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Treating Subclinical mastitis in cattle: Efficacy of using herbal spray

Published on: 06/25/2018
Author/s : Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey Ph.D. (VPT), Dr. Praful Kumar. Ayurvet.

In today’s world safe and wholesome milk production is a challenge for the farmers with increasing incidences of different types of diseases and emergence of new and resistant pathogens due to indiscriminate and unjustified uses of antibiotics/ antimicrobials. When we are talking about the prevalent diseases Mastitis one of the major disease which cause trouble not only to animals and farmer...

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August 30, 2018

Dear Jasmer Singh
It will be a futile exercise for me to try explain the activities as understood by Ayurveda in western science parameters because the epistemologies of both sciences are very different.
I do not say that one is better than the other both are important on it own wworldviews one is atomic and other is systemic. I am not an Ayurveda expert but an expert in Ayurveda can give more information based on his understanding
However, it will not be based on the western science parameters. Each and every ingredients would be responsible for the action
Therefore our view is that there is no one to one relation between the western science understanding and the Indian science understanding and we cannot assess the Ayurvedic formulation using the objective parameters only. However, there may be overlaps where we can work together. Classic example is the study done for arthritis.
If the formulations are safe and efficacious one need not worry about. I understand many of the drug we used earlier, the mode of action was not completely known. it may be true for many in the market.

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
August 30, 2018

Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair Thanks a lot for your reply. The basic mechanism of milk secretion is remarkably same in all mammals except some minor differences in milk composition. Citrate has been regarded as the 'Harbinger' of lactogenesis and maintenance of pH in the udder milk. The most important function of citrate in milk is to sequester calcium. Whenever there is deficiency of citrate in udder calcium becomes Free and injure udder tissue leading to mastitis. Replenish citrate in udder through extraneous administration of trisodium citrate to cure mastitis. just heard the lecture of Dr. Sexana who emphasized the production of milk and meat without antibiotics (a health hazard), this is what we do-cheap, safe and easy.
Jasmer Singh and Kundan Singh Dhillon

Reply
September 1, 2018

Jasmer Singh beautifully explained the role of citrate in udder protection, thanks.

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 21, 2018
Hafiz Wasi Muhammad Khan Please read this abstract of our article and may go in for full paper ,if you tink.Engormix
Engormix / Dairy Cattle / Technical articles / Health
Mastitis in buffalo
Pathobiology, etiology and novel mastitis therapy in buffalo
Published on: 1/27/2012
Author/s : K. S. Dhillon, Ph.D and Jasmer Singh, Ph.D (College of Veterinary Science GADVASU)
Abstract

Milk pH of 21 dairy buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis ranged from 7.00-8.50. Citrate content of mastitic milk ranged from 24.00-47.50 mg /100ml. Cultured milk yielded Staphylococci, Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Bacilli and Klebsiella. The animals were treated with 12gm and 30gm of tri-Sodium citrate in 250 ml of water orally once daily till recovery. With 12gm recovery period was 7-13 days and 30gm took 3-5 days. The pH ~6.50, citrate, lactose, total protein and fat content of milk were restored to normal levels, bacterial colonies markedly reduced after treatment. Citrate acts as a most effective buffer which regulates Ca2+ and H+ in the udder and maintains normal pH. Citrate also sequesters Calcium and inhibits its clumping. Hence, in citrate deficiency the free Ca2+ clump together and form flakes which behave like lime inflicting injury to the secretory tissue in the udder provoking inflammatory reaction rendering impervious tight junctions between blood and milk leaky. The swapping of ions between blood and milk then result in equalizing the pH of blood and milk i.e., 7.40 or higher. The injury inflicted by Ca and alkaline milieus providing conducive conditions for the establishment of environmental pathogens at the injury site producing infectious mastitis. Treatment with tri-Sodium citrate restores normal pH (~6.50) and scavenges the infectious organisms from the udder thus curing mastitis. Intravenous administration of tri-Sodium citrate as 5% in normal saline has been standardized for treatment of mastitis. The 50ml I/V doses of 5% solution of tri-Sodium citrate in sterilized normal saline given morning and evening cures the clinical cases in 1-3 days. The treatment with tri-Sodium citrate is also very effective in controlling mastitis even in cases refrectory to prevalent antibiotics. This treatment is safe, economical, no culling-replacement, milk discarding or withdrawal period and residual hazards in milk/meat. It is recommended that the pH of milk in dairy animals be recorded as a routine to monitor the prevalence of subclinical/ clinical mastitis on the dairy farms for devising proper control measures.
Reply
Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey
BVSc & AH, MVSc.(Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology), PhD (Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Ayurvet Limited Ayurvet Limited
Delhi, India
August 30, 2018
Respected Dr. M.N. Balakrisnan Nair,

You are very rightly said that "we cannot assess the Ayurvedic formulation using the objective parameters only".

Thanks for your comment.
Reply
Mohan Dev Lekhak Mohan Dev Lekhak
Veterinarian, Nepal
September 1, 2018
Excellent.
Reply
September 4, 2018
Dear Jasmer Singh
You are 100% correct about the trisodium citrate treatment
We give 2 lemon in the morning and two in the evening besides the herbal formulation application externally on the udder
The lemon keep the pH in the udder lower ie around 6.5 which will lower the multiplication of the Bacteria
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 4, 2018
Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair Now you have come to the point. I hope the other people would also understand the basic cause of mastitis and its radical treatment, which is both, non-antibiotic and natural thus free from any human health hazard. The most important and crux of occurrence of mastitis is non-bacterial but a metabolic aberration i. e., citrate deficiency in the udder. However, bacteria become secondary invaders when the lesion(s) in the udder has already been set-up by "Free" calcium.
jasmer singh
Reply
September 4, 2018
Thank you Sir
Nair
Reply
Abdul Samad Abdul Samad
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 13, 2018

Well, science does not work on the principle, 'believe or leave'. When you are discussing a disease (mastitis) defined as per modern science norms the treatment must also satisfy the modern criteria. We study allopathy for several years with no training on other alternative systems and quote those authoritatively. When you administer a drug whether it is absorbed in the body or destroyed in GI tract is basic which any 'pathy' has to satisfy. For herbal I am yet to be satisfied. Most of the clinical trials done on such products, I have read, are not placebo-control double-blind, neither the results are adjusted to confounding or other variables. I would like someone to give me a paper if herbal medication says used in fertility management crosses hostile rumen microbe environment.

Reply
Bhaskar Ganguly Bhaskar Ganguly
Ph.D. (Veterinary Biochemistry)
Ayurvet Limited Ayurvet Limited
Delhi, India
September 13, 2018
Dr. Abdul Samad agreed. Modern science does not work on believe and leave. But then, lots of facts which we believed to be scientifically true in yesteryears are being refuted, given the availability of better tools that were not available to us previously. Similarly, if we prove something today, it may not stand the test of time. Our understanding tends to be shallow. And, if a therapy is benefitting a subject, there is no point in withholding the therapy just because our shallow understanding cannot see how it works.
Reply
Abdul Samad Abdul Samad
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 15, 2018

Fully appreciate Dr. Nair's description of 'Breast Abscess' in Ayurveda', obviously for human. Can this knowledge be applied directly to ruminant animals without considering anatomical differences?

Ayurveda is a distinct science by itself which, if I am not wrong does not recognize the allopathy approach to disease causation, pathogenesis and way to treat. Herbal is merely using plant source crude extracts for treating certain ailments. It is true that Ayurveda does use herbs but the process of diagnosis and causal mechanisms are different. Let us not mix the two.

Herbal group forwards a reasoning that since even modern medicines have been derived from plant sources hence herbal extracts would also be considered useful. But the basic difference is a concentration of active ingredient. Would you use Vinca rosea plant material to treat cancer using same analogy?

I do believe that alternate drugs do have a role to play or might offer tremendous potential but for that, we need to prove these on scientific lines and not anecdotal non-placebo control non-blind trials.

In case of ruminants, I would insist on knowing if the drug is reaching the site of the disease or interfering in the disease process to bring about relief.

Most of the veterinary practitioners won't treat sub-clinical mastitis cases during lactation it only gives you an alert that there is a problem which can be prevented by adopting strategies of dry-cow therapy, pre-calving teat sealants and post-milking barrier type teat dipping.

Dr. Abdul Samad

Reply
September 16, 2018

We are possible to explain with a substantial evidence how the herbal preparations work but as i mentioned not completely on western parameters. But I sincerely believe that evidence must be generated whether by Ayurveda or what ever possible way the western parameters fit into the regime
I respect all knowledge system and therefore. I would prefer not to comment on what I do not know rather than telling this is not science
I am now working on the microbiome of the udder before and after treatment of the herbal formulation which can be an indication of cure
We have done a clinical study with parameters like pH, Electrical conductivity and SCC which shows the formulation works well for controlling mastitis.

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 17, 2018

Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair Hi The only parameter of importance is the recording of mammary gland secretion pH which can be detected by paper strips and or pen pH meter. Its all a game of pH aberration due to compromised situation of 'tight junctions' through which there is swapping of ions occur and there is change in the udder pH. So record pH and diagnose mastitis of any type. The treatment lies in the extraneous administration of Trisodium citrate to replenish its deficiency in the udder.

Jasmer Singh.

Reply
September 17, 2018

Jasmer Singh sir,
At what dose rate and time period can we administer tri-sodium citrate?

Thanks,
Dr. R D Joshi.

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 19, 2018
Ramesh D Joshi Trisodium citrate can be used as a drench or intravenously depending on the clinical case.

1. Fresh clinical cases
a.Five gramms of trisodium citrate dissolved in about 100 of tap water
once daily for 5-10 days depending on complete recovery

b. To enhance recovery give fifty ml of 5% sterile solution of

trisodium citrate once foloowed by above as (a) till recovery.

2. For chronic cases not responding to other drugs as antibiotics give I/V fifty ml twice daily
and follow-up with other as (a)

Jasmer singh


Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 21, 2018
Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair Whatever he method for diagnosis or treatment is employed the parameters are not going to change. You are using two lemons three times a day along with other preparations for controlling mastitis. However, I wonder which part of your treatment should be given the credit for this treatment of mastitis? As far I can possibly think it goes to lemons whatsoever because it replenishes the citrate deficiency which is the basic cause of MASTITIS. Nevertheless, you may continue with your plans.
Jasmer Singh
Reply
Viswanatha Reddy V N Viswanatha Reddy V N
Veterinary Doctor
September 17, 2018

From the literature referred by the veterinarians of Bangalore Milk Union they started testing the milk poured by each member of the Milk Co-op society with California Mastitis test in which they use equal quantity of milk and reagent. Whichever milk was found positive the animal or animals in his house are tested individually from each of the lactating teat. If the lactometer reading or fat test if they show below the mark then also individual animal is tested with California Mastitis Test. Animal found positive for the test is treated with encapsulated Tri Sodium Citrate at the rate of 30 mg per kg body weight once a day for 10 days. Usually, they give 20 grams of Ban Mast 50. On 11 or 12th day the CMT is repeated if positive another 10 days same dosage is repeated. Usually, 80 per cent of cases recover. Those which fail to recover are treated with antibiotics. Earlier the Clinical mastitis of emergency cases were 23 per cent, now it is between 4 to 6 per cent.

Few farmers do feed once or twice a week 500 grams of Germinated horse gram after grinding and boiling with salt or Jaggery with the idea of supplementing Vitamin E and selenium (legumes will have more selenium) The purpose of boiling the material is to destroy the urease enzyme which is proteolytic. Without boiling when fed it has shown a drop in the milk yield. Feeding 3 garlic bulbs of 2 inch size (triturated) is also practiced by few farmers once a week.

Dr.V.N.Viswantha Reddy
Former Professor Animal Reproduction
Veterinary College, Bangalore

Reply
Alli Alli
multiple livestock
September 18, 2018

I am glad to see that there are studies being conducted using Herbal options for Mastitis (& hopefully other issues as well). While I am not an expert in Ayurveda, I believe it could be a beneficial practice as well as Herbalism, Naturopathy in our animal care. Ayurveda & Herbalism treats the disease or issue, most western medicines just treat the symptoms, whether its in animals or in humans. If Herbs & Essential Oils didn't work, then why did we take the benefits of many herbs & plants & create synthetic copy's of them (Such as Aspirin which is derived from Willow Tree Bark?) Or Sarsaparilla root to make root beer? Herbs, Plants & Oils work, the problem is, that we've gotten so far away from our ancestry & home apothocary's that we know longer trust or believe that its possible.
Our dairy cows are now stuck in feedlot setting's to provide milk to our country's, taken off the fresh pastures that they once occupied. We feed them food that they may not actually eat normally or may not eat in the abundance that they do in a dairy situation (cotton seed meal, Blood meal, etc), they are in a less than desirable setting (muck up to the ankles or knees depending on the dairy), pump them full of a variety of chemicals for a variety of reasons, we strip their baby's off them immediately (in most dairy's). Its no wonder they get mastitis, hoof rot & other sicknesses. We treat them like they are disposable instead of valuable.
Herbs work on a molecular level. Ayurveda, Herbalist, Naturopath's treat the body, not the symptom.
Cows need calcium, vitamins, mineral's, good nutrition. Citrus's can help as they are antibacterial (such as Oranges, great smelling disinfectant), Herbs such as Peppermint help kill bacteria on the outside. Horsetail has a rich Silica content to help heal damaged tissues, helps strengthen. Calendula extract exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, would make a great teat dip. Goldenseal is another antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory herb. Licorice (which our black licorice candy use to be made from) is an inflammatory that works to reduce pain & swelling.
While Ayurveda (& others) might not be able to spelled out in the same way as Western Medicine info can be. I think if a person was truly interested in learning about it & how it could help, there's many sources of info available out there.
And one person mentioned something about how such herbal studies couldn't be believed or be true (not their words, just surmising the comment)since there's not double blinded, placebo & some other group to back it up. There's many such studies out there, I read on one recently, the problem is.....if scientists actually did more of those study's & other similar study's to learn the benefits or herbal & plant medicine's, then the large pharmaceutical company's out there would lose a great deal of money, because more & more people would be jumping off the drug manufacturing bandwagon & jumping back on the natural drug bandwagon that they've been steered away from for years.
There's proof that plant medicine & Essential oils work.....individually proven on humans & animals & double blind placebo proven studies But most don't want to believe it because its a different kind of science then what they understand or would believe & its a threat to the drug manufacturers.

Reply
September 18, 2018

Asked for book any useful good reading material treatment for mastitis will be very grateful, Sir. 

Reply
Mohit Agarwal Mohit Agarwal
Sales Manager - Poultry at Trouw Nutrition India
September 19, 2018
I just want to question our eminent technocrats that why are we looking at the mechanism of action of herbal with respect to the western treatment method.

Herbals have healing properties which help the host in getting cured through the body's own physiological process.

Millions of rupees are being lost on account of productivity loss due to mastitis. Any solution which is cost effective should be tried and the results can be seen by our own eyes.
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
September 19, 2018

Mohit Agarwal Everybody knows the economics of Mastitis which you have rightly pointed out and its control must be cost-effective. Well, we also hit at the real basic cause of mastitis in bovines, which is a defective synthesis of citrate in the udder and is replenished with extraneous use of trisodium citrate orally and or intravenously, with great success and without much hassle. Moreover, citrate is the NORMAL content in the body and has no trouble for the consumers, I mean humans.
Jasmer Singh

Reply
September 20, 2018

NDDB is running a Mastitis control popularization programme in which they tried trisodium citrate for controlling sub clinical mastitis and was able to succeed to certain level but they were not able to control the acute or chronic mastitis.
We have a joint programme with them now very successfully managing mastitis and other 14 conditions without intervention of any other chemical drugs. We have formulation for external application for mastitis (any type) and we give 2 lemons 3 times a day for 5 days with 92 % success. FMD 99%, diarrhea 100%, Udder pox 100%, Enteritis 100%, repeat breeding 60%
teat obstruction 99% and so on.
We have designed these formulations in such a way that the farmers can prepare these at home and treat the animals. we can use these formulations for preventing these conditions.
The formulation for mastitis is being made into a spray. Our intervention impact analysis shows 85% reduction of antibiotic residue in the milk in 10 units of milk collection center
We use then as Ayurveda products because we validate them using Ayurveda System. However, we also do study using western science protocol where ever it is possible.

Reply
September 20, 2018

Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair the biggest problem small and medium farmers are facing is mastitis. Big farms have a vet on call and finances. We, small farmers, face huge problems of mastitis, especially in monsoon and mosquito season. Please guide.

Reply
September 20, 2018

Dear Dr. Sharen.
We have trained some vets and farmers on Herbal formulation in Chandigarh.
I can send the list if you want.
NDDB is also now want to have the second phase of training where some of the people from your place participate.
Nair

Reply
September 20, 2018
Dear sir
There is one case of mastitis which we have used treatment ceftriaxon + tazobactum 4.5 GM five days BD yet not got result then used cefquinome 3 time yet not got result then yesterday we have used marbofloxacin but still there is no improvement in that case.... Earlier milk was 20 ltr now milk is zero
King suggest any drug which we could recover the case....
Reply
September 20, 2018

Dear, Sir.
Kindly suggest the preparation.

Thanks

Reply
September 20, 2018

300 grs of aloe Vera, 50 grs of turmeric 10 great calcium hydroxide, grind them well, divide it into 10 equal parts, take one part dilute it with 150ml of water.
Wash the udder, remove the milk completely apply the formulation all over the udder with a massage for 2 minutes
After one hour wash the udder take one part of the prepared medicine and dilute it with 150 my of water and apply it on the under repeat it for 10 times in a day.
This treatment has to continue for 5 days. Besides the application give two lemon in the morning, afternoon and evening by cutting it into 4 pieces touch it on salt and feed the animals within 3 days mastitis will be controlled.

Reply
September 21, 2018
Dr. M.N.balakrishnan Nair We are also using same formula after training at Benglore, however results are variable and to apply the medicine 4 to 5 times a day is also difficult...
Reply
September 21, 2018

We have been using this with constant successful result if you follow the SOP.
We are working on a product, which will reduce the number of applications. Until that time one has to follow the protocol if using this formulation.

Reply
Viswanatha Reddy Viswanatha Reddy
Veterinary Doctor
September 21, 2018

Dr.Balakrishna Nair,

Probably after feeding lemon with an interval of an hour feeding 2 to 3 Garlic bulbs of 2 inch size (diameter) can further improve the results.
To prevent mastitis, few farmers use the practice of feeding garlic bulbs after triturating and feeding with grass or concentrates. Looking in to this Veterinarians do advice to feed Garlic bulbs in mastitis cases along with allopathic treatment.

Reply
Fredrick Karanja Mirara Fredrick Karanja Mirara
Dairy producer
October 7, 2018
I am impressed by the research in using herbal medicine for the treatment of mastitis. How can I get this spray because I am a victim. I have lost a number of animals because of mastitis.
The use of herbs should be encouraged through such research. I have been using 'urtica masaica' as a feed for my dairy cows. My informer told me that it is very good for cows. This is supported by my community (Gikuyu) belief that it delays prostrate cancer. My animals are quite healthy. However research is required to prove this. Is there a herb that can control ticks? Thank you.
Reply
Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey Dr. Amit Kumar Pandey
BVSc & AH, MVSc.(Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology), PhD (Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Ayurvet Limited Ayurvet Limited
Delhi, India
October 8, 2018
Fredrick Karanja Mirara

Dear Fredrick, please share your contact details so that we can contact you.
We are only dealing with herbal natural solutions for the animal healthcare management. we are also having the different range of solutions for domestic and companion animals. If you have any query then please contact me on amit.pandy@ayurvet.com. I am also sharing the link to our website.
https://www.ayurvet.com/

Looking forward for your response.

Reply
Fredrick Karanja Mirara Fredrick Karanja Mirara
Dairy producer
October 8, 2018
Dr. AMit Kumar Pandey , My contact is email: miraraka@yahoo.com or whatisapp: 254702094455. Thank you.
Reply
October 16, 2018
Dr. AMit Kumar Pandey I will be greatful if samples of your drugs can be send to me in Ghana for demonstrations . thanks. My contacts: Abelensoa. ae@gmail.com.or Acheampong Emmanuel, box 1252, Kumasi Ghana West Africa.
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