Engormix
We will be present at:
July 8, 2018 to July 12, 2018
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Optimising milk fat strengthens dairy profits

Published on:
Author/s :
512 18 Statistics
Share :

Fat found in milk originates from three sources; de novo fatty acids synthesised in the milk gland of the cow (short-chain C4 to C14) comprise about 20-30% of total milk fatty acids, preformed fatty acids (long chain C18:0, C18:1 and C18:3) represent 35-40%, and the mixed group of fatty acids (C16) make up about 35%.

Research has shown that the percentage of milk de novo fatty acids is positively correlated with the percentage of fat and true protein in the milk. It has also been indicated that these short-chain fatty acids explain nearly 50% of the variation in milk fat percentage and as much as 68% of the variation in milk true protein. De novo fatty acids are crucial and can be used to monitor herd management.

 

Key drivers of dairy profitability

Indeed, milk fat and protein are two key drivers of dairy profitability positively related to net milk income over feed costs. The quantity of de novo fatty acids reflects rumen functioning, especially fiber fermentation which produces acetate and butyrate, the building blocks of fatty acids. The relative proportion of de novo fatty acids in milk fat reflects how well the cow is being fed and managed for optimal rumen fermentation. Higher de novo fatty acids in the milk reflect healthier rumen conditions.

The intrinsic digestibility of the forage fiber is a function of plant genetics, maturity at harvest and growing environment, which determine the amount of lignin. Rumen pH has a large impact on the fiber fermentation. Thus, poor feeding management can influence rumen pH and subsequent fiber digestion and microbial protein production. Furthermore, recent research has shown that feeding or management practices reducing pH results in accumulation of CLA isomer that has a powerful milk fat depressing effect. So, the question is what management practices enhance rumen conditions as reflected by the de novo fatty acid content of the milk?

 

Fatty acids profiles evaluated

A study run in 2014 and 2015 utilized data collected from over 70 farms in northern New-York and Vermont assessing management and feeding practices, and this information was compared with bulk-tank milk composition. By evaluating fatty acid profiles, herds were categorized as either high or low de novo herds. The major factors consistently associated with greater de novo milk fatty acid content and higher milk fat and true protein content are presented in the infographic below.

In conclusion, butterfat levels in milk are affected by various factors. The sources of these fatty acids include de novo (synthesized), performed, and mixed fatty acids. Factors affecting de novo fatty acids have proven significant and account for much of the milk fat variability, the greatest of which appears to be rumen pH. Attention to the management and nutritional factors previously listed can help support pH and milk fat levels.

 

Major factors associated with greater de novo milk fatty acid content.

Stocking rates

  • Do not overstock pens or feeding area
  • The relationship between stocking density and de novo fatty acid content in milk makes sense given that overstocking increases are feeding rate and aggression at the feed bunk, depresses rumination, and increases the risk for lower rumen pH.

Feeding frequency

  • Feed more frequently (minimum twice a day)
  • Greater frequency of feeding enhances milk components and the de novo fatty acids which reflect rumen pH.

Ration balance

  • Feed fat properly and meet fiber requirements
  • Feeding too much-unsaturated fat may depress rumen fiber fermentation, and feeding too much rumen by-pass fat may simply drive up the preformed fatty acid content even when rumen conditions are not optimized for higher de novo fatty acid content in milk.

Levels of NDF

  • Utilise proper levels of physically effective Neutral Detergent Fibre (peNDF)
  • Dietary peNDF is important for enhancing de novo synthesis. That makes sense given the long-known relationship between effective dietary fiber, rumen pH, and microbial fiber fermentation.

Additives

  • Use additives/components to support rumen fermentation
  • Feeding additives which have been shown to support rumen pH and improve fiber digestion can improve de novo milk fatty acids. Yeast products such as RumenYeast® or Hilyses® have been shown to offset the typical pH reductions common with feeding higher levels of starch. RumenYeast® has also been shown to improve digestibility’s in the rumen supporting increased butterfat and resulting in a production improvement of +2kg/head/day.
 
Author/s
Steve Blezinger, Ph.D., PAS is a management and nutritional consultant with an office in Sulphur Springs, TX.
 
May 14, 2018
Dr. Verma, you could also check the status of copper. It is very common that color changes to red when there is a deficiency in cattle. You may need to do a liver biopsy for a micromineral count.
0
Reply
Sharma Madan Lal Sharma Madan Lal
B.V.Sc & AH
May 14, 2018
Dr Verma, depigmentation in buffaloes is primarily due to deficiency of copper and adequate exosure to sun light. Zn def will make the skin coat very rough and dry. Deworming can improve the shine on skin coat.
1
Reply
Dr. Rahul S. Verma Dr. Rahul S. Verma
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 15, 2018
Sharma Madan Lal Depigmentation due Cu def should be diffused all over body not limited to switch of tail.
0
Reply
ICC Brazil ICC Brazil
Sao Paulo, Brazil
May 15, 2018
Dear Dr. Rahul S. Verma: Copper deficiency causing depigmentation of the hair coat most commonly is noted at the top of the shoulders, around the edges of the ears and around the muzzle in cattle with a darker hair coat. Lighter colored cattle may be noted by a drabness to the coat and general poor overall appearance. I believe, based on the description that an actual hair loss may be more related to zinc or possibly selenium and/or Vitamins A and E deficiencies although as someone pointed out, internal parasites can play a role here as well.

In general, for good health and production, all nutrients must be properly balanced and should consider all ingredients available in the diet.

Kindest Regards,

Steve

3
Reply
May 14, 2018
Yes if there is any article to improve Milk fat it will be very useful.
1
Reply
ICC Brazil ICC Brazil
Sao Paulo, Brazil
May 15, 2018

D.narayanasamy - there is an article here on Engormix that we published a few weeks back that discusses this topic. Here is the link to that article: https://en.engormix.com/dairy-cattle/articles/optimising-milk-fat-strengthens-t42055.htm.

Kind regards,

Steve

0
Reply
May 14, 2018
Nice article
0
Reply
May 15, 2018

Deficiency of various mineral ions in the body of the lactating animals reflect many ways. important is milk production, body weight and lather quality. We have developed mineral mixture to overcome the deficiency, witch can either mix with their food material or can dissolve in their drinking water. Results are very encouraging. It is to apply everywhere.

1
Reply
Alfredo J. Escribano Alfredo J. Escribano
PhD in Animal Production
May 16, 2018
Interesting
0
Reply
May 16, 2018
Feeding fat, specially bypass fat one month before calving prevents the ketosis which causes economical loss to the farmers.
0
Reply
May 23, 2018
V.good article
0
Reply
May 23, 2018

Copper deficiency in livestock is easily detected just by seeing rough coat and loss of pigments in animals. When dewormers were not available 50 years ago traditional elders n bush doctors used to recommend in very light dose of copper sulfate and used to get successful results in getting rid of wormes in animals. The article reconfirms the experiences of our elders about the role of copper in animal feed. It is really good article and I wish the author good luck.

1
Reply
Arnulf Tröscher Arnulf Tröscher
R&D and Technical Marketing Manager
May 24, 2018

We tend to believe that we should increase linoleic and linolenic acid in feed so that we increase them in milk fat to make milk and milk products more valuable for the consumer. However, we are creating trouble to the cow's metabolism and the consumer could easily Balance out his LA and LnA requirement by taking a spoon full of them in the salad dressing.

The real unique fatty acids in milk are those Isomers of CLA. They can be increased in milk and they provide benefit to the consumer as science have shown. This is the ingredient which we should research for the benefit of our dairy industry and the consumer.

0
Reply
Would you like to discuss about this topic: Optimising milk fat strengthens dairy profits?
Engormix reserves the right to delete and/or modify comments. See more details

Comments that contain the following items won´t be published:

  • Repeated spelling mistakes.
  • Advertisements, Web sites and/or e-mail addresses.
  • Questions or answers not relevant to the topic discussed in the Forum.
   
   
   
Post a comment