vitthal N Mulgir This we call it as a repeat breeder cow syndrome as there are several reasons why your cow is not conceiving. This was prepared for the students of Veterinary college Bangalore..THIS IS ONLY A GIST. More details are given in 20 page write up which can be mailed. REPEAT BREEDER COW SYNDROME Repeat breeder cow/buffalo is an animal which has normal length of the estrous cycle, having apparently normal genitalia, with clear estrous discharge, with the adoption of proper technique of insemination at the proper stage of heat or when bred to a fertile bull or buffalo bull for three consecutive times have failed to become pregnant. The age of the animal should not have exceeded beyond 14 years. Many cattle owners/attendants and inseminators/clinicians don’t calculate the interval between two heats/A.I. and after 3 inseminations if the animal has failed to conceive it is called as a repeat breeder, though the animal falls in to the category of first degree endometritis, EED (pseudo pregnancy). This is a field-oriented problem and hence for discussion the mistakes have been classified in to those done by the A. Owner / attendant, B. Inseminator and C. Veterinary Doctor. They are discussed here below. This is purely for Indian conditions where the farmers manage 1 to 10 animals A. MISTAKES DONE BY THE OWNER/ATTENDANT OF THE ANIMAL. 1. Low or marginal feeding of the animal during pregnancy: Advise: Steam up pregnant animal last 60 days of pregnancy. Feed 3 times a day fodder, followed by concentrates or adopt total mixed ration (TMR). 2. Failed to identify proper stage of estrous: Advise: Identify estrus during nighttime after 8.00 p.m. or when the animals have lied down for more than 2 hours during morning, afternoon or evening. 3. Failure to identify gestational heat: Advise: Keeping proper records and verifying them before AI. Avoid AI if the interval between 2 heats is 4 to 14 days. If it is more than normal cycle length take advice of a qualified veterinarian to evaluate ovaries for CL and follicle and to check for pregnancy. 4. Failure to calculate interval between 2 heats or 2 AI: a. Early repeats: Cows that come into heat within 17-24 days after AI. b. Late repeats: Cows that come into heat later than 25 days after AI. Advise: If early morning BBT (before the animal can get up) if it fails to fall by 10F, advice AI. 5. Failed to provide bedding while calving: Advise: Provide straw bedding while calving till placenta is expelled. 6. Failed to skip 2 heats when problems arise at calving or post calving: Advise: Skip 2 heats in all partum, post partum complications. 7. Failure to observe for dirty discharge post AI: Advise: Post heat or post AI check for the dirty discharge, if present get treated. 8. Failure to observe for post estrus bleeding. It is also called as met estrus bleeding: Advise: It is physiological Avoid AI on the day of bleeding. Feed ½ kg extra oil cake per day in 3 divided parts for 45 days. 9. Animals that have suffered from foot and mouth disease and recovered: All adult animals that have been affected by FMD and recovered show in majority of instances anovulatory cycles and have failed to respond for hormones. In such animal the Thyroid gland is sub functional. The below treatments could result in 100% recovery in the next 3 months they become pregnant, while this treatment has not affected pregnancy if the animal is pregnant already. 1..Feeding 30 gm of iodinated salt per time twice a day for 60 days. 2. Fry 500 gm of Gingili/Til (Sesamum indicum) seeds in a pan till oil appear on the seeds, cool, add 100 grams jaggary mix and feed for 10 days. 3. Handful (50 gm) Fenu greek (T.graecum/T.foenum) seeds are soaked for 12-24 hours, add jaggary, grinded and fed daily. Feed for 10 days along with fried Til jaggary mixture. 4. Homoeo drugs, Iodum200, Aralia 200, Ipecac200 each 15 pills, Selenium30, Echinacea30, Calcaria Phos30, (30 size pill) each 10 pills TID are advised for 07-10 days. Feed 3 times a day for 7-10 days. 10. Failed to prevent excitement of the animal while inseminating: B. MISTAKES DONE BY THE INSEMINATOR 1. Failure to evaluate mucosa of eye: Animal may be showing good heat symptoms, but the mucosa of eye if is pale, the animal fails to conceive in spite of AI. Below 8 gm% Hb - these animals eyelid mucosa will be pale. Advise: Evaluate mucosa of eyelids of animals before AI. It should be minimum medium pink in colour. 2. Failure to calculate interval between 2 heats or 2 AI: Details are given in A 4. Advise: Calculate interval between two heats, to avoid gestational heat, EED. Owner can be advised to record BBT, which falls by 10 F on the early morning ovulation occurs. 3. Failure to inquire quality and quantity of estrus flow: Advise: If profuse discharge is thrown, advice from a qualified veterinarian is a must. 4. Failure to identify proper stage of heat: All estrous symptoms are not noticed in each animal. Advise: In low Hb% skip the animal from insemination, 5. Failed to adopt normal standards to pick semen straw for thawing Advise: Maintain 8-l0 cm distance between straw top ends to the mouth end of LN2 container 6. Mistakes done when semen is thawed: Advise: Use a thermometer to check temperature of thawing water to thaw semen. 7. Carrying semen in the pocket: Advise: Avoid carrying semen in the pocket. Carry semen at 37oC and use within 30 minutes. 8. Avoid unhygienic AI: Advise: Wash external genitalia with soap and water, dry with cotton/tissue paper/clean dry cloth before AI. 9. Improper cutting the end of semen straw: 10. Location of depositing semen: On a nationwide basis (India) among the 240 million cattle (2005 live stock census) 40% are breedable in that 19 to 20% are under AI coverage. Majority of AI are done by 1 to 3 months trained people, identifying the stage of heat is still a problem, proper hygiene is not followed so it is better to adopt i/c AI only. There is a possibility of damaging the endometrium while depositing semen. 11. Slow deposition and full deposition of semen: Advise: Deposit semen intra cervically only and massage clitoris. 12. Failed to prevent excitement of the animal while inseminating: Refer A. 10 for details. 13. A.I. Worker has not been trained to evaluate ovaries before inseminating and also not trained to diagnose pregnancy: Advise: If all other parameters of heat are normal don’t handle the ovary. Educate farmers to maintain heats and AI record and to check expected date of heat and to use seed germination test to diagnose pregnancy. Advise: Massage clitoris 15 times after AI, check for pus flakes/blood on AI gun tip, do re AI, in flow back of semen , enter the bull number in animal card/book, in next AI change bull’s semen, post AI antibiotic treatment may be done. In infection treat i/u, skip one heat. C. MISTAKES DONE BY THE VETERINARY DOCTOR. Few of the mistakes done by the farmer, AI worker are also done rarely even by a doctor. Reasons may be the pressure of office work, other administrative supervision. Not keeping pace with new scientific developments, lack of access to journals, new books. 1. Failed to evaluate sub-clinical acidosis: Suggestion: Inquiring history and evaluation of ovary for CL or for its remnants. To advise the owner about feeding, mineral mixture, sodium bicarb etc. 2. Evaluate for sub-clinical mastitis: Suggestion: Inquire history about drop in milk yield, evaluate teat pores, evaluate uterus. 3. Not calculating the DMI and other nutrient intake: 4. Evaluate B.C.S., genitalia, ovaries: In evaluating genitalia this below order is followed. a. Vestibular mucosa: b. Sacrosciatic ligaments relaxation: c. Tonicity of uterus: d. Tubularity of uterus: e. Consistency of uterus: f. Evaluating ovaries: This is most important. The below table can give an idea how mistakes are done by the clinician / inseminator if ovaries are not carefully evaluated at different stages of estrous cycle. A. Size of follicle B.Consistency C.Size of CL when D. Consistency E. REMARKS When compared of follicle when compared of CL to the thickness to the thickness of ovary of ovary Below 50% Tough Below 25% to thin Soft Recent ovulation spread over ovary* * felt like a cap Below 50% Tough Below 25% Hard Anovulatory heat Up to 50% Tough Below 25% Hard Anovulatory heat? In pro-estrous Up to 50% Tough 25% to 50% Hard Pro-estrous Up to 50% Tough Above 50% Meaty Mid cycle heat (anovulatory heat) Above 50% Tough Below 25% Hard Early heat/pro-estrous Above 50% Tough Up to 50% Hard Pro-estrous/ Delayed ovulator Above 50% Fluctuating Below 25% Hard Mid heat Above 50% Flaccid Below 25% Hard Late heat / Off heat Above 50% Tough, Fluctuating No CL ----- Cystic ovary It is universally accepted throughout the world that the clinicians misjudge 20 to 25% ovarian palpation in respect of CL during rectal examination. 5. Nitrate poisoning: 6. Anovulation. 6. Delayed ovulation: 7. Restricting forward breeding: 8. Depending on ill or untrained staff to thaw semen: 9. Lack of good extension work: 10. Peritonitis: 11. Pneumovagina: 12. Urovagina: 13. Failure of nidation of fertilized ovum: 14. Aged sperm and ovum: 15. Deficiency of energy: 16. Deficiency of oxytocin: 17. Excess of estrogen: 18. Deficiency of progesterone: 19. First degree endometritis: 20. Early embryonic death (EED) (within 16 days after Al): 21. High ambient temperature and humidity: 22. Insufficient endometrial glands: 23. Failure of collection of ovum by the fimbriated end of the Fallopian tube: 24. Tubal blockage: CONCLUSION A. HOW TO AVOID REPEAT BREEDING IN BOVINES? 1. By proper steaming up of the animals during dry pregnancy period, giving 150 mg of sodium selenite and 400 mg of vitamin E, restricting the body score between 3.50 to 3.75 / 5.00 scale. Use ecbolic drugs after calving. By challenge feeding during postpartum period and concentrates are fed 3 to 6 times a day at the rate of 2.00 to 3.00 kg + 50 to 60 per cent of milk yield. Use of two doses of PGF2 alpha around day 20 to 28 after calving and 12 days later or adopt ova synchronization or pre-synchronization ova synchronization method to prepone postpartum anoestrous. It is preferred to restrict forward breeding in graded animals (F2 generation). 2. New born calves should be fed with colostrum within 15 minutes. Rough maize powder is fed from day . Calf starter (27 kg dry Lucerne/Fenu greek fodder at flowering stage, 32 kg Soya bean cake/ ground nut cake, 38 kg wheat bran, 2 kg mineral mixture, 1 kg salt and 100 gm vitamin mix. Calves consumed colostrum lately grow slowly, with under developed genitalia (UDG) and don’t mature earlier to 30 months, there after also they do commonly become repeaters. UDG cases are treated by deworming, feeding mineral mixture for 4 – 6 weeks; inject depot progesterone (Proluton depot/ Duraprogen) 250 mg IM and skip first heat. 3. By proper hygiene at the time of calving and rest is needed for two normal cycles, which had partum or postpartum complications. 4. Proper record keeping is necessary. i) The intensity of heat. I) duration of heat, iii) degree of relaxation of sacrosciatic ligaments, iv) quantity and quality of mucus discharge, v) quantity of urine passed around AI time, vi) on the day of heat, 3, 10 and 17th day the tonicity, tubularity, consistency of uterus as well on these days. Length, height/breadth, thickness of the ovary and size-and the consistency of follicle (cyst) CL are recorded. These will help in deciding the case is a repeat breeder or not and planned treatment can be done. 5. Avoid excitement around the time of Al, giving 15 minutes rest before and after AI, gliding the AI gun over the clitoris massaging of clitoris after AI is necessary. 6. Maintaining proper LN2 levels, proper hygiene at the time of AI, and in any intra uterine treatment is most needed. 7. In early heat semen is deposited intra cervically and in the late mid / early late heats 1/2 the semen is deposited i/u and rest is deposited intra cervically while withdrawing the AI gun. 8. Semen is preferably thawed in warm water at 35.5 to 37oC for 30 seconds using a thermometer to check the temperature of water, should be used as early as possible and thawed semen should not be carried in the pockets, over ice cubes for AI. 9. The animal should be getting its share of dry matter and other nutrients depending on the milk yield and fat per cent. Feeding less Dry matter can be a major cause for repeat breeding. B. HOW TO TREAT REPEAT BREEDER COWS? 1. Using double sheath AI and doing Caslick's operation in pneumo-vagina cases. 2. Using Povidone iodine solution in to ipsilateral horn to further regress a regressing CL and doing AI next day. 3. Using pre or post-AI antibiotics in the second heat. Mucus discharge is collected for isolation and antibiotic sensitivity. 4. In the third heat, treated with GnRH/hCG/Bromocryptin/ Vitamin C injections during heat. On day 3 and 10 injecting antibiotics intramuscularly or PGF2 alpha on day 10 to 12 of heat and in the induced heat antibiotics are used according to the antibiotic sensitivity and inseminated in the following heat. 5. In the next heat endometrial biopsy is collected and tubal blockage is tested and relieved if uterus is free from infection. 6. Animals suffered from Foot-and-Mouth disease, if show heaving symptom homeo drugs, Ipecac 30, Aralia 30, Iodum 30, Natrum mur 30, Aletris farinosa 30 each 10 pills twice or thrice a day is given for 7 days and repeated after a week. Alternately Entodon injections and colossal iodine is given orally or feed 30 gm iodinated salt twice a day for 60 days. They are fed with a handful of overnight soaked (later grinded) Fenugreek seeds (Trigonelle foenum) and 50 gm of fried, cooled and pounded Til / Gingilly seeds (Sesemum indicum) along with jaggary, for 10 days and may be repeated after 15 days. 7. Animals going down in their body condition in the early postpartum period can be fed daily with 2 kg of Ash guard (Cucumber lemo) and 100 to 200 ml of sesame oil or Gingilly oil in 4 divided for 10 to 15 days. 8. Check for acidity of rumen and correct it with sodium bicarbonate other mistakes can be feeding more rice polish or wheat bran or feeding finely powdered grain. 9. Check for uterine involution and infection of uterus and treat accordingly. 10. Check sub-clinical mastitis and treat accordingly. 11. Heifers with under developed genitalia are to be dewormed and fed mineral mixture, need be treated with Depot progesterone 250 mg and one immediate heat has to be skipped. Dr.Pachegoankar Deputy Director AH from Maharastra is of strong opinion to deworm on full moon day and 2 days prioir to full moon day which causes more death of worms with Allopathic or Ayurvedic or Homeo medicines 12. Using homeo drugs Sepia 30, 0.20ml, Conium 30, 0.20ml, Iodum 200, 0.20ml and Thyroidinum 30; 0.20 ml for cow or buffalo heifers while Sepia 30, 0.20ml, Conium 30, 0.20ml, Iodum 200, 0.20ml and Calcaria carb 200, 0.20ml. for buffalo cows and cows This mixture of 0.25ml 3 times a day for 3 days can force animals in to heat provided you have dewormed, mineral mixture was fed and ovaries are bulged Using Cyclomin 7 having trace minerals once in 3 to 4 days one bolus at a time for 4 to 6 weeks can give still better results. If farmers are not affordable to buy Cyclomin they can be advised to feed mixture of millet grains and leguminous grams germinated at the rate of ½ kilo per day for 20 days.