Discussion created on 06/21/2011

Prolapse in commercial layers

Prolapse in commercial layers

Could anybody suggest me a medicine for prolapse problem in deep litter of bovans breed which are in 23 week and the weigtht is 1.500kg of bovans breed kindly suggest me the lighting program. I am incurring daily mortality of 5 birds per day. Please help me.

Chandra Sekhar

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Ansu -Yeboah Ansu -Yeboah
Poultry farmer
November 12, 2014

I do have layers which are 21 weeks old. They are dying in numbers, now averaging 30 birds a day.  I have 56,000 layers . They have difficulty laying and at times the eggs get tack in their rectum. They appear to have difficulties breathing and earlier post-mortem shows that they have flems in their throat. they way average of 1650 kg/bird. There is no overcrowding, no pecking has been observed. Please help me. What are my options?

September 13, 2020
Ansu -Yeboah Check for E Coli infection. E Coli adhesive salpingitis can trap eggs, during egg travel through the salpinx.
Rodrigo Suehara Rodrigo Suehara
Veterinary Doctor
November 20, 2014
I would like to get back this topic, regarding the breeder instead of layers. Do you believe would be any other advice?
December 21, 2014

What happens in open houses in Pakistan with seasonal flocks:

1-Mostly birds are under weight during rearing.
2-Early stimulation starts due to seasonal variation.
3-Under weight,early stimulated bird now reach at production but can't take required feed due hot & humid weather

Ultimately faces problems especially PROLAPSE along with more starter eggs,post peek dip. I suggest farmer should have temp.control facilities & understanding of lighting program along with other professionals recommendations.

M.V.Sc. Veterinary Pathology
December 21, 2014
Based on my experience with most prolapse cases i encountered in the poultry (chicken), it was almost always as a result of intussusception that advances until it resulted to prolapse. if that may be the case with you, which can be confirmed based on postmortem examination, then you should begin to think of the possible causes of intussusception and then prevent them and that i believe will go a long way in minimizing this problem.
Khaliel Alrahman Abusharkh Khaliel Alrahman Abusharkh
bachelor degree
December 21, 2014
I don't think there's a solution for prolabs .

As prolabs occurred as result of force stimulation , there

many birds not ready for stimulation .

Stimulation can be as a lighting or feed or both .

The options is stop increasing the feed and keep the same lighting Time.

This my opinion I hope this helpful.

Leo Antony Leo Antony
Consultant in Poultry management and training
December 21, 2014

Prolapse could be triggered by various factors which some of our learned panelists have so clearly indicated.
I would only add to these by pointing out a few more. One of them is Vent Gleet or infection of the cloaca which can develop into Prolapse- this happens in isolated cases and not in the form of a flock problem as is the case here. What I have seen being more critical is that certain good breeds of layers can be more prone to prolapse when the right skeletal development and body weights are not met during the growing period. A more important factor is the skeletal development during the growing phase. Much of the skeletal frame (more than 80%) growth is completed in the chicken by the age of 10 to 12 weeks and the opportunity of further growth after 12 weeks is very limited. Of course body weights can increase after this stage, but much of it is often in the form of fat which will further predispose birds to prolapse because the presence of excessive abdominal fat reduces the flexibility of the muscles around the pelvic region to make way for the egg. A healthy and well developed skeletal frame is a must for avoiding prolapse in layers. Another point to be borne in mind is that when we look at the average body weight, there could be many birds which are either far below this average as also those which are excessively high in body weights. We should take care of those which habitually fall far below the standard body weight during the growing phase.I am sure there are many more reasons for prolapse which are perhaps still unknown to many of us. Sharing in a forum like this will certainly benefit everyone in the business.

December 22, 2014

Very useful and practical suggestions given by all experienced personalities.
I want to add a point that whenever the feed type is changed, the fiber and other levels changes. Particularly in broiler breeder at 6-8 WK and 15-17 WK age during growing period, the feed is changed and subsequently we observe getting cases of prolapse in growing flocks. During laying all points have been covered, I think so. If we take care of all these, we can get rid of it.


Eric Gingerich Eric Gingerich
Veterinary Doctor
December 22, 2014
In egg type layers, prolapse is difficult to distinguish from cannibalism which is associated with beak trim length, strain of bird, light intensity, excessive egg size.
Jahan Zeb Ansari Jahan Zeb Ansari
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
December 23, 2014
Dear Farmer
you please consider all the points mentioned by other participants and also consider the following ones,
1- please deworm your birds if not done so
2- offer green fodder daily to birds;hang the fodder within shed so bird remain busy.
3- if debeaking is not proper then touch the beaks again.
4- Increase nesting space.
5- the site of egg laying should be in dark
6- use liquid parafin in feed for some days
Manash Gohain Manash Gohain
February 5, 2020
Jahan Zeb Ansari whats the doserate of liquid parrafin.whats the mechanism of liquid paraffin.
December 23, 2014

Dear Chandra Shekhor,

You may be informed the causes and suggestions to do against prolapse. In addition to this, here you have to concentrate on body weight of birds ..if the birds body weight are below standard weight, that may be cause of prolapse. Here you can add a little bit extra protein concentrate, Amino Acid methionine, lysine, arginine and lighting program should not last more than 12hrs per day until having the 5% eggs and body weight gain 1.7-1.75kg per bird at 22-24 wks of age and gradually increase the lighting per day 15-30 mins at every 2-5 days skip also relation with percentage of egg production, Maximum lighting hrs provided 15.5-16hr per day at peak production to cull. Maybe get released from prolapse problems.

Thank you, 

John Kaijage John Kaijage
PhD in Tropical Animal Production
December 23, 2014
Dear Farmer.
Prolapse is mainly associated with management of laying hens during rearing and laying period which lead to the following conditions

1. Over or underweight Birds ? Overweight birds are more prone to prolapse due to general muscle weakness and a tendency to lay larger eggs. Too much fat around the reproductive organs can also lead to prolapse.
? Birds that are underweight (according to management guide recommendations) when the birds begin lay are more likely to suffer prolapse because they may begin laying before the reproductive tract has completely matured.

2. Early Photostimulation –(increasing day length to stimulate sexual maturity) ? Birds that are exposed to increasing day length before the reproductive tract has fully matured are more likely to prolapse, because the reproductive tract may not be fully matured when they begin lay.

3. Unbalanced feed rations ? Insufficient calcium in the diet will cause problems with eggshell formation but can also result in poor muscle tone. Poor muscle tone may cause problems with oviduct retraction once the egg has been laid. The longer the oviduct remains outside the body, the greater the chance other birds will peck at the material, which could cause irreversible damage.

4. Reproductive age of the flock ? Prolapse is more likely to occur at peak production and peak egg mass, simply because of the large demand placed on the birds metabolism.

5. Laying double yolked eggs ? The excessive size of these eggs will stretch and possibly weaken cloacal muscles. Weakened cloacal muscles will lead to an increase in the amount of time the oviduct is outside the body.

6. High light intensity ? Under high light intensity conditions, birds are more likely to see and be attracted to the everted oviduct—and thus more likely to peck at it and cause damage.


1. Avoid photostimulation before birds reach the weight and age recommended by the breeder.
2. Feed balanced feed rations required to sustain egg production and maintain body weight at recommended levels. Consult with a feed provider if you are not certain.
3. Reduce the light intensity by covering windows, or replacing bulbs with lower wattage bulbs.
4. If the flock is laying a lot (more than 4%) double-yolked eggs, gently restrict feed intake (about 5-10% less than they eat ad libitum).
5.Spend time with your birds to observe vent-pecking behavior, and isolate them from the flock.
6. Last resort only: consider a very low wattage red-colored bulb. If birds can not distinguish the color of the everted shell gland from the background of colors, they may not be as prone to cause damage.
fikreslsie dawit fikreslsie dawit
December 25, 2014
in our farm prolapse was the highest causes of mortality but after we change our Ca(Supplement with raw calcium carbonate in feeder) sources the problem was reduced then can you see your Ca source?
December 25, 2014
Recently I have been observing some layer farms in the eastern Nepal. I encountered the same problem and applied all the management approaches mentioned but still could not overcome with the problem.In my opinion another option could be grading of the birds. So grading was suggested for those underweight birds and specific management was made for them like decreasing lighting hours by an hour and spreading marble grits.This approach minimized prolapse in that flock.
Henrique Marcos Borochovitz Henrique Marcos Borochovitz
Veterinary Doctor
January 9, 2015
In my flock a problems is probavelly genetics, whith mortallity most 10-15% because prolaps vaginal.
Dr. Jignesh Barot Dr. Jignesh Barot
M. V. Sc. (Avian Diseases)
November 23, 2016

Thank you all for giving your opinion and sharing your experiences.

Kindly suggest for following case:

Breed : BV-300
F Size: 12000
Age: 27 wks
A. B. Wt. : 1.57 kg v/s 1.47
Production : 92-93%
Egg Wt. : 52.5 gm
Light hours :15
Feed/bird/day:105 gm
Feed : Ready feed (Crumbs) since brooding
Housing: Cage system

Mortality: 0.1-0.15% daily since last 3weeks

PM finding: Pale, fatty liver, extra fat over gizzard & pelvic area
Most of the dead birds show egg bound condition/prolapse of intestine. No other viscera revealed pathological changes.

Treated with:
Liquid choline (70%)
Liquid liver tonic
Liquid calcium /growth promoters
Betain in water
CTC+ Tiamutin

Problem: Still the same problem continues

Kindly give your opinion to correct this condition.

Dr. Jignesh Barot

Danka Maslic-Strizak Danka Maslic-Strizak
Veterinary Doctor
November 23, 2016
Poor uniformity flock is one of the main reasons for the appearance of prolapsed cloaca and uterus during egg production. Flocks that during education does not grow evenly during production can have more than 10% deaths per month due to prolapse. To minimize the consequences of the necessary rearing period :
1. First make a detailed disposing of chickens, from production to extract the popcorn that are lighter than 1100 grams and those above 2700g
2. Reduce light intensity to 5 lux to prevent the occurrence of cannibalism. Cannibalism occurs in flocks in which the prolapse common
3. Reduce energy value of meals by 10%
4. Make sure to give layers grit at least 2 times a week for 3-5 gram
5. Foods include adsorbents for mycotoxins even when food analysis shows no evidence of large doses of toxins

Successful prevention of occurrence of prolapse is the proper growth and development of chickens established providing uniformity flock of at least 80%. Weight of chickens must be ± 10% in relation to the set weight. This can be achieved by regular weekly weighing 2-5% flocks throughout the educational period.
June 20, 2017

1. Specific product Antiprol ( RR Veterinary)- 150 ml/1000 birds for commercial layer 5- 7 days

2. Check C.Fibre and salt level in feed
April 21, 2018
Good suggestions by all contributors.
Paul Kaggwa Paul Kaggwa
poultry health and diseases
February 9, 2019

Hello, Ahmed, 4-6 wks body weight is critical is the growing period up to 10 wks skeletal formation followed by sexual maturity. N.B if you miss the first it will be reversed.

For your case look at light stimulation may be you were too first or stimulated when weights are poor (birds with smaller flame). Look at ME. CP CA levels in your diet, check bone status if very soft then look at ca. p metabolism

Dr. Beny Perelman Dr. Beny Perelman
DVM, Specialist in Poultry Diseases and Management, Ostrich Medicine Expert
February 9, 2019

Prolapse of the cloaca is a multifactorial problem observed in layers
Most of the commercial firms make selection for high egg production in white and brown lines
Today most of the commercial lines are excellent lines with a high potential og high productivity for a long time.
in the past, some of the prolapse problems observed were more related to the genetic selection, but in the last decade almost all brown and white layers have excellent production rates and no prolapse of the cloaca.

In most of the cases observed in the last years the problems observed in some farm,s are management and nutritional related with the most important factor inducing this problem: Too Early Induction of Fast Production in Hens with Low Body Weights".
The sexual maturity in layers can appear as early as 15 weeks of age, but the development of the body to be ready for egg production should be according to the body weight determined by the line developers, In most manuals hens should not start production before they reach the recommended body weight, induction of early lay by bad light programs or introduction of feed rich in Ca and protein and energy will induce early production in birds with lower weights than required, the moment these birds start laying they stop growing!!!! and then we obtain many immature hens in early production with small body frames and low body weights,
Similar to bringing into pregnancy an 11-12 girl!
To avoid this prolapses the rearing farm must grow the pullets with a light program according to the hatching time and when the chicks are supposed to be moved to the laying farms, they must keep body weights according to graph recommendations of the line.
Do not add any light until the birds are at 20% production, try to delay production to 20 weeks if possible with diets containing less Ca, Protein and Energy.
weight the hens twice a week to see the body development, never add light if the chicks are underweight.
after start of lay at 19-20 weeks give 12 hours light only and add 15 minutes a week until 15 hours max.
Prolapse of cloaca is the result of a too early induction of egg production when the birds are nor physiologically mature and in most cases is due to management and nutritional mistakes.

February 11, 2019
Dr. Beny Perelman Thank you sir
Begerano Albert Begerano Albert
Animal Nutritionist
February 11, 2019
Dr. Beny Perelman
Excellent comment.

February 22, 2019
Dr. Beny Perelman , I agree with you.
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