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Poultry Litter and ammonia control

Poultry Deep Litter System- Benefits and Hurdles

Published: May 26, 2011
Summary
The deep litter method is one sustainable method of managing chicken litter in the poultry farming that many small poultry entrepreneurs use. In the deep litter method, farmers get following benefit: It does not take a lot of time to manage. It ends up into compost manure - the high nitrogen manure is "Green". Devoid of cage fatigue. It´s safe and bird enjoy natu...
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Authors:
Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
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Atul Rajput
7 de junio de 2011

Dear Sir,
Thank you for the article.

For broilers for 6 weeks deep litter is okay. But for layers deep litter management is laborious, costly & also the egg quality may not be acceptable in the market. Also in deep litter problem of COCCIDIOSIS may arise very easily.
During lifetime of Broilers how many times this litteron is to be sprayed?
Also will it be economical for the farmer?
Any other substitute that can be added in the feed?

Thank You.

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Sharad Dagadu Hol
Sharad Dagadu Hol
8 de junio de 2011

Dear Sir ,
Thank you for your valuable information ,
But as Dr Rajput said it is advisable to use deep litter system in Broilers not in Layer's or Breeder's as the farmer may face problems of coccidiosis & it will also hamper egg quality as rightly said . But i would like to know in deep litter as well as cages the maximum problem now Maharashtrian farmer's are facing is Flies during summer season, because of which many farmer's around 2 kms of circumference have been asked to close down the farms because it was affecting the health of nearby peoples living . If this is the case with cage system then i think for deep litter the more problem will be created & will also hamper the productivity which again is a big loss inspite of changing litter after every 3 months , it cannot be economic as well . we have tried many products through feed but are not working to the extent or give temporary effect . If you have any idea or practicle experience kindly forward the details .
I think cage system is best for layer's & deep litter for broilers as the bird stays hardly for 35-40 days on one bedding , here we can go for above product for better performances .
Thanks

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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
9 de junio de 2011

Thanks a lot Dr.Atul & Dr.Sharad for comments & suggestions.

The active ingredients of LIITERON will activate immediately as and when they come in contact with excreta of birds or moisture of buildup litter or moist litter and remain active till 30-40 days. Hence one time application is sufficient for broiler grow outs.

Return On Investment is also appreciable as per following benefits:

• LIITERON treated litter does not allow growth of disease causing litter pathogens & insect larva thus stops stunt growth, disease & mortality.
• Immediately reacts to release ammonia from the litter – cuts electricity cost for operating exhaust fans by 35% to 50% & also helps to reduce Respiratory Tract Infection
• Litter can be safely reused with application of LIITERON. This will save the cost of new litter & cleanout time & cost.
• Converts litter ammonia into a safe & effective fertilizer.

LIITERON has an edge over all conventional products due to its insured mode of action and would help to reduce environment problem also as noticed by Dr.Sharad.

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Dr.asim Khan
6 de junio de 2013
sir, please tell us about average cost of LITERON per breeder flock. and in my experience deep litter is more effective in winters only. Just after summer,we have rainy season which increase moisture in litter so,very difficult to handle heavy moist litter.
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
7 de junio de 2013
Dear Dr.Asim Khan, Thanks for the comment ! Treated litter cost per broiler bird would vary from 90 paise to 1 rupee in Indian currency. Whereas new materials for deep litter would cost more than treatment cost (Rs.1.50 to Rs.2.00 litter material cost per bird) and moreover treated old litter is always better than old litter. For layers / breeders in cage system cost per bird would be almost double for 30-40 days. But return on investment is always good. During rainy season or when litter is much moist, doing racking of litter as & when required will help to keep moisture of litter at adequate level. Since LIITERON takes care of ammonia emission problem & improves adsorbent quality of old litter there is no harm doing racking of deep litter.
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Dr.asim Khan
10 de junio de 2013
thanks sir Ganesh Kumar for your comment. but little bit confusion and question is always there i.e. what is the method to minimize moisture from litter in rainyseason? very difficult.because in my short breder experience(3yrs), even three racking are not enough.
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
11 de junio de 2013
Dear Dr.Asim Khan, I agree with you that controlling moisture of litter during rainy-season is very difficult but if we practice following then it will help to keep litter healthy: 1. Treating litter with product like "Liiteron". 2. Good ventilation 3. Racking of litter Thanks !
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Funmi adewoye
27 de diciembre de 2017
Dear sir, What is racking of litter s
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Yasir Sadiq
29 de mayo de 2018
Raking
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
10 de junio de 2018

Funmi adewoye Sorry for the delay in reply and mistake in spelling.
Raking of poultry litter is done with a tool having long handle with pointed metal parts sticking out in a row at the bottom (Toothed crossbar) to scratch or scrape caked litter to reduce moisture level as well as ammonia level from damp litter condition.
Thanks!

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Bibek Bandhu Regmi
Vetworks
16 de junio de 2013
Dear Ganesh Sir ! Thank you very much for the wonderful piece of information. I am rearing layer birds in dip litter system in Nawalparasi district and really annoyed by the problem of moist litter despite adequate ventilation. On this regard, I sincerely you request to give me suggestions on following queries. 1) I am now thinking of regularly replacing the old litter with new one. When would it be appropriate to replace for the first time and what interval would be better for subsequent replacements? 2) Same question for the practice of racking, time of 1st racking? and interval for subsequent rackings? 3) And same query for the use of LITTERON,time of 1st usage and interval for subsequent usages? Thank you.
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
17 de junio de 2013
Dear Bibek Ji ! I would not recommend to change/replace litter materials during rearing layers birds due to following: 1. Changing litter will create stress to birds. 2. Availability of litter materials on time,cost of litter & labor cost to replace litter during rearing period has to be considered. 3. If you have treated litter with "LIITERON" then old litter is more hygienic & hygroscopic in nature. 4. There will be no problem of insects like Darkling beetles (Lesser Meal Worm)in treated old litter. 5. Old litter is broadly comprised of protein, carbohydrate, lipid & fats, with carbohydrates responsible for the majority of Biodegradable materials in the form of cellulose, starch & sugar which is free nutritional availability to birds. 6.Liiteron treated old litter is loaded with beneficial as well as attenuated low concentrate pathogenic bacteria,protozoa and fungus which helps birds to acquire immunity. Racking of litter should be done as & when required so need not to follow routine but do racking that time at the same time when you need to go inside shed for your routine purpose. Normally one application of "Liiteron" is effective for 30-40 days time. It may be repeated to reduce ammonia emission & bacterial load of litter at the interval of 30-40 days or as & when required. Thanks, G.K.Dahal
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Purushotham
13 de septiembre de 2013
Hi Mr Ganesh Kumar Dahal, I have been breading broilers (integrated system ) in bangalore a few months back and have been breading approximately 14000 chickens in one batch. I have been facing problems with the deep litter system in the poultry house. The poultry house is a earthern flooring. The Procedure i follow for bedding is first i prepare the floor by giving a lime wash then apply caustic soda flakes on top of it then i spread the coconut hust. I have been changing the litter for every batch ie., for every two months. I use coconut husk for the bedding purpose, which i later noticed is not a good material for bedding. The first batch was during summer and i had no problem then but now it is been heavily raining and the bedding is completely spoilt due to the moisture. So while i was browsing i came across few interesting article, since internet materials are not validated i wanted to confirm with experts. It will be of great help if you could help me out 1. what is the best and cost effective litter that i can use -- Paddy husk, saw dust or mixture of both or is there any other material for this purpose. 2. how often can i change the bedding (litter)-- I Found that the litters can be changes twice in a year. 3. What does Racking of litter means and how often i need to do it? 4. Procedure to use liiteron and the intervals to use them can it be used when the birds are still there in the house? 5. Do i need to add more layer husk over the period or do it at once. 6. Can i use food grade diatomaceous earth along with Liiteron.
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
22 de septiembre de 2013
Dear Mr.Purushotham, Your all queries is answered through my article if you have had carefully reviewed its content & forum discussion. However I would like to highlight that you have followed the same old conventional procedure by using materials such as agricultural lime (Calcium carbonate-CaCO3, pKa-9) & Caustic soda (Sodium hydroxide-NaOH, pKa-13) which are highly alkaline in nature. Though these material initially help to absorb moisture but later on they create problem in poultry farm since they increase litter alkalinity (to a pH greater than 7) and alkalinity makes favourable condition for pathogenic bacteria to grow and also converts more of the ammonium into ammonia gas. This can become an environmental problem. It will be beneficial for you if you pave with burnt earthen bricks filling joints with sands in between bricks to absorb litter moistures if you have soil floor. Following points to be noted as desired by you: 01. Paddy husk/Rice hulls are best litter material however you may select locally & easily available materials keeping in mind economy also. 02. If you treat farm litter properly and there is no threat of viral infection then there is no need to change litter materials till you find it okay. 03. Racking is a process normally done manually with the help of sharp litter racker to break the clumps to reduce moisture level of poultry litter. But remember at least minimum ventilation is a must to reduce moisture level of litter. You may do racking of litter once in a day if required otherwise minimum the racking better for reducing stress to birds. 04. Just broadcast (spread) Liiteron powder on litter floor (Top dressed) @ 10 Kg for 1000 Square Feet. Liiteron may be used in presence of birds if you are facing problem however it is advisable to use Liiteron from the day first when chicks are released in litter bed. Liiteron is environment friendly, easy & safe to use. One application in 30 days is sufficient in normal condition but if litter is moister then it may be repeated early as activation of Liiteron is high in much moist condition. 05. Litter replacement cost has skyrocketed in recent years due to the decreased availability of new litter and the disposal problem of used build-up litter. Litter treatment is right solution to monitor litter condition. You may add on litter bedding materials to maintain right depth of litter bedding. In winter litter depth may be increased to 6” to 8” to provide warmth to birds in winter season while in summer it can be reduced to 3” to 4”. 06. Liiteron should not be mixed with other salts or chemical. Alkaline materials like agricultural lime & caustic soda are contra indicated. Please do not use lime & caustic soda in your poultry farm while you are using Liiteron. Thanks. G.K.Dahal
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Purushotham
25 de septiembre de 2013
Hello Sir, First i would like to thank you for the reply, also i may bug you with few more queries. 1} Can i use food grade diatomaceous earth with Liiteron's presence, which the birds would peck on it an keep the bedding aerated. 2) We have a poultry of 15000sqft, as you have mentioned about using the bricks. I find it very expensive, rather i was thinking of materials like polythene tarpaulins, would that be a good idea. 3) Also i found darkling beetles in the poultry, will this harm the production in any ways. Is there any solution to control this bugs?
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
25 de septiembre de 2013

Dear Mr.Purushotham,

I would like to enlighten following as per your query:

01. If good quality of “Diatomaceous Earth” materials is available easily then you may use it as DE is porous & absorbent. You must choose right particle size of DE (100-200 micrometers) as if breathed in; diatomaceous earth can irritate nose & nasal passages. Liiteron may be used along with DE but Liiteron will only activate when it’s constituents contact with excreta or moist litter.
02. Covering muddy floor with plastic sheets or tarpaulins is good idea to prevent moisture coming upward but what about build-up moisture of litter in poultry farms which will not absorb in floor due to plastic shield? If you can afford to keep litter bed material depth more than 8” to 12” with DE in plastic covered floor then this idea may work.
03. I have been highlighting & educating poultry farmers to control Darkling Beetles (Litter Beetle/Lesser Meal Worm) as many farmers are not aware of loss created by these nocturnal insects. These insects have been shown to play a part in the transmission of Marek’s disease, and have recently been incriminated in the transmission of Salmonella organism. Darkling Beetles act as possible disease vector transmitting disease causing agents like fungi, bacteria, viruses & parasites also. The beetles also cause damage to poultry houses by tunneling through and feeding on insulation between the walls. They feed on poultry feed stocks and also may bite birds & damage skin of birds reducing carcass quality.
04. By using Liiteron on poultry litter floor which is an environment friendly and safe litter conditioner it will help disrupt life-cycle of beetles.
05. For prevention of beetles problem Liiteron should be spread properly @ 10 Kg for 1000 Square Feet and in case of high beetle population Liiteron should be spread @ 20 Kg for 1000 Square Feet.

You may also read my article “Reuse & Reuse of Old poultry Litter” published in engormix for detail information.

I will appreciate if you could give me your contact details through my email i.d. dahalgk@gmail.com so that I could meet you during my next visit to Karnataka & discuss in length.

Thanks for your interaction once again.

G.K.Dahal

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Maiko Mwanibanzs
20 de junio de 2018
thanks mr Dahal.
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bridget yayra sah
19 de julio de 2014

Thanks for the comments but what about the tropics is the deep litter system. Still not good for layer production?

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masooma nazar
21 de marzo de 2016

Please tell me social, economic and environmental benefit of rice husk as poultry bedding.

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S H BORBORA
3 de julio de 2016

Please tell me how Liiteron will help in managing the mal odour?

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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
28 de junio de 2018
S H BORBORA Malodor / Pungent odor (Very unpleasant smell) from litter is mainly due to ammonia gas formation though there are other gases also present in poultry farm. The chemical used in Liiteron converts volatile Ammonia (NH3) into stable Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4. There is a break down salts used in formula so malodor is reduced. Thanks, GKD
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Kapil Manwal
Lallemand
20 de junio de 2018
raising poultry in deep litter had been one of favorite method but yes the issue is - cost of litter material - the issues of wet litter first we need to understand what cause wet litter in chicken the most common is NE and gut health issues this is the way we can get indications for the problems and need to solve it majority of method is use of anitbiotics , use of essential oils and organic acids to prevent it second important things come about the litter management - the raking can help but needs more labour but now raking machines are available and very effective - we can control water for birds - alter the nutrition avoid use of the material which gives watery dropping use of phytase to control the phytates in the feed, use of proteases and CHO ases can help it to reduce the moisture in litter - the most important would be to increase the speed for ventilations and the nature and water adsorbing capacity for the litter material
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Pavel Melnikov
MVService
27 de junio de 2018
Kapil Manwal Good afternoon! What part of the structure of the cost of 1 kg of meat has control of deep litter?
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Akanmu Ismail
20 de junio de 2018
Quite interesting. Is Liiteron agent available in West Africa ?
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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
21 de junio de 2018

Akanmu Ismail No ! Please try out to find a product named PLT powder (A product of Jones-Hamilton Agriculture Co.Ohio USA).

If not then write to me for formulation @ dahalgk@gmail.com

Thanks & regards,
G.K.Dahal

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Blake Gibson
Ceva Animal Health
28 de junio de 2018

Ganesh Kumar Dahal my name is Blake Gibson. I am the Senior Manager for Jones-Hamilton Co. Agricultural Division - makers of PLT- litter treatment here in the US. How can I help you. Thanks
Blake Gibson

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amita baral pandey
5 de julio de 2018

Ganesh Kumar Dahal I am Amita could you tell me what is PTL powder and how to use this?

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Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Guybro Chemical
5 de julio de 2018
amita baral pandey PLT is a litter treatment product. It is to be spread on floor/litter before chicks are allowed to inter into house. The product is made in USA and right now not available in Nepal market. You may use me-too products like "Liiteron" an Indian product which is available in Nepal market. Thanks !
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Manish kumar Gupta
22 de junio de 2018

Thank you.

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Daniel Mc Elroy
27 de junio de 2018

Deep litter can cause heat and, if not treated, with mint oils or such like will encourage vermin. Drinking water causes problems also with spillages wet areas cause high ammonia smells and flies who in turn set the ball rolling for coci. If you can manage the water feeders and use the right bedding pine needle 8" depth, you would find it best to use, but extra work is the problem for costs.

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amita baral pandey
5 de julio de 2018

Daniel Mc Elroy
Hi. Please, I would like to know how to use this mint oil and where is it available?

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