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Food safety

Welcome to the page about Food safety of Engormix; a source of knowledge on Food safety.
Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
USP -Universidade de São Paulo
1. Introduction Mycotoxins are toxic compounds produced as secondary metabolites by certain groups of fungi during their growth in food and feed products, which can lead to several toxic effects in animals and humans [1]. The most important fungal genera that produce mycotoxins are Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, and the main classes of mycotoxins produced by these genera are the aflatoxins (AF), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone...
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Introduction Antimicrobials, including antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, and antiparasitics, are used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals, and plants. 1 Microbes can become resistant to antimicrobials as a result of ineffective or prolonged antimicrobial treatment. This resistance may be “innate” owing to the slow and long evolutionary process that microorganisms undergo to adapt to changing environmental conditions; this adaptation is...
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Amit Morey
Auburn University
Introduction Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen commonly associated with raw poultry and poultry products causing 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations and 450 deaths, annually in the United States [1]. Between 2009 and 2015, 15% of the top 5 pathogen-food category pair out-breaks were attributed to Salmonellosis associated with chicken consumption [2]. To reduce the prevalence of Salmonella , poultry processors apply antimicrobial...
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Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
USP -Universidade de São Paulo
1 Introduction Mycotoxins are secondary products of fungal metabolism, with a high capacity to cause damage to human and animal health (Bennett & Klich, 2003). Fungi can naturally proliferate in food and are very commonly found in grains used for animal and human food. The growth is mainly favored by humidity and temperature. Inadequate harvesting and storage practices contribute to fungal contamination (Batatinha et al., 2008). The presence of fungi in...
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Allen Byrd
Allen Byrd and 4 more
USDA - United States Department of Agriculture
1. Introduction Salmonella is one of the most common foodborne pathogens. The intestinal tract of poultry and other food animals is considered the main foodborne Salmonella reservoir [1,2]. An increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been reported in poultry Salmonella isolates where antibiotics are extensively used in production systems [3,4]. Although the link between antimicrobial usage in food animals and clinical treatment failures in human salmonellosis...
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Credit picture: by BorgQueen   by University of Chemistry and Technology Prague Mycotoxins are a group of low-molecular-weight compounds with a...
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Highlights • A total of 5.5% (8/144) of the examined chicken samples were contaminated with MRSA. • Most MRSA isolates (75%, 6/8) harboured the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene. • Ø MRSA isolates initiated SEB production in experimentally contaminated chicken livers within 24 h of storage at > 8 °C. •SEB was maximally produced at 24 °C when the MRSA counts reached 7.3x10 3 ± 1.2x10 3 CFU/g...
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The safety and quality of feed materials, such as grain, is a high-profile topic of great importance. Grain is an important and significant source of contamination in the food chain and it also carries the risk of the consumers being exposed to toxins. As grain storage is an integral part of the food and feed supply chain, the storage operations of grain should include the control of any potential hazards (insects, molds, mycotoxins etc.) which could compromise the safety and quality of...
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Foodborne diseases & global scenario: Up to 30% of the inhabitants in developed countries may be affected by food-borne illness each year and the problems are likely to be even more serious in developing countries. The global occurrence of food-borne disease is difficult to evaluate, but in 2005 it was projected that 22 lakhs people, including 18 lakhs children, died from diarrheal diseases(WHO,2015). Microbiological hazards represent 93% of the incidents of food-borne...
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1. Introduction Mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites of toxigenic species are mainly produced by the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. These toxigenic species predominantly contaminate cereals during pre- and post-harvest storage and many other stages [1]. The production of mycotoxins in grains depends on several factors, including humidity, temperature, water activity, mechanical damages and fungal toxigenic potentials [2]. Based on their toxicological...
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Importance of animal origin foods and trends of consumption Given their high nutrient density, animal-origin foods have been staples of the human diet along our evolutionary history. Indeed, evidence of meat and bone marrow consumption in hominins can be traced back to around 2.5-2.8 million years ago (De Heinzelin et al., 1999, Thompson et al., 2019). On the other hand, milk from ruminants was introduced into our diets more recently, at least 8500...
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Alexandre Lamas
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
1. Introduction Salmonella spp. are major food-borne pathogens around the world. The Salmonella genus is composed by two species, S. bongori and S. enterica. Also, the latter is also composed of six subspecies: S. enterica (I), S. salamae (II), S. arizonae (IIIa), S. diarizonae (IIIb), S. houtenae (IV), and S. indica (VI) [1]. In the year 2015, S. enterica was responsible of 94,625 confirmed cases of salmonellosis and 126 deaths in the European Union (EU). Although in the last...
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INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease caused by the spirochetal bacteria Leptospira is a common disease of livestock, pet animals with its prevalence worldwide 1. The geographical distribution of leptospirosis has been overlapping over the decades and produce endemic and epidemic acute febrile diseases 2. Sporadic outbreaks have been reported from the countries like USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, parts of Europe, and among Asian countries. The recent incidence of...
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Nikola Puvaca
Nikola Puvaca and 1 more
1. Introduction The appearance of new transmittable plant diseases is determined by anthropogenic and conservational change, including changes in trade, land use, and climate [1–4]. The growth of infected plant material through trade in plant products, germplasm, grafts, and live plants has been recognised as the greatest contributing factor to the emergence of new plant diseases [5–7]. A pathogen may be introduced without disease emergence initially...
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Using hypothesis-driven data mining, a UGA research team led by Xiangyu Deng of UGA’s Center for Food Safety analyzed over 30,000 genomes of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from global sources and the international...
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Hafez Mohamed
Hafez Mohamed and 1 more
Free University of Berlin
INTRODUCTION Disease control, high production, product quality, and reasonable production costs have been the recent main goals of the poultry industry. Hence, meeting per capita consumption and welfare to humans necessitates continuous efficient and goal-oriented healthcare to control disease spread and decrease the application of antibiotics (1). These endeavors will include the launch of programs to control infectious diseases, face the constant changes in political and...
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Sara Pires
Technical University of Denmark
Introduction Toxoplasmosis is an important foodborne disease worldwide. Its public health importance has been largely under-recognized, but recent evidence has shown that Toxoplasma gondii leads to a high burden of disease at global, regional and national level. The World Health Organization ranked toxoplasmosis as number 13th among 31 foodborne diseases globally, also demonstrating regional differences, with for example a relative...
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Introduction Parasites have long been neglected but nowadays are becoming more recognized as important foodborne pathogens. Various factors contribute to their undervaluation such as complex lifecycles and transmission routes, prolonged incubation period and chronic disease manifestations. In addition, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays are not always available and therefore parasite occurrences are often underreported, resulting in low disease...
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