Fowl Cholera in poultry

Published on: 04/16/2016
Author/s : Yosef Huberman and Horacio Terzolo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Balcarce (INTA EEA Balcarce). Argentina (Images provided by the authors)

Introduction Fowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This species is named “multocida”, which may be interpreted as a bacterium that "kills" (cida) "many" (multo). In 1879, Pasteur was able to cultivate this bacterium; this was the first time that disease-causing bacteria were grown in culture media, outside the animal host. Pasteur inadver...

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April 25, 2016
Dear Bouayad,
Thank you for your interest. Here are your answers:

1. The best is to use the grown broth of a rich culture media after incubation at 37°C overnight. This broth will produce 10^8 to 10^9 (100 million to 1,000 million colonies per mL) cells of P. multocida.

2. 0.5 mL per adult chicken subcutaneously or intramuscularly injected.

3. You must inactivate by adding formalin, heat is not good. In the post-grown broth formalin inactivates also the toxin to toxoid (non-toxic but antigenic).

4. You must use adjuvant, preferably aluminium hydroxide gel.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
April 26, 2016
Je vous remercie Dr horacio terzolo
1-s'il vous pouvez me dire combien il faut de colonies dans 500 ml de bouillon
2_et de formaline dans 500 ml de bouillon est-ce que je peux utiliser du formaldéhyde
3_et. de combien d'hydroxyde d'aluminium dans 500 ml de bouillon
4_est-ce que c'est le même protocole pour un autauvaccin de E.colin
Je vous remercie si vous voulez me répondre dans
mon e.mail le voici. bfouad00@hotmail.fr
Confraternalement
Reply
April 26, 2016
Dear Bouayad,

1. It is difficult to answer this question because it depends on the broth formula, the initial inoculum and the conditions of incubation (period of time, temperature, atmosphere, stirring, pH, etc.).

2. Formaldehyde added at 0.3 to 0.5 per cent (v/v). Maintain at room temperature the grown broth plus the formaldehyde during 1-2 days until inactivation (negative culture on blood agar plates).

3. Varies according to quality of the gel. Generally 1 mg of gel per mL of bacterin. Consult the supplier.

4. The protocol is not the same as an E. coli bacterin.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
Bouayad Bouayad
DR VETERINAIRE
April 28, 2016
bonjour DR TERZOLO
est ce que vous avez recus mon E.mail mais est ce que vous avez eu une traduction en anglais
merci de votre retour
Reply
cherukuri choudary cherukuri choudary
Veterinary Doctor
May 15, 2016
IT It is necessary to control rodents in the farm besides giving two vaccinations with 4 weeks gap to control fowl cholera from the farm.Booster vaccination should be done before the onset of egg production.The vaccinations are to be done regularlyto the growers without fail.In the caseof outbreak,pencillin streptomycin is the drug of choice giving parentarally and simultaneously give sulpha drug in drinking water to get synerfffgistic effect.Hower it is advisable to treat after antibiotic senswitivity test.
Reply
May 18, 2016
Dear Dr. Cherukuri Choudary,

Thank you for commenting again treatments and also the importance of rodents!
You already have told us about these subjects. May be you could think that your comment was not published and answered. ENGORMIX only leave the last 10 comments and the rest of previous discussions can be seen in:

https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/health/forums/fowl-cholera-poultry-t7268/165-p20.htm

Regarding the rodents I have to comment again that P. multocida is indeed very pathogenic for rodents. A subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of primo-isolates of P. multocida from chicken outbreaks kills a mouse in less than 18 hours. I think that probably mice living in contact with chronically infected chickens may become resistant to dead and be a carrier of the disease.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
May 18, 2016
05/18/2016 | Dear Dr. Cherukuri Choudary,

Thank you for commenting again treatments and also the importance of rodents!
You already have told us about these subjects. May be you could think that your comment was not published and answered. ENGORMIX only leave the last 10 comments and the rest of previous discussions can be seen in:

https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/health/forums/fowl-cholera-poultry-t7268/165-p20.htm

Regarding the rodents I have to comment again that P. multocida is indeed very pathogenic for rodents. A subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of primo-isolates of P. multocida from chicken outbreaks kills a mouse in less than 18 hours. I think that probably mice living in contact with chronically infected chickens may become resistant to dead and be a carrier of the disease.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
Plamen Nikolov Plamen Nikolov
Veterinary Doctor
July 8, 2016
I would like to support the opinion, that biosecurity is the most important toll for Cholera prevention.
Despite many years of absence of this disease recently we had a case with duck strain infection in broiler breeders. With this regard, again evaluation of the specific biosecurity risk and measures are vital.
My colleague Dr. Plamen Bochukov can provide more info on this case and how we manage to establish preventive measures.
Reply
getaw deresse getaw deresse
Animal Health Technologist
July 8, 2016

I can say something about fowl cholera as below.
Sanitation Keeps Down Outbreaks
Sanitary yards arid clean, properly ventilated poultry houses, together with wholesome, properly balanced rations, tend to keep down outbreaks of fowl cholera.
Improperly drained yards should be avoided. Self-feeders and sanitary drinking contai~ers should be provided in order to prevent pollution of feed and water. F~equent cleaning of dirt and litter from the houses, followed by proper disinfection, should be carried out in a systematic way.
Quarantine Measures Are Valuable
In order to prevent outbreaks of fowl cholera it is advisable to quarantine all newly purchased stock, as well as fowls exhibited at shows, for three weeks before admitting them to the flock.

with regards,
Getaw Deresse

Reply
Narayan Banik Narayan Banik
M sc in tropical vet science
July 9, 2016
Fowl cholera is very emerging disease in commercial layer which causes economic losses in industry however we should protect the birds.Better control measure may be done by use of killed vaccine( bacterin) .primary vaccination may be done at age of10-12wks of age followed by booster dosages after 4wks .in the endemic area re-Vaccination may be done after 6 months interval .
In case of acute outbreak commercial layer may be treated with, oxytetracyclon la injection .3 ml is to be given by I.m Repeated injection may be given after 48 hours . However cleaning ,biosecurity& nutrition ha be given more important

This is the simple way we do in practice

may be use per bird .repeated after
Reply
Amer Alazawy Amer Alazawy
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
July 9, 2016
Hi, For my experience its important to control the water that used for poultry from infection( such as, bacteria, fungus etc) which lead to or corresponding factor for infection with Fowl cholera and some times if the water Stores for a long time specially in hot season can lead to more infection with Pasteurella multocida?
Thanks
Reply
July 9, 2016
Dear Dr. Plamen Nikolov,

Thank you for sending your comment about biosecurity!

I agree completely with you about the crucial importance of biosecurity and also the fact that measures should be taken according to a detailed evaluation of the risks.

Regarding ducks, these animals may get sick but usually in filed conditions they are more resistant to disease than chickens and turkeys. Years ago I have seen an acute fowl cholera outbreak in broiler breeders which were reared in close proximity to ducks and the breeders die whereas the ducks apparently remain clinically healthy.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
July 9, 2016
Dear Getaw Deresse,

Thank for completing the discussion with information about biosecurity measures, disinfection and quarantine!

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
July 9, 2016
Dear Narayan Banik,

Thank you for sharing your experience about a vaccination schedule and a treatment you use!

If the disease is present in the farm or in the geographical area of location of the farm, vaccination is a must. Bacterins and in general bacterial dead vaccines always require a booster dose. Vaccination schedules may vary greatly according to the expected challenge dose.

Regarding oxitetracycline (Terramicin®) I agree that in generally is the best choice and parenteral route may also be combined by adding oxitetracycline into the balanced feed.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
July 10, 2016

Dear Dr. Amer Alazawy,
Thank you for bringing water as a matter for discussion in this forum!

Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen very adapted to survive into the host (in vivo) environment and due to this characteristic requires very rich organic material for surviving out of the bird.

Experiments suggest that P. multocida will only survive 30 days into water contaminated with organic matter, for instance from other bacteria and/or fungus. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that birds that survive from the infection become apparently healthy carriers spreading P. multocida from its nasal and buccal secretions while drinking water, maintaining a permanent dangerous challenge number of this bacterium. Also, it has been shown that wild birds are the main reservoir of this infection for poultry, therefore if the water tank lid allows any entrance of birds it may also cause continuous contamination, either by drinking water or even through faeces as cloacal secretions also may contain P. multocida.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo

Reply
Mohamed Swelam Mohamed Swelam
diploma degree
September 5, 2016
Thanks for your interesting article; If you please I need to inquire about the species susceptibility;
As you mentioned above the susceptibility differ according to species; Do you have any documented data about layer susceptibility to fowl cholera and also is this any difference between white and brown breeds in susceptibility??
Reply
September 7, 2016
Dear Mohamed Swelam,
Thank you for your inquiry!

Regarding fowl cholera, the only recognised aetiological agent is Pasteurella multocida. Virulent strains of this bacterium produce septicaemia in chickens, all poultry species and also all species of wild and domestic birds such as pigeons. P. multocida isolated from chickens completely differ from P. multocida isolated from mammals. Virulent P. multocida for birds does not cause any infection in ruminants, equines, porcines, canines and felines. These animal species have their own P. multocida, for instance in pigs the toxins of this bacterium produce atrophic rhinitis. In all the animals is a common cause of pneumonia. In cattle cause transport fever and there specific serovars that cause septicaemia. The only mammals susceptible to P. multocida from chicken origin is the mouse and the rabbit: mice is a common source of infection because animals that survive become permanent carriers contaminating the environment with their faeces.

In addition, you have to consider that the virulence of the chicken strains is very variable; even the same strain may lose their virulence after passages in artificial media or growth in the environment and reacquire its virulence after in vivo passages through susceptible birds.

Old literature refers to Pasteurella gallinarum (today known as Avibacterium gallinarum) describing it as a bacterial species causing a “less pathogenic type of cholera”; in fact, infection with Av. gallinarum only occurs as a secondary pathogen associated to P. multocida (fowl cholera) or Avibacterium paragallinarum (infectious coryza).

To my knowledge there are no reports pointing out that a chicken breed is more susceptible than another. Anyway, as you know, in the industrial poultry rearing fowl cholera is much more common in heavy lines for meat purposes.

Best regards,
D. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
September 9, 2016
What postmortem lesions are associated with fowl cholera? And how can one differentiate this from other septiceamic poultry disease such as fowl typhoid and Colisepticaemia?
Reply
September 9, 2016
Dear sir, Pasteurella multocida now change there virulence in previous cause lot of mortality but now a days every day 2 to 4 birds dies & the bacteria is difficult to eradicate sometimes after administration of antibiotics mortality is not control.May be my thinking good quality autogenous vaccine play a good role together with biosecurity for prevention of disease.
When birds affected by fowl cholera secondary mycoplama & coryza cause great problem in poultry & treatment strategy also difficult.
Reply
September 9, 2016
The commercial layer 3 lac birds brand new farm the surrounding area there is a fowl cholera highly prevalence but in these farm no fowl cholera in these case we include the FC vaccine or not & same as ILT vaccine.
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