I would like to know how to feed moldy forage without affecting the health of poultry or farm livestock.
Any opinion would be really appreciated!
1. You must be aware that the use of spoiled moldy forage should be avoided as soon as possible
2. If your economy does not allow to bare loss then it should be self analysed the status of moldy feed how severe it is.
3. Self analyse what type of mold affects your forage, and also what are the possible causes of mold that affects on your farm animals.
4. According to chemical nature and metabolism of possible Mycotoxin, its dot should be administrated.
5. If your animal is compatible to consume turmeric, it should be administrated.
But at all moldy food must be avoided until its chemical or mechanical remediation.
Feeding moldy feed to chicken is not right but if you are facing some economic reason, please do analyse the type of mold or toxins presents so to take some actions like to add in antimold or toxin binders in it, there are a lot of anti mold and binders in the market you can choose.
Although these might not be totaly effective but maybe you can see results. Please bare in mind that using moldy feed may cause severe economic loss in livestock industry, but please manage it carefully.
Since, moldy feed may contain toxins, feeding it to poultry or farm livestock may not be advisable. However, if the reason is to economize, then it must be analysed for the content and the type of toxins before feeding. It must not be fed beyond permitable toxin levels. If necessary, toxin levels in the feed may be diluted by mixing with other feed ingredients.
Any feed stuff infested with mould and fungii is marked as unsuitable to feed livestock. However, the beneficial fungii and moulds are exceptions. There are treatmental methods to reduce toxic effect of mouldy forages. The rumen dynamics some times help to detoxify those moulds effects in rumen.
Normally it is advised to reject those mouldy feed stuffs.
Dr. P.George Kunju John,
Animal Feed Consultant (Farms & Feed mills)
Moldy feed should be rejected. An analysis of the type of mold may be necessary if you still want to proceed. In the end, the type of mold and the degree of infestation may not be such a big deal after all. Binders etc exist on the market but a good economic analysis is required in order to make a good decision. What is the cost of the binders and their incorporation, the potential negative impact of feeding the moldy feed versus just disposing of the feed and moving on. There are ethical considerations too that need to be weighed in, in arriving at any decision.
1.) Moderate to high consumption of mycotoxins from poultry feed have obvious implications on poultry health and nutrition. Chronic infection arises from long term low dosage exposure with the following symptoms:
„X Reduced feed intake/ anorexia
„X Poor nutrient absorption
„X Impaired metabolism
„X Suppression of antibiotic effect leading to resistances
„X Suppression of immune system
„X Cellular death
„X Increased incidence of diseases
„X Reduced production efficiency
How do we recognize affected poultry?
„X Digestive disorders
„X Reduced feed consumption
„X Unthrift ness
„X Rough feathers and abnormal feathering
„X Low to poor production efficiency
2.) Generalized resistance to infectious diseases
Low to moderate consumption of toxins results in acute mortality, stunted growth and reduced fertility in breeders. Public health implications of increased infections in animal lead to high degree of cross resistances in humans.
Increased and frequent usages of antibiotics as observed in the industry today is a direct result of the consequences of mycotoxins effect on host resistance and the effect on Immune response of the host.
How can we minimise these effects if you feed mouldy ration?
I would not recommend using mouldy feed. However, if you have to, you may adopt the following strategy:
Ensure that the input is well dried. If possible sundry to reduce moisture and it may destroy to a less degree the microbes and toxins
For small holders, you may pass the materials through drier for a few seconds to kill microbes
Use Toxin Binders
Toxin binders at the rate of 1-2.5kg/ton can be included to bind the toxins especially Aflatoxin and ochratoxin, but it may not bind large molecule toxins like Fuminoxin, DON, etc
Use Nanitized Toxin Binders
Conventional toxin binders have interlayer spaces of about .25 nanometres and small sized toxins can be binded in this layer space, but nanotized toxin binder where the interlayer has been structurally expanded the original size by 10 times will allow for cations exchange and will bind larger molecule toxins. In fact, it will be broad spectrum in binding available toxins
Such binders as the MONT MORILONITE NANOTIZED TOXIN BINDERS may help alleviate the problem
For detailed information on product name and manufacturer get in touch with this author for more information
Hello All, this is an interesting topic to discuss. spent more than 15 years on this subject, I can offer some comments:
1. Moldy feed affect poultry or any animal in 3 ways:
a. it reduces nutrient quality of feed especially fat and energy content
b. molds such as Aspergillus block respiratory tract and can lead to brooder pneumonia. this is common due to bedding material contamination with molds.
c. molds produce several mycotoxins and cause various organ damage and health and performance losses
Although no one recommends to feed moldy feed to animals, some times some people do not have any other option. In such cases following precautions can be taken:
1. Dry the moldy feed as much as possible before storing.
2. Remove, if possible, the portion of feed which is highly contaminated with the visible mold.
3. Use organic acid (spray or powder) before storing feed. This helps to kill molds and improve palatability of feed.
4. As the molds affect fat content severely, check the feed for fat content if you can. If you can not, increase energy content by 5 to 10[percent] (depends on the extent of mold infestation).
5. Use additional fat soluble vitamins and Selenium.
6. If it is a dairy feed, silage inoculants and probiotcs can also help.
7. In all animal species, try to add a good and scientifically proven mycotoxin binder.
The most important is observe animal for symptoms. Remember that the presence of mold does not always indicate the presence of mycotoxin, especially in monogastric feed and also vice versa. So treat the animals based on the symptoms and performance losses. Evaluate all the additices you use for ROI. Once you are confident on an additive, use that as an insurance as molds and mycotoxins creep into your feed without warning. Good luck.
It is absolutely impossible to feed moldy feed to the animal and then get good results. It is best to look over ingredients for mold before storage. The moisture level before storage should be less than 13%. If there is some type of toxin found it should be discarded or treated with anti toxins before storage to stop further propagation of toxins.
I am totally agree with the comments posted by Dr Swami.
As everybody know that Intionally feeding the moldy feed to Animal is against the humanity & can say as Offence. But if such situation come & have no other option then instead of using as such moldy feed, please try to take the below efforts before feeding to livestock.
1) Mold visible for open eye should be removed.
2) Treatment with Organic Acid or spray with 1[percent] copper Sulphate is useful tool to kill the mold & organisms.
3) After that Sundry the feedstuff/grains.
4) To manaze the energy & Fat soluble Vitamin Losses kindly take efforts to provide the same addituionally in feed formulations.
The Eye sees only What the mind is prepared to Comprehend
it deprnd whether it is preformed or produced after metabolization of fungus,but after consumption of mouldy feed /forage its effect will start after one week in different target organ but clinical effect will depend on level of mycotoxin/CFU of mould
Sharad, the effects of mycotoxins depends on the type of animal or poultry exposed to the toxins, the dose of toxins and the number of toxins found in feed. Specific to broilers, it is very difficult to diagnose the problem. I call this as mycotoxin mystery. Non-specific symptoms are the hallmark of mycotoxicoses, exspecially in poultry. Broilers exposed to aflatoxins will have pale and enlarged liver, while ochratoxins affect kidney. But the majority of the times the performance of broilers is compromised before seeing organ effects. Recent research has also shown the effect of mycotoxins such as vomitoxin on the integrity of intestinal tract as well as compromise immune system. These toxins can also prolong the time required for recovring from diseases such as coccidiosis. The symptoms of toxins are many times same as bacterial or viral diseases and nutrient deficiencies. Thats why if the feed is moldy and found even one toxin, prevention is recommended. I hope this helps.
Dear Dr Swami Sir ,
I appretiate / agree to your answer, but most of the times (In Broilers) the toxic symptoms are observed indirectly or (Due to reduced body immunity, the bird shows different lesions after performing P.M .) This happens mostly at finisher level . My question is: Do you agree with the fact that because there are toxins present in the feed, bird reduces immunity & gets exposed to other bacterial or viral diseases? Whose lesions are directly exhibited after performing P.M.? Then at this stage in what way can we reach to the conclusion that this has happened only due to higher toxin levels in the feed? & What step should be taken in such times? Please provide a guideline .