Multiple Amino Acid Supplementations to Low-Protein Diets: Effect on Performance, Carcass Yield, Meat Quality and Nitrogen Excretion of Finishing Broilers under Hot Climate Conditions

Published on: 08/28/2020
Author/s : Youssef A. Attia 1, Fulvia Bovera 2, Jinquan Wang 3, Mohammed A. Al-Harthi 1 and Woo Kyun Kim 3. / 1 Arid Land Agriculture Department, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia; 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Napoli Federico II, via F. Delpino1, 80137 Napoli, Italy; 3 Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

1. IntroductionIn hot climates, the growth of broilers is usually slow, as high temperature adversely affects feed intake, and high-protein diets, used to sustain animal growth, may impair broiler tolerance to heat stress due to the high heat increment induced by protein metabolism [1,2]. Decreasing dietary protein levels of broiler diets could be a good strategy, but the amino acid requirements f...

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August 28, 2020

Youssef Attia, consistent results regarding the low growth rate of the birds. However, I would like to make some considerations; - not being able to check if the temperatures of the two periods evaluated were fixed.;

- Regardless, as it was used a very high temperature for the ages of the birds in both periods, I think it was necessary to include a treatment in which it was the level of 15% of CP without any supplementation of amino acids was evaluated. I believe that only using this treatment could I conclude the need for supplementation of lysine and methionine.

- Finally, I would like to consider that if temperatures were kept fixed, the performance results, consistently because they are very low, may have interfered in the pattern of response of birds to the amino acid levels of feed, which may compromise the study's conclusions.

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September 25, 2020
Youssef A. Attia, complementing the previous considerations, I would like to point out that it was not defined in the methodologies of the studies, that the supplemented amounts of methionine and lysine in diets with 15% CP, were made having as reference, their respective levels in the diet with 18% CP. As the level of CP reduction corresponded to 3%, the fact that only the supplementation with the AAS methionine and lysine was sufficient to maintain the performance of the birds, reaffirms the hypothesis that the very high temperature, with a marked reflection on the performance of the birds , which was the case, would confirm the hypothesis that the demand of the different AAS is changed to less. It does not seem to me to make much sense, stating that only the supplementation of methionine and lysine would be sufficient to maintain the performance of the birds, having reduced the CP level of the diet by 3%.
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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
September 26, 2020

Juarez Donzele
Hello
If you have funds we can test your hypothesis in another set of series of experiments. I am aware that there are some literature showing that threonine, arginine, isoleucine, leucine and tryptophan may improve performance.

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
September 26, 2020

Youssef Attia
Sorry for spelling mistakes.
AAEs When added to low protein diet may induce an improvement, but this was shown to be affected by %CP, ingredient composition and feedstuffs profiles, age of birds and growth rate, temperature, feed intake, etc.

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
September 26, 2020

Youssef Attia

There are a lot of points that need to be considered but I said further experiments may be essential.

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September 27, 2020


Youssef Attia, More objectively, my considerations aimed to substantiate the doubts I have regarding its results;
- FIRST; it did not make sense to me that the birds that received the diet with 15% crude protein (CP) supplemented with methionine and lysine performed similarly to those that received the diet with 18% CP. This pattern of performance of the birds that occurred between these two diets, seems to me to be more reasonable to consider that the temperature used at work, was very high for the birds, which certainly changed their amino acid requirements (Aas) to lower values.- SECOND ; neither did it seem reasonable to me that diets with a 3% reduction in CP level were deficient only in methionine and lysine. This if 18% of CP represents the real requirement of the birds, which I do not believe. - THIRD; under normal conditions, it should be considered that birds respond positively to AaS supplementation only in the correct order of sequential deficiency. For example, in the case of its results, in which supplementation of different combinations of Aas did not result in improved performance of the birds, it could be justified by the fact that the third Aas deficient in their diets with 15% CP with addition of methionine and lysine, it could be an Aas that was not being tested. In your study, for example it could be tryptophan. In this case, birds would not respond to supplementation with any other Aas. This last consideration would be evident in his work, if the diet with 15% CP plus methionine and lysine did not provide similar performance results for the birds that received the 18% CP diet.

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
September 27, 2020

Juarez Donzele

I suggest several solutions you may not like and this your opinion. However, in several other experiments supplementation over meth and lysine did not improve performance depends on many factors as I previously stated.

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September 27, 2020
Youssef Attia, it is good that you understand that our considerations are fundamentals that we have under the matter presented here. This does not mean that they are absolute truths and it should be said in passing that in biology I would like to add that they do not exist. Finally, I would like to add that it is in the contradiction that science advances. Just one more detail, my fundamentals under the influence of the thermal environment, especially that of high temperature, in animal production is based on knowledge obtained in a research program that we conducted with these objectives
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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
September 28, 2020
Juarez Donzele I have stated that several times and I understand that very well, and I thank you too, and I have several plans if have funds to test your hypothesis regarding amino acid supplementation and heat stress. Let us go to lab if funds are available
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October 3, 2020
Dear Sir
I don't know why you neglected Threonine in this experiment, as the Threonine is the third limiting AA in the broiler diets.
As the control diet has a deficiency in the Threonine Level, I don't think that the results can be followed as a commercial action.
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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
October 3, 2020
RAMI SEBAI We may consider threonine supplementation in the future experiment, however, in some experiments run and published so far the effects of threonine are not clear cut.
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October 4, 2020

RAMI SEBAI, although not a member of the team of researchers at work, decided to state my point of view about his questioning due to my considerations about the study in question. In fact, when I associated the lack of difference in bird performance between treatments, due to the possible deficiency of a third limiter, in this case tryptophan, it was a mere example. This should take place in an environment of less stressful temperature for the birds. I agree with your proposal that under normal conditions, even under stress conditions due to less extreme temperature, the third limiting Aas could be threonine. It turns out that the fact that the diet with 15% CP, provided birds performance similar to that observed with the diet with 18% CP, invalidates the suggestion of the possibility of the possible deficiency of a third Aas. This was the reason why we proposed that the temperature used was very high, which changed the pattern of amino acid requirement of the birds. This being the factor responsible for the non-difference of birds between treatments with 18% and 5% CP.

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
October 4, 2020
The 3rd limiting amino acids and temperature effects to the low-protein diet may be investigated further in a series of experiments if funds are available, theories can be validated in the field with a good experiment set up and clear hypothesis.
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October 8, 2020

Youssef Attia, I don't think I made myself understood yet. In the case of her study, it was evidenced that, since her diet with 15% CP supplemented with methionine and lysine for having resulted in the same performance of the birds receiving the diet with 18% CP, she would not be deficient in any other Aas. In this case, I would not be surprised if your diet with 15% CP with supplementation only of methionine, to reach a level compatible with that of 15% CP, would not be enough to promote similar performance of the birds achieved with the 18% diet PB. I reaffirm that in my opinion the fact that a very high temperature was used for the chickens in the evaluated phase, made it impossible to better assess their hypotheses. From your results, you still have doubts that your diet with 15% of CP with adjustment only of the level of methionine, making it compatible for this level of CP, not for the level of 18% of CP, would be sufficient to maintain the level of performance achieved with the 15% CP diet plus the two amino acids methionine and lysine. I will not insist on my point of view on this matter.

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
October 8, 2020

I am very happy that the paper opened this favorable discussion and stimulates further research.

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Hiren Pancholi Hiren Pancholi
Graduation in commerce
October 9, 2020

Great outcome of the nutrition reduction (Low Protein Diet) and getting the same performance.

Reduction of protein is 3 point basis or app. 90 kgs of Soya.

At 1 point reduction, there is the possibility of adding any GUT health product, with no cost addition, at its full strength, which will support the digestion and strong immunity.

With 3 point reduction of protein, will reduce the nitrogen load and odor from the litter, better for the environment.

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October 10, 2020


Nice research work. I only knew of energy manipulation during hot climate condition for better results in broiler production. My own perception is to feed 18cp with required amino acids and a reduce metabolizable energy of like 2.9mcal/kg as against the 3.2mcal/kg at average daily temperature of 38°c. As atmospheric temp rise to 40, I sometimes supplement feed with bakers yeast and baking powder at 0.1% to help birds to attain good osmo-regulation. When applied the birds do not pants or feel heat stress. Most often at feed to gain ratio of 2:1, with Ross 308 broiler I do attain average of 3kg at 10 weeks here in the tropics.
If the above research feeding finisher diet at 15cp with increasing methionine and lysine above nrc amino acid requirement, I think it will help in reducing cost of protein in diet and eventually reduce cost of feed most especially when there is hike in price of protein sources like soybean and fish meal.
If the above research of feeding 15cp

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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
October 11, 2020
tosin olonijolu
Thank you I am interested any published with feeding broilers with low energy diet 2960 kcal ME if any my recent work indicate that low energy all carbohydrate diet works well as those supplemented with different oils levels up to 6% and having the same energy level under hot westher condition please help with any relative references
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October 10, 2020

Summarizing my opinion, with the results obtained in this study, where a diet with 15% protein supplemented with the amino acids methionine and lysine provided a performance result of chickens similar to that obtained with the diet with 18% protein, it does not make sense to propose further study. in this line of research in order to assess the possible deficiency of any other amino acid. I think that based on your results, it would be more appropriate to implement a survey to assess the protein requirement of chickens subjected to the 35 ºC environment. After conducting this study as the first experiment, it would be worth evaluating BP reduction with supplementation of Aas.

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Hiren Pancholi Hiren Pancholi
Graduation in commerce
October 11, 2020
I agree with Juarez Donzele, about requirement of protein and even energy for the birds. The standars of Protein and Energy requires to be studied for a revision.

Excess of protein becames food for the pathogen and energy protein is excreted out in good%.

Litter is required to be checked for the nutritional loss.
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Youssef Attia Youssef Attia
Professor
October 11, 2020
Hiren Pancholi this good point
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December 16, 2020

Interesting topic. We at Anthem also had such experience with our Chirally and bioavailable form of vitamins.

We have tried flagship products L methyl folate, Pyridoxal 5 phosphate, Menaquinone derivatives, etc., as part of feed composition as top addition in ppm quantities. We found exiting results in terms of growth, higher immunity and less mortality.

We understand that such bioavailable forms of vitamins have so positive impact, it is food for thought for the users to try them commercially over standard regular vitamins.

Nevertheless Vitamins and proteins are the building blocks and hugely needed for overall performance.

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