Effects of various concentrations of butyric acid in broilers - Mike Persia

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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
April 12, 2018
Atef Abou Zead
Thanks Zead for bringing up the question – this has been haunting me for a very long time.

From the Chemistry point of View, Calcium Butyrate and Sodium Butyrate has not much difference. For both the pKa is 4.8.
However in many markets, often a sales person with the help of the product managements inputs is tempted to promote the Calcium Butyrate by saying Calcium is bivalent hence releases 2 butyric ion when compared against 1 butyric ion released from Sodium Butyrate ( Sodium being Monovalent). Unfortunately from Chemistry point of view this is certainly a misleading claim. Let us see why ?

Molecular Weight of Calcium Butyrate = 214.274 g/mol
Atomic weight of Calcium = 40.078 g/mol
Available Butyric Ion / mol of Ca-butyrate = 214.274 – 40.078 = 174.96 g/mol.
Number of Butyric Ions available In 1000 gms of ( 100% pure) Calcium Butyrate = 1000/ 214.274 = 4.6 mols
Available Butyric Ion present in 4.6 mol of Ca-butyrate = 4.6 X 174.96 = 804.816 gms.

Molecular Weight of Sodium Butyrate = 110.088 g/mol
Atomic weight of Sodium = 22.99 g/mol
Available Butyric Ion / mol of Na-butyrate = 110.088 – 22.99 = 87.098 g/mol.
Number of Butyric Ions available In 1000 gms of ( 100% pure) Sodium Butyrate = 1000/ 110.088 = 9.08 mols
Available Butyric Ion present in 9.08 mol of Na-butyrate = 9.08 X 87.098 = 797.36 gms.

So the difference of butyric ion released by 1000 gm of Calcium butyrate is just about 7.456 gms which is perhaps not very significant while considering the fact that the Ionisation potential of Sodium is 11 eV while Calcium is 20 eV. Which means Sodium butyrate will dissotiate much faster almost at double the rate of Calcium Butyrate, with lower energy requirement.

Keeping the above in view there is no much difference in terms of Sodium Butyrate and Calcium Butyrate salt Chemistry and both are almost similar.

The twist in the story comes when we consider the coating system. Two most prevalent coating systems available in the market are:
1) Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat
2) Glyco mono Sterate (GMS)

GMS can be broken down only by Pancreatic Lipase and perhaps provides a better protection of the Butyric Salt in the fore-gut ( by providing a Fore-gut Bypass kind of a mechanism), which enables and ensures release of the Butyric Ion in the Midgut and Hind Gut area which is desirable.

Saying so Hydrogenated Vegetable Fat coating ( with various innovative terms like matrix coated, matrix encapsulated etc. etc. ) perhaps would provide reasonable efficiency as well.

What I find more confusing is the concentration of Butyric Salt is different in various brands offering 30% onwards, and potentially another factor that should be looked into, while choosing a product and its dose.

Would be happy to know more on the above – as there is lots of confusion regarding the claims made by various commercially available brands in the market which hovers around the percentage availability of the Salt, its coating material and technology and offcourse weather it’s a Sodium Salt or a Calcium Salt.
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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
April 12, 2018
Amit Goswami
oops Apologies. The Ionisation potential of Na is 5.139 while that of Calcium is 6.113 eV. Sorry for the mistake
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Atef Abou Zead Atef Abou Zead
professor of viral poultry diseases
April 12, 2018
Thanks
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February 19, 2019
Amit Goswami Thanks for your information. The lonisation potential both Na and Ca at above meaning dissociate ability and energy requirement doesn't different? The quantity of butyric acid release quite similar at the same time. Hope to get feedback soon.
Thank you.
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 Dr. Vijay Swami Dr. Vijay Swami
Country Manager -SunHy Biology
April 12, 2018
Appreciable comments from Mr. Goswami,
Also there is purity issue come for butyric acid,
Fermented butyric acid I heard that is much better than normal Avilable butyric acid, fermented shown. Higher Bioavilability and also no heavy metal finding..
Synthetic material like CMC which are also used in coating in pharma industry are now using..

I still having doubt on all facts, plz explain
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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
April 18, 2018

Dr. Vijay Swami
Yeah, I found at least 1 patent that was applied for with cmc as coating material while searching google. I ain't sure but it appears it was later withdrawn (EP20090767981).
Any comments from the experts in the group will help us get further enlightened.
Source : https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2373181A1/en

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dan hofer dan hofer
Poultry farmer
April 16, 2018

How many part per million is in finished ton of feed?

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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
April 18, 2018
dan hofer
Difficult question!
I have found companies suggesting as low as 250 gm / mt for some brands while few recommending 1 kg / mt while few others recommending 2 kg or even 3 kg per mt in poultry.
I am convinced that I am now totally confused on the dose recomendation. Perhaps you should enquire with the producer of the particular brand. I wish i could have been more helpful
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April 17, 2018
Dear Amit Goswami. Thanks for sharing this valuable information.
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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
April 18, 2018
Ozgur Gultekin, DVM
Pleasure :)
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Kausar Shaikh Kausar Shaikh
Businessman
January 29, 2019

Different combinations of Butyric acid are available in market: 30%, 60%, 90%, etc. Though claims to be coated does 60 & 90% are coated. Efficacy wise what concentration is better.

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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
January 31, 2019

Kausar Shaikh: Ideally, the higher concentration means better efficacy for all products (including Sodium Butyrate), however, there are various factors that may have a say in the performance. Few of the important parameters are below:

1) Coating system - This is important because with pKa value of 4.82, Sodium Butyrate will get converted into Butyric acid in the Foregut (if coating material or quality of coating is not appropriate) , and we will encounter loss of concentration ( partial or total) of Sodium Butyrate in this area of the GIT of the bird - and may result in low availability of butyric acid in midgut and hind gut which is the site of action for the molecule.

2) Expanding on point number 1, please look into the coating material used. If the melting point, elasticity, spread-ability, mechanical strength etc. is not reasonably good, there could be damage in the coating of Sodium Butyrate, then during blending (feed mixing) and pelleting process the the coating may get damaged resulting of release of Sodium Butyrate in the fore gut (instead of reaching the mid gut and hind gut where it is required most)

3) Sodium Butyrate is also very hygroscopic, and higher the concentration, lower is the percentage of coating material (or sometimes no coating). This may result in formation of lumps in the product itself leading to uneven distribution of the product in feed mixing/blending. In such case some of the birds may receive high quantity of Sodium Butyrate, while others in the flock may receive low or no Sodium Butyrate.

There could be various more factors which may have an impact on the efficacy - however, as you may see, the above could have a direct impact on the dose/MT of feed.

For ethical reasons, It may not be appropriate for myself to pin-point further on your query in this forum. Such discussions may happen on one to one interactions only.

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Kausar Shaikh Kausar Shaikh
Businessman
January 31, 2019
Amit Goswami Thanks Mr.Amit
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Amit Goswami Amit Goswami
Pharmaceutical and Fine Chemical Technology, ICT ( Formerly UDCT). Mumbai, India
January 31, 2019

Kausar Shaikh: You are most welcome

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