acid digestibility and at the same time reduce the pancreas weight also indicating a potential amelioration of the negative effect of TI. The dose recommendation is very much product specific.

Reply
June 29, 2021
Hello Doc,
Why do you think we need to increase SBM level in a diet when we consider raising birds with no antibiotic/free antibiotic! What is the relationship between increasing CP level and limiting antibiotic?
Your quote "The shift to antibiotic free production or better gut health often results in the increase of soybean meal inclusion as ..."
Reply
Reena Rani L C Reena Rani L C
SCA Sr. Marketing Communication Specialist
Novus International Novus International
St Charles, Missouri, United States
June 30, 2021
Dr. Abdolreza Kamyab : The shift to antibiotic free production or better gut health often results in the increase of soybean meal inclusion as there are limited in the number of efficacious protein sources that successfully reduce soybean meal content. Soybean meal is the most widely used major protein source in poultry production across the world. Sometimes we don’t give much importance to CP level unless there is country regulations. We give much emphasis to amino acid balancing. Higher CP will lead to higher amount of undigested protein to hind gut which become a source of food for the harmful pathogen.
Reply
June 30, 2021
Dear Reena,
Thanks much for the reply.
My quest is what is the relationship between SBM level in poultry feed and antibiotic free diet? I do formulate both antibiotic free diet (with or without pre or pro biotic) and duets with antibiotic based on producers request. In either case my SBM level does not change!
Speaking on formulating diet based on aa digestibility is totally different issue.
Reply
Martin Smith Martin Smith
Animal Nutritionist
Evonik Animal Nutrition Evonik Animal Nutrition
Rellinghauser, Hessen, Germany
July 1, 2021

Dr. Abdolreza Kamyab, Dear Sir, I agree with your point. The first response to removing AGPs should always be to try and reduce "crude protein" as much as costs allow. Use of pure amino acids will always improve the possibility to do this and also the cost situation. In doing so we reduce nutrient supply for potential harmful overgrowth of the likes of C. perfringens etc. However, this article also points to the benefits from evaluating and controlling soya quality. Use of tools like AMINORED from Evonik make this very rapid and easy, and are directly correlated to SID values for amino acids. MPS

Reply
July 2, 2021
Reena Rani L C emphasis should be on lowering the CP while balancing for the limiting amino acids. Such an approach has even been shown to reduce incidences of post-weaning diarrhoea.
Reply
July 16, 2021
Reena Rani L C very interesting topic. What is group opinion about inclusion of SPC (Soybean Protein Concentrate) in the initial diets of the birds as a strategy on removing the AGP?
Reply
June 29, 2021
Excellent article! Everybody knows about protein advantages of soya bean meal, but not enough about disadvantages of soya bean meal.
Reply
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
July 2, 2021
Dr. Fiodor S. Marchenkov,
that's true. We need to pay more attention on the quality of the CP - it's real nutritional value based on the amino acids / percent CP, meaning gram Lysin in 100g CP- as Lysin is the most impacted AA during heat treatments.
Best regards, Ana Gavrau
Reply
July 2, 2021
Dear Ana, thanks for your reply, you are absolutely right. Lysine is key AA, and all PC-feed software calculating the rest of AA, according to lysine content. The main idea about reducing of SBM is very good. AA balance make possible to reach better CP digestion, and less substrate for harmful bacteria. But probably you know that in Ukraine SBM quality is not main feed problem because we use for poultry feed mainly domestic sunflower meal (SFM). It is cheaper but need some lysine addition, but any case final feed is cheaper. SFM dosn't contain TI or lectins. SFM chlorogenic acid is less problem if to compare it to TI.
Reply
June 30, 2021
"The shift to antibiotic free production or better gut health often results in the increase of soybean meal inclusion as there are limited in the number of efficacious protein sources that successfully reduce soybean meal content"..... Could you please elaborate a bit more on how shift to AGP-free production has led to use of more SBM?
Reply
Reena Rani L C Reena Rani L C
SCA Sr. Marketing Communication Specialist
Novus International Novus International
St Charles, Missouri, United States
June 30, 2021

Oketch Elijah Ogola: As mentioned Soybean meal is the most widely used major protein source in poultry production across the world. And there are limited in the number of efficacious protein sources that successfully reduce soybean meal content. And now in many countries meat and bone meal/animal protein usage has been either stopped or been reduced significantly because of chances of microbial contamination. So more and more people are looking for feed without animal protein sources.

Reply
July 2, 2021
Reena Rani L C thanks for the clarification
Reply
Dr Kibiike David Dr Kibiike David
Bachlor. Veterinary Medicine
July 14, 2021
Am looking for testing unit to test the presence of trypsin inhibitor in roasted soy.
Reply
Martin Smith Martin Smith
Animal Nutritionist
Evonik Animal Nutrition Evonik Animal Nutrition
Rellinghauser, Hessen, Germany
July 27, 2021
Dear Dr. David

Please contact myself or John Owaga from Evonik; we will be able to discuss some assistance MPS
Reply
Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 27, 2021
Trypsin inhibitor so looming large to become a threat to use SBM in bulk albeit the same ingredient is the rich source of protein and a fair source of both L Lysine and DL Methionine. Urease activity in SBM doesn't reveal much significance in poultry feeds but it restricts the rampant use of SBM along with Urea in cattle feed. The measure to reduce TI activity in SBM in poultry feeds like heat treatment or any chemical exposure requires more exploration in near future in order to ensure more growth in poultry to meet out true marketable demand. It is to reiterate that any other source as source of protein to poultry feed other than SBM is deoiled mustard cake or rape cake though they too have had their limiting factors prior using in greater scale.
Reply
Nelson Ruiz Nelson Ruiz
Chemist, MS, PhD
July 29, 2021

Dear Dr. Koushik De. I find interesting your discussion on trypsin inhibitors and their role as antinutritional factors in broiler nutrition. It would be nice however, if you add a list of all the literature cited and provide credit where credit is due. Havenstein et al. (2003) didn't discuss trypsin inhibitors in their comparison of the 1957 and 2001 genetics, the slide that you have in your paper comes from my discussion in 2012 at the Arkansas Nutrition Conference [Ruiz, N., 2012. New insights on the urease activity range for soybean meal: a worldwide opportunity for the poultry industry. 2012 Arkansas Nutrition Conference Proceedings]. In my opinion, and of course, it is only my opinion, trypsin inhibitors are not "the hidden enemy" in soybean meal. Since the 1940's they started to be clearly identified by Kunitz (1945), Bowman (1944), and Birk (1961). And between 1969 and 1974 Kakade et al. developed the necessary analytical chemistry for their quantification. A considerable amount of the work on trypsin inhibitors has been done in soybeans and their products such as soybean meal.

I would say that rather than hidden, trypsin inhibitors in soy have been ignored for a variety of reasons. One important reason why during decades the industry didn't refer directly to trypsin inhibitors in soybean meal was the high correlation between urease activity and the inhibitors although it was not explicitly recognized. For decades the range of adequacy measured with urease activity was 0.05 to 0.20 pH units, and millions of tons of excellent quality SBM was produced and utilized in animal nutrition worldwide including broilers. This was true until the 1990's when the rapid feed passage syndrome showed up in broiler farms, particularly out of the United States [Kouwenhoven, B., R.M. Dwars, J.F.M. Smeets. 1992. Wet litter and high feed conversion, a new problem in broilers. Pages 558-561. Vol. 1. In: Proceedings XIX World’s Poultry Congress. WPSA. Amsterdam.] The rapid feed passage syndrome was the result of the dramatic increase in feed intake of broilers which accompanied with the predominance of soybean meal worldwide as the number one source of digestible amino acids exceeded the tolerance of broilers to trypsin inhibitors in the diet.
In 2005 [Ruiz, N., and F. de Belalcázar. 2005. Field observation: Trypsin inhibitors in soybean meal are correlated with outbreaks of feed passage in broilers. Poultry Science 84(Suppl. 1): 70.] we presented field data that indicated that commercial soybean meal displaying urease activity values within the range of adequacy were clearly involved in rapid feed passage in broilers older than 21 days of age. But in 2005 we measured simultaneously trypsin inhibitors and urease activity in lots of soybean meal that resulted in excellent performance of broilers as well as in lots that generated rapid feed passage. It became clear that the old range of adequacy had changed, and by 2012 at the Arkansas Nutrition Conference we proposed a new range: 0.000-0.050 pH units. Using the ISO 14902:2001 method to determine trypsin inhibitors we correlated this new proposed range for urease with a 1.65 - 2.35 mg/g range of adequacy for trypsin inhibitors. Since 2005 we also proposed the importance of measuring trypsin inhibitors as QC parameter in soybean meal and full-fat soybeans.

Yes, trypsin inhibitors is a QC parameter for both soybean meal and full-fat soybeans. Solubility in KOH is the parameter to measure if overprocessing has occurred in SOYBEAN MEAL and it is highly correlated to amino acid digestibility in soybean meal. We have reported that KOH protein solubility is not a QC parameter for full-fat soybeans [Ruiz, N., and C.M. Parsons. 2016. The absence of correlation between protein solubility and digestible amino acids in full-fat soybeans emphasizes focusing on trypsin inhibitors reduction. International Poultry Scientific Forum, Abstract T195 (p. 58); Poult. Sci. 95(E-Suppl. 1):251.]. Soybean meal and full-fat soybeans are two different ingredients each with distinctly quality control parameters [80th Minnesota Nutrition Conference, p. 169-175, 2019].

As far as how to deal with trypsin inhibitors in the feed formulation of broilers there are several alternatives beyond proteases. Nutritionists and formulators under commercial conditions have to think in overall cost, and formulating to minimize trypsin inhibitors in a broiler finisher diet is expensive because limiting soybean meal, the economic number one provider of digestible amino acids as already said, would result in higher price per metric ton of feed. As suggested by Dr. Marchenkov there are alternative ingredients such as sunflower meal that compete against soybean meal when a maximum spec for trypsin inhibitors in the formula is in play. Canola is another one. Per our experience, 0.58-0.60 mg of TI/g of FEED in a broiler finisher feed is roughly the upper limit.

Another way to effectively control trypsin inhibitors in broiler feeds is the utilization of full-fat soybeans (FFSB) which occur in several countries out of the United States. Given the fact that FFSB in practice is a no-commodity because is processed by the end user, then it is possible to decrease trypsin inhibitors in FFSB well below the trypsin inhibitor content of commercial soybean meal (a commodity). Soybean meal cannot reach by the solvent extraction process values below 1.60-1.65 mg TI/g without being overprocessed, while FFSB, PROPERLY PROCESSED may reach values as low as 1.0 mg TI/g (measured with the ISO 14902:2001 method). Consequently, by generating FFSB of superior quality than commercial soybean meal as far as trypsin inhibitors are concerned the only limitations are cost and inventory. In our experience FFSB competes excellently with soybean meal, reduces cost per MT of feed and allows to control trypsin inhibitors below the 0.58-0.60 mg TI/g of FEED. Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC, Suwanee, GA USA.

Reply
1
print
(1553)
(21)
Engormix reserves the right to delete and/or modify comments. See more details
Post a comment
Create new discussion :
If this discussion does not cover topics of interest or raises new questions, you can create another discussion.
Consult a professional in private:
If you have a specific problem you can perform a consultation privately to a professional in our community.
Utsav Prakash Tiwari
Utsav Prakash Tiwari
Ph.D. in Nutrition
  DURHAM, North Carolina, United States
Products
Finding ways to improve feed efficiency is critical to profitability. When ...