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Trypsin inhibitors and soybeans

Is Trypsin Inhibitor Exposure being Overlooked? Part I: Exposure from Cost Pressure

Published: June 15, 2023
Soybean meal prices have been strong for nearly 2 years due to numerous factors such as pandemic fueled stockpiling, bullwhipping of supply/demand dynamics linked to asynchronous market reopenings and elevated input costs due to gross inflationary pressures. In this time, some regions have seen 100% increases in their local SBM prices - which has prompted a search for less expensive protein sourc...
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Rob Patterson
Canadian Bio-Systems, CBS
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Luis Fernando Vergamini Luna
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Nelson Ruíz
Nelson Ruíz Nutrition LLC
16 de junio de 2023

Dr. Patterson, you are certainly right in highlighting the relevance of trypsin inhibitors in soy products and its exposure related to ingredient cost pressures. However, it is not only when soybean meal (SBM) becomes more expensive in the international market that trypsin inhibitors play a role because poultry producers jump to the utilization of full-fat soybeans which not only may be less expensive on a per MT basis, but also because it provides higher energy density. In fact, the report in several parts of the world of the rapid feed passage syndrome in broilers (Kouwenhoven et al., 1992; Lopez et al., 1998; Miles and Butcher, 2002) and the subsequent report that trypsin inhibitors were one of the two main reasons for the problem to arise (Ruiz and Belalcázar, 2005), occurred as a consequence of the overwhelming abundance of SBM in the market worldwide. Therefore, levels of inclusion of SBM in poultry feeds, but particularly in broiler feeds, skyrocketed. SBM lots that were in the high side of residual trypsin inhibitors elicited the syndrome. The second main factor was the dramatic changes in the genetics of broilers first reported by Havenstein et al. (1994) which highlighted the enormous increase in feed intake of the broilers of 1991 vs. the broilers of 1957. So, the combination of broiler feeds with at least 25% SBM in the formula and the huge increase in feed intake led to a considerable increase in the net intake of trypsin inhibitors by broilers, particularly after 21 days of age, sufficient to elicit the inhibition of trypsin resulting in undigested feed (exogenous losses) and intestinal tissue (endogenous losses) in the excreta. Consequently, the old paradigm that urease activity between 0.05 and 0.20 pH units defined the adequacy of SBM quality became outdated (Ruiz, 2012 Arkansas Nutrition Conference). Trypsin inhibitors need to be measured and controlled in both SBM and full-fat soybeans (FFSB).
In the United States at least, FFSB is of no interest for the big broiler industry no matter what the price of SBM is. However, out of the U.S., in countries that are net importers of SBM broiler producers (as well as egg producers) may have an economic advantage by importing raw soybeans and processing them in their feed mills for auto consumption. The trypsin inhibitor issue there is that processors of FFSB think that the quality parameters for FFSB are the same as for SBM and center their attention in protein solubility and urease activity instead of trypsin inhibitors (Ruiz, 2019 Minnesota Nutrition Conference). There is plenty of data supporting that FFSB can perform as well as SBM in broiler, layer and turkey feeds as long as trypsin inhibitors are under control. FFSB is a different ingredient from SBM with distinct quality control parameters. Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC Suwanee, GA USA

Ibrahim El Idrissi
18 de junio de 2023

Dear Nelson Ruiz
Thank you very much for your clear explanation. Could protease enzyme be a good solution to mitigate ATF content in SBM and FFS? I have a problem converting ATF from IU to mg / g because the ratio is quite controversial in the literature. Thank you for helping.

Poultry nutritionist

Nelson Ruíz
Nelson Ruíz Nutrition LLC
18 de junio de 2023

Hello Ibrahim, yes proteases may help to alleviate the effects of excess trypsin inhibitors in the diet. However, there are other ways to prevent the problem such as formulating for a maximum level of trypsin inhibitors in the formula provided you have alternative ingredients available in the market so that you can afford a reduction in the level of inclusion of soybean meal. If your company has the capability of producing full-fat soybeans (FFSB) by extrusion or cooking, then that is another opportunity to decrease TI in the feed because you can control the level of TI in FFSB. The new AOCS method (2020) to measure trypsin inhibitors has solved the issue of the units of expression. With the new method you can have results in both units, that is, in TUI/mg or mg/g. Look for AOCS in internet, look for purchasing methods, and ask for the Official Method Ba 12a-2020 Assaying Trypsin Inhibitor Activity.

Ibrahim El Idrissi
19 de junio de 2023
Nelson Ruiz. Thank you very much for helping
Leslie Kobayashi
Grupo Santa Elena
17 de junio de 2023

Dr. Nelson, it is a pleasure to greet you,

Very interesting exposition, could you suggest to us how can we measure TI in Peru in a routine way? There are no laboratories that have the method implemented in a reliable way, there is only one laboratory and its results have demonstrated that they do not have reproducibility or accuracy.

Sending a sample abroad costs more than $200.

Can using the qualitative phenol red test be a reliable alternative?

Nelson Ruíz
Nelson Ruíz Nutrition LLC
18 de junio de 2023
Hello Leslie, I remember you very well. Please contact me at nelsonruiz@nelsonruiznutrition.com and I will let you know what I think.
Juan A. Javierre. DVM-PDO-MBA
Shenzhen Leveking Technology
21 de junio de 2023
Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors will also inhibit the activity of trypsin-like proteases, such as serine proteases, see Morita (1996) Journal of Biochemistry, 119(4), 711–718. In that respect, you will probably fare better with aspartic proteaes, which are resistant to trypsin (Kunitz) and trypsin and chymotrypsin (Bowman-Birk) inhibitors.
Anjum Ijaz
5 de enero de 2024
@Juan A. Javierre. DVM-PDO-MBA
Laura Popovich
Aliba SA
21 de junio de 2023

Dr. Nelson Ruiz, nice talking to you.
Can you tell me what UTI/mg values we should obtain in FFSB under a wet extrusion process? Thank you very much.

Nelson Ruíz
Nelson Ruíz Nutrition LLC
22 de junio de 2023
Laura Popovich Yes, working with the AOCS (2020) method FFSB (as well as mechanically extracted soybean meal and solvent extracted soybean meal [SBM]) should be ideally lower than 5 TUI/mg, maximum 5.5 TUI/mg or expressed in mg/g using the same AOCS (2020) method maximum 3.5 mg/g. However, working with the European ISO 14902:2001, maximum 2.5 - 3.0 mg/g. These maxima are for inclusion levels of FFSB or SBM of about 25%. The higher the inclusion the higher the risk of performance problems. Conversely, the lower the trypsin inhibitor contents in FFSB or SBM the better, that is, the lower the risk of performance problems in the field. Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC Suwanee, GA USA
Laura Popovich
Aliba SA
23 de junio de 2023

Dear Nelson, thank you very much for your reply.

26 de junio de 2023
Sir thank you for valuable information which is truly eye opener for poultry community to avoid unseen losses. Regards
Mike Stahl
14 de julio de 2023
HI Dr Patterson great insight would prosparity have any effect TI Mike
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