Evaluation of the presence of avian influenza receptors in oviducts of forced moulting birds using immunofluorescence

Published on: 05/23/2019
Author/s : Elizabeth Castillo-Villanueva 1, Félix Sánchez-Godoy 2, Magdalena Escorcia 2. / 1 Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Laboratorio de Virología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. de México; 2 Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Aves, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. de México.

Introduction On June 21, 2012, Mexico officially reported the presence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 in three commercial egg laying farms in the state of Jalisco. The affected birds showed clinical signs of ruffled feathers, lethargy, anorexia, prostration, depression, and acute death.1 The ages of the infected birds were 32, 72, 75, 84, and 94 weeks. To preve...

remove_red_eye 1295 forum 25 bar_chart Statistics share print
Share :
close
Kasame Trakullerswilai Kasame Trakullerswilai
Bacheler of Veterinary Medicine
May 23, 2019

Good idea for partial vaccinated birds if no immunity the birds shall be high mortality

Reply
May 23, 2019

In the case of IA H7N3 of high pathogenicity the important thing was not mortality, it was the affectation to the reproductive system of the hen. The hens did not die but the oviduct was affected and production was never recovered.

Reply
May 28, 2019

I want to clarify my previous message.
When the first outbreaks of AI occurred in my country the mortalities reached 100%. Given the situation, the use of emulsified vaccines was authorized, which stopped the mortality but we had to face a fall in production, which never recovered. Dr. Ramon Lopez, expert in egg production, gave the indication of pelechar and the surprise was that the birds continued to become infected and did not die but there was no problem in egg production, we assumed what happened but we checked with immunofluorescence and the results are those that we present in the article. At present, these managements continue, the buds are partially controlled but now it is the periods of pelecha that affect the production, we are looking for alternatives to stop having unproductive flocks for so long.

Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
May 30, 2019

Avian influenza is endemic in many countries. Without knowing the type of AI virus use of prophylactic vaccination against is prohibited since vaccination against AI does not causes sterilizing immunity. Sterilizing immunity means a vaccinated bird, if exposed to infection there should not be development of virulant virus I vaccinated flock. But in case of AI in vaccinated bird exposed to infection will lead to multiplication of virulant virus without showing clinical signs and the disease will become endemic. Before vaccination type of AI virus should be assessed. Elevated biosecurity covering feed water and environment is need of the hour. Under field conditions by clinical signs and pm lesions, prevalence AI infection can be assessed- refer atlas of avian diseases Cornell University. Further under field level prevalence of AI can be confirmed by means of screening pancreas. Examine pancreas after centrifugation of pancreas extract at 5000 rpm to produce bacteria free pancreatic extract. Do ha. If extract is positive for haemo agglutination[ha] then neutralize the extract with known new castle disease anti serum and repeat ha. Even in the presence of ND antiserum pancreas sample shows ha activity then the sample is positive for AI. On the other hand, if the sample shows inhibition it means the sample is positive for newcastle disease. As per Alexander, father of AI bacteria free filtrate howig ha activity no neutralised by ND antiserum is onl orthomixo virus and not paro mixovirus. Use only food grade chemosterilant- chlorine dioxide/acidified sodium chlorite for biosecurity against AI. LPAI is low pathogenic only in spf and not in commercial. Present problem is AI is exacerbated by bacterial agents. Feed is more often contaminated. Use of food-grade chemosterilant is a must. By elevated biosecurity covering feed water and environment vaccination after assessment, if type of AI virus is necessary for control of AI under field condition.

Reply
June 1, 2019

Athangudi Venugopalan

Good morning, Dr, I thank you for the valuable information you share with us.
Unfortunately, Influenza entered Mexico in an egg-producing area highly populated with birds (70,000 million layers in production), I remind you of the importance of the egg in my country (Number 1 in consumption worldwide), this was the main reason why that not sacrifice and the decision to vaccinate was made. Indeed, the virus has become enzootic in that region of Mexico. Unfortunately, when using emulsified vaccine, IgA is not produced, which is the neutralizing antibody that would prevent the infectious virus from entering the body of the vaccinated bird from continuing to replicate. Before proceeding to any management, all the necessary tests were carried out to confirm the subtype. Those who work with layer farms understand the complexity of biosecurity, there is no disinfectant that contains the virus if you continue to work with multi-family farms.

Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
May 31, 2019

Control of LPAI,
Incidence of ai prior to 2005 was one outbreak for every 2 years. Present scenario is 2 outbreak per day. Over 2000 years free-living birds were harboring AI virus as carrier and source of infection to poultry. Since 2005 first incidence of AI among free-living birds was confirmed in quigai lake 700 km from Himalayan ranges. So-called LPAI can cause mortality even >90 % due to exacerbation by bacterial and viral infections. Under field conditions, there is wide prevalence of vancomycin-resistant staphylococci in litter and over carcass in processing plant. Similarly, in broiler processing plant there is wide prevalence of e.Coli o157. Further, there are multiple sero types of AI. No combined vaccine for all AI viruses. There are about 23 feed ingredients in poultry feed. On micro biological examination, most of the ingrediants are contaminated.

Over 40 years control of AI is carried out by vaccination after assessment of ai virus. No destruction or compensation. In USA and other countries type of AI virus is made available in a matter of hours. Without elevated biosecurity no control of ai. Selection of agents for bio security is chlorine di oxide/acidified sodium chlorite and per acetic acid which are food grade chemosterilants approved by national and international agencies. As on date clo2/asc are the most power full germicidal agent including viruses. At Namakkal commercial poultry farmer with 5 lkhs birds is able to maintain weekly mortality <0.05 percent per week and production drop < 1 to 2 % of standars. As such with elevated biosecurity of feed water and environment is essential. In such conditions, evaluation of the presence of AI receptors in oviducts of forced moulting birds using immuno fluorescence will be additional advantage. When infecting virus is present in free-living birds and infection spread by air a comprehensive mode of control is need of the hour.
a.T.Venugopalan/31-5-19

Reply
June 1, 2019

Athangudi Venugopalan

I thank you for the valuable information you share with us.
The purpose of the article's publication is to share our experiences and explain why the reproductive tract is not affected to the birds molt.

Reply
Marcos Rebollo Marcos Rebollo
Commercial Manager
June 2, 2019
Congratulations Dr Escorcia and Dr. Castillo. This is a great progress on understanding AIV Pathogeny. Apparently glandular activity might be related to receptor expression. When hens are molted this is reduced to a level enough to allow the hens recover/ survive and develop immunity. Do you agree with this idea?
Reply
June 3, 2019
Marcos Rebollo

We appreciate your kind words.
Regarding his approach. Indeed that is the theory that we have. however, the bird will survive as long as it has an adequate vaccination schedule. The idea of the pelecha is to protect the reproductive tract of the bird, the vaccine is the one that protects the life of the bird.
Reply
Raul Cortes Raul Cortes
Veterinary Doctor
Pancosma SA Pancosma SA
Geneve, Switzerland
June 3, 2019

This H7N3 virus produces a great reaction of the tissues infected that produce abnormal levels of TNF, this citoquine may change all the metabolism in the bird that increases mortality by hipovolemian shock. When the "pelecha" is applied the production of TNF decrease and bird recover opportunities to live if serum titles (because of vaccination) are enough.

Reply
June 3, 2019
Raul Cortes

I thank you for the valuable information you share with us.
The TNF response is given by the infection. When the number of receptors decreases by the molt, the antigenic load decreases, which can be controlled by the immune response induced by the vaccination.
Reply
Zahed Abbasi Zahed Abbasi
VETRINARIAN
June 4, 2019

Thanks for sharing your information about AI and moulting effect. When the high pathogenic AI is prevalent in an area we see two different outcomes in pullet and layer. In pullet farms, the rate of morbidity and mortality is much slower than layer farms in production, and it seems it
is because of slower infection and shedding of agent. The important difference between these two (pullet and hens in production) is only not functional oviduct in pullets, it was suspected by many that oviduct plays important role in infection and shedding of AI and your research confirms it, but because we do stamping out of all infected flocks we never saw the outcome of its effect on production rate after recovery from disease. Again, information in this aspect is also new for me.

My experience is about many flocks of pullet and layer that were not vaccinated against AI.

Reply
June 4, 2019
Zahed Abbasi

I appreciate your comments and that you share your experiences, the exchange of information will help us to fight this plague effectively.
Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
June 12, 2019

For AI prophylactic vaccination is prohibited. AI vaccination does not cause sterilizing immunity. Sterilizing immunity means vaccinated birds on exposure to infection naturally or artificially there should not be development of virulent virus in vaccinated host. On the contrary, in case of AI vaccination, there will be active multiplication of virulent virus in vaccinated host without showing clinical signs. Such infected birds are likely to spread the disease to other age groups in the same flock and neighboring flock and the disease will become endemic. Vaccination is feasible only after identification of the type in the farm as well as in the area. Further in case of low pathogenic influenza due to exacerbation by bacterial and viral agents it can cause mortality even >90%. Over 2000 years free living birds were horbourng virus as carriers. Since 2005 free living birds are infected and dying. Indian scenario is poultry is not covered by any central or state animal health laws. Notification on AI is issued under act 9 of 1898. Prompt diagnosis/elevated IO security covering feed/water and environment is need of the hour.

Reply
June 12, 2019
Athangudi Venugopalan

I appreciate your comment.
According to the OIE Terrestrial Manual, it prevents the presence of antibodies to AI by vaccination, which means that it can be vaccinated. It is recommended not to vaccinate so that the country does not lose the status of free, however, as mentioned in a previous comment (June 1) , the infection entered Mexico by a very important poultry area (70,000,000 layers in production) should we sacrifice regardless of the social situation that this action would generate?
Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
June 12, 2019

Socorro Magdalena Escorcia Martínez 

Only prophylactic vaccination against AI is prohibited. Vaccination is followed in USA and other countries after assessment of AI virus type. There is no combined AI vaccine such as H5/H7/H9/H6 etc. In India, prophylactic vaccination is done since 2003 result is increased incidence of AI in Vietnam 100% prophylactic vaccination against was done. Net result was 36% of world outbreak [highest in the world] it occurred only in Vietnam] even a layman can identify AI by means of typical cloacal lesion vide atlas of avian diseases. Once the typical lesion is seen, go for typing the AI virus then vaccination or immunoprophylaxis will be useful as in the case of Minnesota programme.

Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
June 14, 2019

Since October 2018, a new form of LPAI is present in Karnataka/Andhra and Tamil Nadu. Clinical signs of comb/wattles/shank are absent/congestion and bleaching of breast muscle is also not seen. But cloacal lesion typical of AI are present. On pm streaks of haemorrhages typical of AI are seen. Pancreas of such cases are positive for AI as per ha hi test. Weekly mortality is >0.2%.

Screening of kidney shows positive for IB/water sanitation/feed sanitation/environmental sanitation are very poor. Litter is positive for vancomycin resistant staphylococci/broiler carcass swab are wide of e.Coli by screening test that is material inoculated in two tubes of teepol broth one incubated at 37 degrees and another at 44.5 degrees c. Tube at 37 degrees, as well as 44.5 degrees, are positive means the sample is e.Coli.

On the contrary tube at 37 degrees c alone positive means the sample is coliforms. My contention is without elevated level of biosecurity covering feed/water/environment it is not feasible to control AI. So-called LPAI can cause mortality even >90 % due to exacerbation by bacterial and viral agents. After implementing biosecurity and weekly mortality >0.1% per week the immuno prophylaxis will be an adjunt.

Present indian scenerio is no prompt diagnosis/no official veterinarian/no animal health laws covering poultry over 108 years/international veterinary certificate signed by non veterinarian/no proper disease reporting such as IB not prevalent in India. As per OIE report bhopal confirmed AI cases mortality >o.01%. Prevalence of h4 in India was reported only by USA. AI prevalence is spoted by dipstic elisa in other countries. Without costly biosafety measures formalin fixed smears are examined for AI and the result is made available in a matter of hours. In USA and other countries type of AI virus infecting the farm is identified 0.7 the farm should be closed. Rdvk and r2b vaccine used in India the ICPI value is 1.4. All vaccine produced in India are produced in India as per indian pharmacopia except ND killed vaccine, which is produced as per british pharmacopia. Use of commercial eggs for vaccine production is the indian scenerio. The ICPI value of seed material should be zero or near o but in India Lasota ND vaccine with ICPI value 0.4 is used as vaccine. Without correcting these basic abnormalities use of immuno prophlaxis alone will be a failure.

Reply
Raul Cortes Raul Cortes
Veterinary Doctor
Pancosma SA Pancosma SA
Geneve, Switzerland
June 16, 2019


Athangudi thanks for your comments, it is very interesting. Regards

Reply
June 16, 2019
Dr.athangudi s comments about disease diagnosis are not correct. we have excellent pathologists amon which we don't find Dr.athagudi any where. we have labs both in private and public sector who undertake Elisa pcr tools routinely
Dr.athangadi should know that Indian industry is well protected with lasota and R2B. we are aware of their ICP values. we are importing many vaccines from out side but still find these vaccines are working.
Dr.Athangudi should discuss with concerned people before making the industry light. He may contact me on drkotaiah@indbropoultry.com for help in diagnosis of diseases.
Reply
Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
June 17, 2019
Dear Authors,

Based on your knowledgeable work, force moulting could be a good way to save the life of egg producing birds during AI outbreak. I do not have any experience in this connection.

Usually I am recommending to vaccinate the flock against specific type of AI with inactivated oil base vaccine for the protection of uninfected birds of exposed flock.

I like to add in your work that during force moulting, flock may be vaccinated with specific AI inactivated vaccine. Hope fully 3-4 weeks post vaccination, HI titres shall protect the birds and they may produce better than only force moulted birds.

Regards

Dr. M. Akram

Reply
June 18, 2019

Regarding vaccination, much has been learnt in Mexico. The most important is the following:

a) The best vaccination strategy is to use a Prime Boost Strategy (Prime with a live vectored vaccine at day of age, most widely used in Mexico is using a Pox vectored vaccine and boost with a killed vaccine applied at the farm at 10-12 days of age to decrease the neutralization of MABs from progeny coming from vaccinated breeders).
b) The live vectored vaccine seems to deliver a broader immunity and not need the update of the protein expressed with such frequency as killed vaccines.
c) Killed vaccines should be able to elicit high levels of antibodies expressing an updated vaccinal strain (either killed LPAIV or reverse genetics). Mexican experience shows the updated frequency is 1 year upon antigenic drift.
d) The industry is seeking to offer vaccines that provide with broader antigenicity. An example is Baculovirus expression along with specific genetic manipulation that enhances the antigenicity.

Reply
Dr. Mohammad Akram Dr. Mohammad Akram
Consultant Microbiologist
June 19, 2019
Eduardo Lucio Decanini

Thanks for your comments on vaccination against AI.

Is it possible to get multivalent live vector vaccine, like AI- H-7, H-9 & H-5 strains for day old use as primer?

Regards
Reply
June 18, 2019
Good information on the Mexican experience on vaccination to protect from avian influenza. Thank you
Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
June 19, 2019

Is there combined vaccine-h5/h7/h9 for AI, how to predict which strain is going to infect the particular flock? Further vaccination against AI does not causes sterilising immunity. Sterilizing immunity means -vaccinated birds exposed to infection there should not be active multiplcation of virulent virus in vaccinated flock. But in case of ai vaccinated birds exposed to infection there will be active multiplication of virulant virus without clinical signs. Such infected birds will be a source of infection to other age group in the same farm and neighbouring farms. Disease will become endemic. In Vietnam, 100% vaccination was done. Highest no of world outbreak was recorded only in Vietnam. Present scenario-freeliving birds which were carriers are infected. Lpai are exacerbated by bacterial and viral agents. Most of feed ingredients are contaminated. Vancomycin resistant staphylo cocciis widely prevalent. Prevalence of e.Coli o157 among poultry is also seen.At present in tamil nadu/andhra/karnataka typical cloacal lesions of ai is seen. Prompt diagnosis and vaccination after identification of the if AI virus and elevated level of biosecurity covering feed water and environment is need of the hour.

Reply
Athangudi Venugopalan Athangudi Venugopalan
Animal Health Technologist
June 20, 2019

Present field scenario is low pathogenic avian influenza exacerbated by bacterial and viral agents. Typical lesions of ai-cloacal lesions and streaks of haemorrhage in rectum are seen. This type of problem is seen among broilers in Tamil Nadu/Andhra and Karnataka. Mortality among commercial broilers is even >20 percent with in 6 weeks. Use of Lasota ND vaccine exacerbates LPAI. ND vaccine[killed vaccine] is produced as per British pharmacopia that is by use of commercial eggs in place of spf.Nephro pathogenic ib is endemic since 1995. Use of ib vaccine ma5 and 4/91 is a must. Since there is no official report of ib in India import of ib vaccine 4/91 is not feasible. Prompt diagnosis is the first step in control. First report of h9 in India was not done by bhopal. As such prompt diagnosis and use of elevated biosecurity covering feed water and enviornment is essential. After implementation of these basic measures use of immuno prophylaxis will be useful

Reply
1
print
(1295)
(25)
Would you like to discuss about this topic: Evaluation of the presence of avian influenza receptors in oviducts of forced moulting birds using immunofluorescence?
Engormix reserves the right to delete and/or modify comments. See more details
Post a comment
Create new discussion :
If this discussion does not cover topics of interest or raises new questions, you can create another discussion.
Consult a professional in private:
If you have a specific problem you can perform a consultation privately to a professional in our community.
Frederic Hoerr
Frederic Hoerr
DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP, ACPV
  Strasburg, Virginia, Estados Unidos de América
 
   | 
Copyright © 1999-2019 Engormix - All Rights Reserved