Sitting on hocks (photos-2 and 3) and hepatomegaly (photo-7) may be related to feed toxins. Feverish carcass (photo-6) suggesting an infectious disease. Mucoid diarrhoea (Photos-4 and 5) very similar to seen in Infectious bursal disease (in fact bursitis was there – my camera could not catch inflamed bursa during night time in-house photography). Haemorrhages in proventriculus (photo-8) and haemorrhagic necrotic GALT (photo-9) highly suggestive for Newcastle Disease.
Tentative diagnosis: a complex of feed toxicity, Newcastle disease and Gumboro.
I would like to share experience of field veterinarians:
1. What is the earliest age you have seen Newcastle disease in broiler or layer flocks? This farmer claimed ND lesions at 4-5 days of age (I visited this flock at 11 days of age).
2. Could it be a failure of Maternal derived antibodies?
wonderful work done, good photography, you has suggested the most probable cause, i like to draw your attention to another side, which i have seen several times in the recent past, in my opinion it could be a copper sulfate poisoning, either from the min mixture used or spray for fungus - all symptoms and lesions you described will be seen, but its easy to identify as many farmers will be using feed from the same batch, another area could be the ND or IBD vaccine itself, either contaminated or of poor quality or expired vaccine that failed to protect the flock. Please think on these lines also.
It is appreciable to have the photography of N.D.Outbreak to read its extent of pathogenesis to the days old Birds and it would be further welcomed if the treatment side gets ventilated by equal merit for due pursuing in case the vaccination yields nil response. DR.R.P.CHAKRABORTY,
Thanks to discuss this important issue. Based on your photo showing intestinal hemorrhages, it look like a true case of VVND. I have seen such type of few cases in early age i.e. 7-10 days of age.
No doubt ND is not a trans ovarian disease , but if PS of that infected com. broilers was infected at the period of collection of hatching eggs of those chicks, the uneven MDA level will not allow the vaccine to work.
Chicks can be infected either from the field or ND virus may came through surface contamination of hatching eggs. Since VVNDV is highly virulent and due to short incubation period, severe lesions can be seen so early.
Dr. Anjum, I hope if you go back to the disease history of PS, you may include my suggested reason of out break of VVND.
Dr.Akram, Consultant Microbiologist, Micro Lab Karachi.
Good pictures as an aid to help with diagnosis, However the most probable cause will mycotoxins ,clostridia infection and reovirus they are the most probable cause of the hemorrages and molted livers, and Vitamin E selenium in the feed. .ND if the maternal antibody is high you will not get at that early stage as well as IBD. Confirm by laboratory tests for NCD and mycotoxin tests that to get your good diagnosis.
To, Mr. Tarusenga Munyanyi :-
Further to your comments on heavy early Broiler chicks mortality, Mycotoxicosis, Clostridial infection and Reo Virus infection etc. can be post ND secondary causes, but can not produced heavy mortality. I have isolated and identified NDV from such cases several times and I am quite sure that Dr. Anjum is fully capable to isolate and identify NDV from his case.
please read my artical study in engormix about N.D
FROM MY experience with newcastle in egyptian poultry sector i see many cases like that in eariler stages before 10 days in broiler and i think it related to there is no maternal immunity in layers
i think if you cases of P.M lesion related to N.D you must not complete your programays after vaccination of any vaccine before
i think you must not make vaccination of this farm for any viruses later as the vaccination programme can make avirus challange at 20 days
i think my comment is strange for you any many but it is actually occur
if you need more information about that dont hesitate to contact me
dr abdelaziz abdelfatah
well as per my view the case probably of Mycotoxin primarily and
simultaneous vaccination during the stressful situtation leads to immuno suppression and secondary invaders disease( bacterial / fungal)
as per vent pasting state mycotoxin - bacterial disease combination is noted
due to the immuno suppression the provenricular and intestinal haemorrages noted
so in my conclusion mycotoxin is the primary cause for this and
the cleanliness or shed contamination and inappropriate vaccination are the secondary reasons aggravated the situations
Litter condition is looking moist and of dark colour at this early age (11 days) that indicate malventillstion during current humid season. I think along with feed toxicity ; heat index ( felt temp.) Continuous humid environment at 33 to 30 c temperature may be the basic cause of this immunosup. So must be rectification in house environment along with medication.
This must be supported with lab test. Vent pasting may be due to salmonella infection. Lesions and high mortality support the NDV infection. DOC must be routinely test for NDV. H9 and MG and SP plate test. This will help when you vaccinate bird and again measure titres post vaccination or post infection. Historyof pprevious disease history on farm and breeder healthstatus could be very informative. feed must be check for impirtant mycotoxin as there could be synergism of different mycotoxins. A complete plan is required for disease prevention.and control.
Some information needed:
Picture number 6 is not related to the same flock??
size of the Bursa?
What is the vaccination programme?
VVNDV genotype VII and VI spreading every where in Pakistan and proper vaccination programme needed to control it.
The best is using the Killed with the live ND LaSota vaccines.
We will be visiting Lahore Expo in Septmber and hope we can meet duringt the expo
Our ditributor is Vetmune Pharma
Dr. Nadim Amarin
Key Account and Technical Manager