Fowl Cholera in poultry

Published on: 04/16/2016
Author/s : Yosef Huberman and Horacio Terzolo. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Balcarce (INTA EEA Balcarce). Argentina (Images provided by the authors)

Introduction Fowl cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. This species is named “multocida”, which may be interpreted as a bacterium that "kills" (cida) "many" (multo). In 1879, Pasteur was able to cultivate this bacterium; this was the first time that disease-causing bacteria were grown in culture media, outside the animal host. Pasteur inadver...

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August 29, 2019

vivian It is rare but does happen. FC in young chickens occurs often together with other diseases. In most cases, you will observe mortality and lameness.
Normally, FC will appear in breeders. You can read in the above article about the three presentations (photos 2, 3 and 4).

Reply
December 12, 2016
Dear Dr. Vihang Patil:
Thank you for your comments!

Please, see above the answer to Yousef and this phase:
"This strict homologous protection of bacterins is related to the LPS structure. Strains from the same serovar or LPS genotype produced a range of different but related LPS structures, so the variation is unlimited; therefore, it is quite possible that a bacterin elaborated with the same serovar of the strain producing an outbreak do not offer complete protection or even it does not protect at all."

In general serotypes of the geographical area where outbreak of disease occurs has a good chance of success, BUT not always due to the LPS variation; the best is to use the isolate from the affected farm. Autogenous bacterins are the best choice.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo


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December 12, 2016
Dear Dr. Bouayad,
Thank you for your question!

The resistance of gentamicin is very extended and general. Even this antibiotic has been used in culture media for isolation of Pasteurella multocida, for instance the selective media of Moore.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo

Reply
December 12, 2016
Dear Dr. Md.abdul Karim,
Thank you for your important and pertinent question!

I have to say that In Argentina we have never have had any case of avian influenza in chickens. Virus infect wild birds but up to now have never infected chickens or any other poultry species. Therefore we have no practical experience on the subject.

According to the descriptions of lesions, I can imagine that many of the lesions occurring in acute fowl cholera are very similar to the ones of avian influenza. Laboratory analysis should be done.

Maybe somebody with practical experience may give us some clues.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
December 12, 2016
Thank you for the expository description of Fowl Cholera.
Our poultry died suddenly, that is healthy tremendous in the herd, so it may be due to FC or not?
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December 13, 2016
It is many years since I have not seen any cases of fowl cholera in the breeders and layers. In the past, we had problems of fowl cholera. We had to vaccinate the breeders and layers twice with an oil based vaccine. As we were unable to develop an autogenous bacterial vaccine, we had to rely on commercial vaccines. Fortunately, with a strict biosecurity and control measures, we succeeded in controlling the disease. Now, we have stopped the vaccination.
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December 13, 2016
Dear Ismet Mamode,
You are right, good and strict biosecurity measures are able to control the entry of the disease. In such cases the suspension of vaccination may be justified, but completely naive birds could suffer an acute outbreak of disease if P. multocida somehow manages to break the siege of control measures.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
December 13, 2016
Dear Nguyen Ngoc Linh Nhan,
I do not know of which poultry species we are talking about. In the case of fowl cholera some avian domestic poultry species are more resistant than others. In other viral diseases, such as avian influenza all type of domestic birds may die suddenly. Also other viral diseases such as Newcastle.

Best regards,
Dr. Horacio Raúl Terzolo
Reply
April 30, 2018
Dear Sir,

In Cambodia, I seen most people keep/store Fowl cholera vaccine (products from Thailand) in room temperature but company advice to store vaccine from 2 to 8 C. So I would like to ask that how about vaccine's efficiency? Can we store this vaccine in room temperature for long time?

Best regards.

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July 4, 2019
Toeum Nguon
Vaccines should be kept as recommended on the labels. At room temperature the vaccine swill loose effect rapidly.
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June 27, 2019
Good day everyone!

I am wonderimg why does this disease affect primarily heavy meat breeders/broilers? Thanks!
Reply
July 4, 2019

Dear Vivian
In general, Fowl Cholera occurs in laying flocks, because birds of this age are more susceptible than younger chickens. Chickens less than 16 weeks of age generally are quite resistant. chickens become more susceptible as they reach maturity.

Reply
July 10, 2019
Yosef Huberman hoe tp control???
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July 10, 2019
Improve Biosecurity and vaccinate. If possible, prepare autochthonous vaccines
Reply
July 10, 2019
Yosef Huberman in what age should be a good time to vaccinate the flock ?
Reply
August 29, 2019

Adreena Mohamad Vaccination with 2 doses starting at the 6th week of life and a second dose at 15 weeks is quite the optimal plan. Use the same vaccine on both in order to have a booster effect.

Reply
August 29, 2019
Yosef Huberman Dear Sir,

Thank you for your reply.

The reason for me to ask this is due to Ive seen cases of fowl cholera in broilers as young as 21 days, which is rare and contradicting.

May i know your experience in consistent post mortem lesions seen in cases of FC?

Many thanks.

Regards,
Vivian
Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 19, 2019

Yosef Huberman
This concept of double vaccination is interesting to me, Yosef
Does it mean that the flock could be protected for a longer period more than 12 weeks after vaccination?
Our experience showed that vaccination does not protect for more than 12 weeks before a reinfection in an endemic flock, but your idea of double vaccination is interesting for an investigation of the flock sero profiling to determine the duration of immune protection
Do you normally have a solid immunity throughout the cycle of production with the vaccination strategy? or do you still repeat the vaccination before the layers are spent?
We may need to do more sero monitoring and titre quantification on a vaccinated flock, using this pattern of vaccination and conclude if the vaccination guarantee solid immunity at least for up to layers market disposal
If this study confirms the above, then this strategic vaccination for fowl cholera will attract livestock industry foundation advocacy for tropical climate as it may be a least-cost strategy for managing this disease
Livestock industry foundation for Africa may want to collaborate with any FC vaccines manufacturer who may want to support this investigation in Nigeria
For more information on livestock industry foundation for Africa visit us on
https://blog.lifango.org
www.lifango.org

Reply
September 25, 2019
Stephen Adejoro Dr double vaccination that apply on my farms for time being it works
Reply
September 28, 2019

Yosef Huberman ok I tried already and it really works controlling fowl cholera... Thanks a lot!

Reply
July 10, 2019

Reservoir of infection in the tropics is rodents and lizards. Total elimination with antibiotics is difficult. But strategic antibacterial therapy in infected flock is a good approach to break the infection cycle but should be discouraged because of public health in case of egg producers. Strict biosecurity with rat control on the master plan goes a long way to reduce fowl cholera infection.

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July 10, 2019
Dr Charles Ibe thank you
Reply
July 16, 2019
Adreena Mohamad you are welcome
Reply
July 16, 2019
Thank you so much, Dr. Charles lbe.
Reply
July 16, 2019
Talaat Al-Alwani you are welcome also
Reply
July 20, 2019
Thnks dr Charlie ibn
Reply
August 29, 2019
fazal Malik Malik you are welcome
Reply
August 29, 2019

FOWL cholera at 21 days is really rare. I suggest bacteriological analysis to identify the bacteria involved and go for antibiotic sensitivity test. FOWL typhoid also may be confused with Pasteurella at a young age just by post mortem lesions.

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September 13, 2019
Dr.Talapaneni.Kotaiah dear dr, our diagnosis was based on full clinical picture and bacterial isolation result as confirmatory diagnosis. bacterial isolation result showed that it was pasteurella multocida.
Reply
September 13, 2019
vivian ,
Thank you for the clarification.
kotaiah
Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
August 31, 2019
Fowl cholera is more prevalent in laying stock at onset of laying, because the developing follicles are predilection site for the bacterium,and their pathology is very evident here as ovarian degeneration or distorted follicles
The disease can re occurs in a flock at a sequence if 12 weeks intervals
I do not ascribe to vaccination as a prophylactic measure in my practice because vaccination do not protect for more than 3,months before another episode of FC can be observed in a previously infected flock
Infected flick will develop immunity after recovery but the immunity is not long lasting and will wane away after 3-4,months
In my practice here in the tropics where there is risk of safe water ,and chances of shaliw water or even bore hole contamination ,I recommend what I reffered to as strategic management of FC
The first onset of FC in an endemic area will be on or around the onset of peack production ,when the developing follicles are well vascularized and fully formed
If infection strike at this age if between 26-28 weeks and you treat ,the farm should expect to see another susceptibility at between 38 weeks to40 weeks and at 12 weeks interval in the life cycle of an infected flock with each 12 weeks interval representing the period that the chicken body antibiodies against FC can protect
Note that the period of immunity provided by natural infection is similar to period of protection offered by administrationnof the agent killed vaccine
If this is the died situation we then conclude that with a good knowledge of this epizootioligy and evidences of a satisfactory sensitive antibiotic by laboratory choice ,you can start a strategic antibacterial prophylaxis from 25+-26+ week to avoid the onset of the first incidence ,and use similar criteria to calculate on set of strategic medication on subsequent appearances
We also conclude that the diet of layers suffering from Fowl cholera also needs to be adjusted to take care of the fatty degeneration in the liver
So we need to reduce ebergybliad on the liver and improve the amino acid inclusion ,while choline chloride or Betaine will give a very satisfactory dietary approach to management

Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
August 31, 2019

Reduce energy load on a fatty degenerated fowl cholera infected liver, but increase methionine and choline chloride or betaine inclusion in the infected chicken diet.

Reply
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
August 31, 2019

Fowl cholera is more prevalent in laying stock at onset of laying, because the developing follicles are predilection site for the bacterium,and their pathology is very evident here as ovarian degeneration or distorted follicles
The disease can reoccur in a flock at a sequence if 12 weeks intervals
I do not ascribe to vaccination as a prophylactic measure in my practice because vaccination do not protect for more than 3 months before another episode of FC can be observed in a previously infected flock.
Infected flock will develop immunity after recovery but the immunity is not long lasting and will wane away after 3-4,months
In my practice here in the tropics where there is risk of safe water, and chances of shaliw water or even bore hole contamination, I recommend what I referred to as strategic management of FC
The first onset of FC in an endemic area will be on or around the onset of peak production when the developing follicles are well vascularized and fully formed
If infection strike at this age if between 26-28 weeks and you treat, the farm should expect to see another susceptibility at between 38 weeks to40 weeks and at 12 weeks interval in the life cycle of an infected flock with each 12 weeks interval representing the period that the chicken body antibodies against FC can protect
Note that the period of immunity provided by natural infection is similar to period of protection offered by administration of the agent killed vaccine
If this is the died situation we then conclude that with a good knowledge of this epizootiology and evidences of a satisfactory sensitive antibiotic by laboratory choice, you can start strategic antibacterial prophylaxis from 25+-26+ week to avoid the onset of the first incidence, and use similar criteria to calculate onset of strategic medication on subsequent appearances
We also conclude that the diet of layers suffering from Fowl cholera also needs to be adjusted to take care of the fatty degeneration in the liver
So we need to reduce ebergybliad on the liver and improve the amino acid inclusion, while choline chloride or Betaine will give a very satisfactory dietary approach to management.

Reply
August 31, 2019

Fowl cholera came down drastically in cages with nipple drinkers where the possibilities of reinvention is drastically reduced.
Treatment with sulphamethoxol+trimethoprim(5;1) ration on feed or water is giving excellent results if the problem occurs.
two doses of killed bactrin involving 5 strains with an interval of 3 weeks (say 8 and 11) is giving excellent protection keeping the medication option in place.
Auto vaccines made out of the isolate from the same farm is working well as auto vaccine on an emergency basis.

A large deep litter farm with multi age groups cannot afford this disease. complete depopulation cleaning and rehousing with preventive vaccination at least for one batch only can save the unit.

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September 2, 2019
Good morning sir what is the role of probiotics in fowl cholera?
Reply
September 2, 2019

From my understanding of probiotics, once the clinical status of disease is attained, probiotics are overwhelmed by virulence. But if the organisms are put below clinical level, probiotics can overwhelm the organisms. Note that certain probiotics are selective in action.

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