Fowl Cholera in poultry

Published on: 04/16/2016
Author/s : Yosef Huberman and Horacio Terzolo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Balcarce (INTA EEA Balcarce). Argentina (Images provided by the authors)

IntroductionFowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This species is named “multocida”, which may be interpreted as a bacterium that "kills" (cida) "many" (multo). In 1879, Pasteur was able to cultivate this bacterium; this was the first time that disease-causing bacteria were grown in culture media, outside the animal host. Pasteur inadverte...

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September 2, 2019
FOWL cholera is acute and fast spreading. slow growing probiotics are not enough to exclude this bacteria by compitition
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September 2, 2019
FOWL cholera is an acute disease and spreads fast especially in deep litter flocks. probiotics cannot overwhelm once the disease sets in. As a preventive, it has been guess work using probiotics.
whether probiotics is working or the flock is not exposed.
my guess is the flock is not exposed.
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Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
September 9, 2019

I am interested to know the vaccination schedule for the control of FC .we are using killed bacterin at age of 12wks followed by boosted after 12 wks. no satisfactory results.

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September 9, 2019
Narayan Banik
we decide on the age of vaccination basing on the age at which we get the out break. If we are seeing outbreaks in growing, we can vaccinate at 6th to 8th week. Repeat after 3 weeks. If we have a seperate brooding/Growing farm where there is no problem but the birds will be going to a layer unit endemic for FC, then it is better to vaccinate at 12/13 weeks and repeat after 3 weeks.
2. There are multi strain vaccines. Please go through the profile of the vaccine and choose one with multi strains. If you go for a local manufacturer, it is likely they incorporated the local strains responsible for the out break.
3. Keep Sulpha Methoxol+Trimethoprim powder handy and use it when there is doubt. It does not interfere with killed vaccine.
Hope this helps.
Thank you
Dr.Kotaiah
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June 29, 2020
Narayan Banik
Sorry for the late reply.
You can try to vaccinate earlier. First dose at 7-8 weeks and a booster dose at 15-16 weeks. Always use the same vaccine. Otherwise, no booster effect will be obtained. If possible, include local strains and protection will be more specific.
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May 17, 2021
Dr.Talapaneni.Kotaiah Vaccination is good only if the right serotype within the environment is typed. Each environment must type the antigen that is wreaking the havoc in that environment.
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May 18, 2021

Dr Charles Ibe,
when the disease strikes you should go for specific type.
if my farm is healthy and want to avoid the 1st outbreak, we have to choose multistage vaccine, the best out of the available. Opinion of the farmers who are using successful will help
Successful vaccine companies consider many variants.
I will not wait for first out break also.

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Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
June 24, 2021
drkotaiah indbro,
why you want to vaccinate if you do not have Pasteurella in your farms?
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June 24, 2021
Jose J. Bruzual
Really not necessary. but there is always first time?.
what if you get in to disease is costlier than vaccine.
if your farm is vulnerable like your neighbourer is suffering or you have the problem in other units of your farm?
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Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
June 24, 2021
drkotaiah indbro
Invest in Biosecurity including rondent control
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 26, 2021
Narayan Banik
What results did you have? Can we have some emperical information after each of your Vaccination ?
Can you adapt a strategic management prophylactic treatment at the age of risk. Or adapt12 weeks interval of a mixed strategy of Vaccination alternate with prophylactic treatment using a laboratory sensitive drug.
Ihave not tried these approach either but looked very prospective for an experimental or field research trials.

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Jose J. Bruzual Jose J. Bruzual
Médico Veterinario
June 28, 2021
Stephen Adejoro Dr could you clarify if the vx you are talking about is live, killed or both? And did you her an isolate?
Probiotics will not for Pasteurella control
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 9, 2019

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria or yeast that are healthy to the intestine of the animal
Probiotics mimic gram negative flagellated bacteria such as E Coli pasteurekka and other harmful bacteria by competing to attach to their receptive sites
So when probiotics are fed to monogastrics, for example, they get attached to the lumen epithelium receptive sites, that are attachments sites for gram negative bacteria as mentioned above
When these predilection sites for pathogenic bacteria are occupied by these probiotics, they make these flagellated bacteria unable to get themselves attached to where their sites, where they cause erosion of the intestinal lining leading to hemorrhages
The result if this process is that these pathogenic bacteria are found floating in the gut lumen until they are pushed out with the fasces thus preventing the animal from been susceptible to this infection
From the above mechanism, it is obvious that the use if probiotics will enhance the proliferation of gram positive bacteria that is beneficial to the animal immune system
Since probiotics and neutraceuticals are natural products they act as non-antibiotic growth promoters because they improved the villi morphology and improve gut health and absorption efficiency.

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Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH
Animal Nutritionist
October 14, 2019

Although farmers are using probiotics both in feed as well in water but results are up to the desirables levels.

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May 18, 2021
Stephen Adejoro Dr when the infection is active killing birds in large numbers I will never waste my time with probiotics.
I don't believe a weak bacteria can prevent multiplication of killer bacteria. when we don't see the disease we can imagine many things.
what happens in petri dishes in laboratory is not applicable in the affected flock
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May 22, 2021
Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHE
Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 18, 2021

drkotaiah indbro
Thank you for your comment, prevention they say is better than cure, so I expect that you should adopt the probiotic approach to sustain intestinal health if your stock, Strengthening their humoral and innate immune responses
When you adopt this prophylactic approach you will the pathogens resistance level of your flock and reduce their vulnerabilities to heavy bacteria infections.
The above is the beauty of the rationale for the use of probiotics and not to wait for the flock to come down heavily bacteria infections, only to result to use probiotic as chemotherapy.
You may not get the best result if you use probiotics this way.

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June 26, 2021
Stephen Adejoro Dr
The beauty is only on the literature pamphlets of probiotics only
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Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 26, 2021
drkotaiah indbro I have a contrary view in my practice with emperical evidences on prophylactic benefits
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June 28, 2021
Stephen Adejoro DrI
I studied veterinary Anatomy 40years ago. If I remember correctly, the intestinal villai are the folds of mucouls membrane which enhances the surface area. I wonder if they have receptors like B cells and T cells have which attract antigens on the surface.
I do not think Intestine villas have specific recpetors to which lactobacillus cells get attached and block the attachment of pasteurella or salmonella.
I attended 3 out breaks of FC in my career and the approach I adopted was aggressive anttibiotic use to control the mortality and followed by VAccination to the upcoming flocks. The results were good.
I will still not depend on probiotics to prevent fowl cholera
Thank you
Dr.Kotaiah
Reply
June 28, 2021
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni
Dear Dr. Kotaiah.
I think this aggressive strategy is quite expected when FC is already present.
Vaccination should be the primary line of defense but will be more effective when birds are healthy.
I do not have any specific information but using probiotics might improve the general health of birds and thus reduce their susceptibility to any pathogen.
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June 28, 2021

Yosef Huberman
True only healthy birds are to be vaccinated. The disease spreads slowly in cages with nipple drinking system. We go for feed medication of smp+tmp for a period of 10 days which holds the mortality under check. Killed Bactrim takes over after 10 days, depending on the situation we have to go for practical solutions on a flock to flock basis. Vaccination does help in first time outbreak when detected on the first incidence,
definitely for neighboring houses where the problem is yet to start.
Be sure I don't sell vaccines or probiotics.
Thank you,
Dr. Kotaiah.

Reply
July 10, 2021
Dr Kotaiah Talapaneni please Sir,are saying we can vaccinate laying birds when there is outbreak in a farm.Can we boast immunity against FC during laying?if yes what is the vaccine of choice?
Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 10, 2019

Probiotics are beneficial bacteria or yeasts that improve gut health, digestibility and immune system, especially in monogastrics. Probiotics are very competitive to the survival of the gram negative bacteria in the gut ,because they compete with these harmful bacteria receptive sites
You should take note that the pathogenic gram negative bacteria are mostly flagellated like the and they are all harmful to the host
In the pathogenesis of gram negative flagellated bacteria, they start their damage in the lumen of the host gut by getting attached to specific receptive sites on the epithelium of the gut, and proceed in their pathology by eroding the surfaces of the sites, thus causing inflammation and poor digestibility and absorption. When Probiotics are fed to animals, they compete to attach to these sites.

Reply
May 22, 2021
we give probiotics and imagine it is preventing fowl cholera. in most cases the flock is not touched by active pasturella multocids. the day it enters, no bacteria can stop that killing the birds.
antibodies can to some extent.
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June 18, 2021
Stephen Adejoro Dr,
probiotics are harmless bacteria growing in the intestines and reduce the chance of other bacteria multiplying by competitive exclusion. with your encouragement by repeated seeding they grow in larger numbers compared to other bacteria.
they do not enhance serological response as a vaccine does.
I also doubt whether they can prevent the multiplication of highly pathogenic bacteria like pasteurella when it gets in to the bird and starts multiplying vigorously.
my experience shows that that pasteurella is much more aggressive compared to lactobacillus.
Reply
Uwalaka Chinomso Uwalaka Chinomso
Businessman
September 10, 2019
Does it mean that FC vaccination is not recommended for broilers that are kept for 7-10 weeks?
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September 13, 2019
Uwalaka Chinomso it is not advisable because of short production life span
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Uwalaka Chinomso Uwalaka Chinomso
Businessman
September 15, 2019

Dr. Charles Ibe, thanks a lot.

Reply
June 19, 2021

Uwalaka Chinomso
Broilers are being killed in less than 40 days. There is very little chance of getting fowl cholera in broilers with all in all out rearing and with nominal biosecurity

Reply
October 14, 2021
Uwalaka Chinomsoyes broilers do not require f.c. vaccination.
Reply
Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH
Animal Nutritionist
October 14, 2019

How to use probiotics in poultry?

Reply
October 14, 2021
Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH
not needed
Reply
October 14, 2021

I think that the use of probiotics is very important, but cannot stand for its own in Animal Health. This should be discussed in another forum. As far as I know, probiotics will not contribute directly to control FC, but will do improve general health.

Reply
October 14, 2021

Yosef Huberman
True. Poultry production is getting squeezed between increasing input prices with marginal increase in chicken and egg prices all over the world. welfare compliance is being forced on the animal farming. This will increase the production cost further. probiotics, acidifiers gut heath enhancers herbal products are scientifically proved to enhance the general health which is statistically significant, strict biosecurity all-in all-out housing gaps between flocks and vaccination are giving perceivable benefits. As veterinarians, the diseases should be prevented and treated with specific approach.

Reply
Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH Dr.FAYAZ.AHMAD SHEIKH
Animal Nutritionist
October 14, 2019

In layers vaccination is important. Use of Acidifiers have better results to control FC.

Reply
October 20, 2019
The antigenic local strain of the FC Organisms should be typed before applying the matching serovar or zero variant. So type the prevalent P. multocida in the environment.
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November 18, 2019

I rear layer birds and lately I observed my bird will go to the corner of the pen and fold up, wisin for breath and few hours after they will die. There is no sign of mucus on their nostril and they can hardly walk, please help what to used to help my birds
. E.Wills

Reply
Poultry Mania Poultry Mania
Doctor Of Veterinary Medicine
November 23, 2019

Despite all positive control mechanisms, ceftriaxone is the most crucial drug to control heavy mortality within a short period. I have been using it since 2017 in Bangladesh.

Reply
Aoun Khan Aoun Khan
general manager production
November 25, 2019

Aoa everyone Has someone knowledge of Insect farming for poultry feed protein requirements and its brooding rearing and harvesting. How can we produce this cheaper source of protein for poultry feed?

Reply
Aoun Khan Aoun Khan
general manager production
December 2, 2019
Aoa everyone Insects farming as a protein source for poultry feeds I need complete details of farming harvesting and incorporation in poultry feeds Has someone details Thanking dr M arshad Director shahid feeds pakistan
Reply
Dr.m.s.swami Dr.m.s.swami
Businessman
December 28, 2019
Sir please have a focus on pathogenesis, post mortem findings and effective vaccination, treatment etc.
Regards
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June 27, 2020
Thank you. I want to be clear on the antibiotic combination to use for fowl cholera/typhoid
Reply
June 29, 2020

Folarin Fale
Hello and thank you for your question. These two diseases, Fowl Cholera and Fowl Typhoid, are very different and are caused by Pasteurella multocida or Salmonella Gallinarum, respectively.
For antibiotic treatment you should always try to, first, isolate the bacteria and ask for your lab to perform antibiotic sensitivity tests before applying any treatment.
Results may change in different countries / regions, and are highly influenced by the antibiotics that were used before and due to great differences between bacteria.
This was you can use the right antibiotic and as well, reduce the chance to create a multi resistant bacteria.

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November 4, 2021

Yosef Huberman nice respond sir, but some small farmers don't have the access to lab for sensitivity they always assume or try an error by using any antibiotic.

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June 27, 2020

Good discussion but FC also mutated at different farms, culture required most of drugs like chlorom cause hepatomegaly and most of the country are banned so we needs to culture will give us good response and economic loss as well.

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June 29, 2020
fazal Malik Malik
Pasteurella multocida strains have great variety and these differences make treatment change quite often. For antibiotics treatment, you should always try to test sensitivity before application. Inactivated vaccines will work just fine, especially if local strain is added. Furthermore, even after vaccination, you should be aware of the possibility of a subclinical infection that could be detected by random culturing and added to the vaccine.
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June 28, 2020

multi strain killed vaccines is the answer for prevention. We have coryza+ F.C, which is protecting well. The spread is slow in cages with nipple drinkers compared to water channels and open drinkers on deep litter.
For treatment, injection of long acting tetracycline followed by ulphamethoxol+trimethoprim for week gave me good results.
The article is total information on the disease. The posting is appreciated.

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June 29, 2020

Dr.Talapaneni.Kotaiah thank you for your comments. These two diseases are commonly associated, and a good bacterin, preferably with local strains, will work well.

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July 14, 2020
In this we used teteracycline l.A + human medicine septran+ homeopathic medicine After vaccination is good preferably in local strains work very well.
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July 14, 2020
Dear Virendra Jumar Pandey
Thank you for your comments,
Both antibiotics Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole or Tetracycline may be used. I insist that it is always better to isolate the bacteria and perform sensitivity tests, to avoid misuse of antibiotics and bacterial resistance.
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July 14, 2020
Yosef Huberman yes sir but in india &nepal it is not possible to test every flock while here is limited labs.
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July 16, 2020
Virendra Kumar Pandey It is true and very understandable.
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July 17, 2020
Yosef Huberman thanks sir
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July 17, 2020
Virendra Kumar Pandey sir if you any suggestions on critical poultry diseases I can help you.
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July 17, 2020
Fowl Cholera is harmful dangerous pathogen that do not have mercy on birds and we have been seeking natural organic solution that use of synthetic manufactured drugs.

Can anyone offer help in that perceptive than pharmaceutical drugs which many at times failed.
Thanks
Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 17, 2020
Fowl cholera can not be completely controlled in a farm if the following rpidiological factors ,nutritional factors and toxigenic factors are not fully appraised
The factors are:
The epidemiology of the disease in the farm,because it present a 12weeks intervals in occurrences irrespective of treatment or vaccination
The dietary profile of the flock while you are treating,because in fowl cholera the liver undergoes a fatty degeneration and so dietary adjustment is mandatory to rehabilitate the liver
Note that the organism itself produce Endotoxin whi h required to be detoxified s you go a head with the drug of choice by your laboratory
Mycotoxin will further complicate a successful fowl cholera treatment ,therefore in our practice we ensure that adequate to in binder is incorporated into the feed while treatment of fowl cholera is ongoing
It is mandatory that in treating fowl cholera a downward adjustment in the metabolic energy if the layers ration is prescribed with an increase in protein and methionine level of the ration.
The first occurrence of fowl cholera in an endemics layerfarm located in the humid tropica
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