Avian Urolithiasis (Gout)

Forum about Avian Urolithiasis (Gout)

Published on: 05/27/2009
Author/s : Dr. M.T.Banday, Dr. Mukesh Bhakt and Dr. Sheikh Adil Hamid - Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Today’s bird is genetically engineered for higher productivity. Selection of birds is based on production parameters. In the process, the health of the vital organs is ignored. This has resulted in increased incidence of metabolic disorders. The kidney is a vital organ of the bird with diverse metabolic and excretory function viz. maintaining the chemical composition of body fluids, removal ...
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Arshaq Ramzee Arshaq Ramzee
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 27, 2009

Good work, Authors, avian gout is quite common in broilers and often confused with E.Coli and CRD infections. I suggest that authors also put some notes on differential diagnosis in the same article.

Saadat Changezi Saadat Changezi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 29, 2009
In todays poultry operations especially in obsolete trends of farming these are very common problems one face on daily bases,however this is an informative article on the gout.good luck.
Dr.Saadat Ali Changezi
Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
June 3, 2009

Due to multietiological factors, initial sign/symptoms are misunderstood till damage is occured due to avian Gout.
Good work done.Thanks!!

Amir Attar Amir Attar
Animal Nutritionist
November 15, 2009

i read this paper about avian gout carefully. it's really practical paper and suitable for experts and farmers. thanks to authors.

February 12, 2010

A ration with 30[percent] protein is questionable in present scenario when every nutriionist. The birds infected with Staph. also have the sign of avian gout. lameness due to defficiency of minerals and vitamins also have their effect. The author`s treatment reccomendations is more valuable.

Issa Issa
Agricultural Engineer
September 19, 2010

good work,
is there any information about astrovirus and avian gout?

Maqsood Jaffery Maqsood Jaffery
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 22, 2010

Really informative article. There has been recent case of avian gout in pakistan at arifwala on a layer farm in pulletts in rearing. Problem had the history of nutritional imbalance and dehydration which caused formation of urolithiasis ( Stone formation in kidneys of both sides). It caused heavy mortality due to long time persistance.

Dr Asad Abbas Malik Dr Asad Abbas Malik
DVM, M.Phill Animal Nutrition
September 23, 2010

Astrovirus or avian nephritis virus mostly effects chicks from Day-1 upto to 4 weeks of age, more commonly in immunosupressed birds. Astrovirus cause degeneration and necrosis of epithielial cells of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney which leads to sever avian gout.

Dr Jaydip Mulik Dr Jaydip Mulik
Master Of Veterinary Science & Master of Business Administration
September 23, 2010

Dear Doctors,

I am happy to read the article about Avian Gout.

But since my opinion you have forgotten to elaborate the Infectious Causes in the article. Please update the details with special emphasis on Infectious Bronchitis.

As nowadays poultry industry is much more integrated & every one is aware of SOP & following the same to get the better productivity so the Gout problem occurred due to Metabolic Disorders & nutritional Parameters are very rare.

In India we face the Avian Gout problem specially in Cobb Broilers & that may be related with some genetical defects which till date not resolved. In many of endemic outbreaks of Gout majority reasons will be related to IB.

On topic of treatment also what you have mentioned are all traditional drugs & that line of treatment will not work on present GOUT outbreaks seen & that will be helpfull only when the causative agents are related to Metabolic disorders or Nutritional matters.

I have tried successfully the drugs below which plays important role to control GOUT mortality.

1) Allopurinol@2 mg/Kg body weight in 24 hrs drinking water.
Mode of Action:Allopurinol is a structural isomer of hypoxanthine (a naturally occurring purine in the body) and is an enzyme inhibitor, inhibiting xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase is responsible for the successive oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine resulting in the production of uric acid. In addition to blocking uric acid production, inhibition of xanthine oxidase causes an increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are converted to closely related purine ribotides adenosine and guanosine monophosphates. Increased levels of these ribotides causes feedback inhibition of amidophosphoribosyl transferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme of purine biosynthesis. Allopurinol therefore decreases both uric acid formation and purine synthesis
(Allopurinol has been marketed in the United States since 1964. Allopurinol is marketed by Prometheus in the United States as Zyloprim, while in other countries it continues to be marketed by GlaxoSmithKline. Other brand names are Allohexal, Allosig, Milurit, Alloril, Progout, and Zyloric. In South Africa, Allopurinol is marketed under the brand name Puricos. It also known as Zyrik 300 in India and Aluron in Venezuela.)

2)Probenecid:@2 mg per kg Body weight in 24 hrs drinking water.
Mode of Action:In the kidneys probenecid is filtered at the glomerulus, secreted in the proximal tubule and reabsorbed in the distal tubule.Probenecid works by interfering with the kidneys organic anion transporter (OAT), which reclaims uric acid from the urine and returns it to the plasma. If probenecid (an organic acid) is present, the OAT binds preferentially to it (instead of to uric acid), preventing re-absorption of the uric acid. Hence, the urine retains more uric acid, lowering uric acid concentration in the plasma. (This is a good example of a medical usage for competition between substrates transported across cell membranes.)

Thanks & regards,

Dr Jaydip Mulik ( M.V.Sc)

Issa Issa
Agricultural Engineer
October 1, 2010

thanks for the information
yes mortality starts at 4-5 days with lesions of avian gout, we are using medications as dauritic but still the mortality is high, the problem is more in chicks coming from the same breeder farm, and no lesions in chicks coming from another breederfarm

Dr.sohail Ahmad Dr.sohail Ahmad
Animal Nutritionist
October 4, 2010

Informative article about kidney disease.Kidneys are a vital organs of bird with diverse metabolic and excretery function.
Kidney damage is gout. Gout is a condition in which kidney function decreases to a point where uric acid accumulates in
the blood and body fluids. In gout blood levels of uric acid can be as high as 44mg / 100ml as compared to 5-7mg / 100ml
in a normal bird. Uric acid is end product of nitrogen metabolism. Uric acid is mainly produced in liver and excreted by the
Two major forms of gout mention. Visceral and Articular gout. In both forms, deposits consist of needle shaped crystals
called Tophi.In Broilers, Viseral gout in young age as 2-3 days and in layers as 14 weeks of age.
In pakistan the reason of this disease outbreak are management as well as nutrition (feed) and breed. In areas, where
water quality is not so good ( under ground water is salty ), also cause of problem infectious and fast growth rate rather-
than mention by the author. Mostly seen in Hubbard and Cobb broilers, less cases seen in Arbor acres.
I also agree with Dr. Mulik, for treatment used Allopurinol ( progout) have a good results along with some
other diuretic ( locally type etc).
Dr G Naresh Kumar Dr G Naresh Kumar
Veterinary Doctor
December 29, 2010

Thanks for the information about Avian Gout, Really it is a useful article to all the poultry farmers as well as the proffessionals
naresh kumar-

Dr Wisal M.Khan Dr Wisal M.Khan
Doctor of vet Med
February 17, 2011
Very informative article , but consider the ASTRO Virus and also ANV also with it while making a final decison .
However, the medication plan is good and will work. The use of Amonium chloride is also usefull in sever cases.
March 15, 2011

Very Very informative and useful article about avian gout, as summer in India is approaching and helpful for all the poultry professionals to control the chicks mortality,
Treatment line is very good and proved effective in my experience.
Thanks for the effort.

March 19, 2011
No doubt the article is very informative. But more information is needed on this serious issue.

Please say something about the side-effects on consumption of "Anti-Gout Drug Fed" chickens and "Gout Infected" chickens on human health.

April 27, 2011
Low protein diet with sufficient and balance amino acids will help the sick bird. For example starter using 20% crude protein and grower 18% crude protein.
April 28, 2011

I liked the article about avian gout. Nephrotropic IB is important in this case. There are vaccines which claim releif. But there is no pharmacopeal method to test. This is necessary,so that vaccines have uniform quality.
Dr shivdekar

Dr Raghavendra Godse Dr Raghavendra Godse
Veterinary Doctor
May 22, 2011

Good informative article. I agree with Dr Jaydip regarding treatment and the infectious cause. There is defect in maternal immunity in chicks against IB, leads to gout and not in any specific breed. For the treatment using allupurinol, vinegar, acidifiers and manage mental correction in form of providing adequate drinkers, plenty of water and getting result to this treatment. But the information about mode of action of vinegar and acidifiers in avian gout is not given by authors.

Dr Mridul Kumar Borah Dr Mridul Kumar Borah
Veterinary Doctor
September 16, 2011

I am satisfied with the discussion about avian gout. At present in my area it has become a major problem. I tried allopurinol and got the result only after using it at a dose of 2gm per 10kg body weight. Below this level it is not effective. Along with these I am using Bettel leaf juice to promote water consumption and it is working well. During winter the water consumption normally falls. So I advise all the farmers to use bettel leaf juice right from the beginning.

Recently I have tried a Product named Libac-10 (Manufactured by Vetnee Wallace) @ 50ml per 100birds b.d. along with Vitamin A. Mortality is lmost nil by the 2nd day and gout totally clears by the 4th day.

In some cases of Nephritis Levofloxacin is also used.

Dr. Mridul Kumar Borah

Deb Nazario Deb Nazario
June 17, 2022
Dr Mridul Kumar Borahwhere do you find similar product like libac-10 in states
November 22, 2011
Dear Dr. Banday,

Nice to see u after almost 15 years after IVRI!

Could you please elaborate on the role of Vtmain B complex and Vitamin K in Gout?
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