Important differences between soybean meal and full fat soy

Topic: Feedstuffs
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June 27, 2019
I thought soy bean meal is just pressed and hammered full fat soy.
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June 27, 2019
Dear Sr. Ruiz,
One third ingredient that also come from soybean and do not have quick parameters defined as to be controlled or monitored is, in my opinion, the Soybean Protein Concentrate (SPC).
KOH method, is a possibility but with carbohydrates extraction in SPC, check the Mailard reaction seems not make sense.
Could you please comment about it?
Best Regards,

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Nelson Ruiz Nelson Ruiz
Chemist, MS, PhD
July 29, 2019
Dear Luis Fernando, thanks for your question, but currently I have no direct experience with soy protein concentrate. Per the definition of SPC in the second edition of the Manual of Quality Analyses for Soybean Products in the Feed Industry (by Jan van Eys) which says that in SPC "most of the oil and water soluble non-protein constituents" have been removed, then presumably there are no basis for the Maillard reaction to occur. However, this is not to suggest that if running the KOH protein solubility test in samples of SPC you will necessarily be able to interpret those results. The KOH protein solubility test is valid for soybean meal for which plenty of research has been conducted under experimental as well as industrial conditions. We know that the KOH protein solubility test is capable of detecting overheating (therefore, that the Maillard reaction has occurred) in soybean meal because there is a body of data to interpret the results of such an empirical test. I don´t believe that that body of data exist for SPC, to the best of my knowledge. Perhaps other colleagues with experience with SPC may respond more accurately. Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC; nelsonruiz@nelsonruiznutrition.com; Suwanee, GA USA
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July 29, 2019
yes
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Dave Albin, Ph.D. Dave Albin, Ph.D.
VP, Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies
July 29, 2019
The problem here is that this analysis does not go deep enough in this short video. There are many types of "full-fat soy", including whole, raw soybeans (which, after all, are full-fat). Dry extrusion, wet extrusion, roasting, expanding, and other processing methods can all be used to make "full-fat soy". However, the choice of method, and even how the process is run within a single method, affect the quality and feeding value of the resulting "full-fat soy" meal.
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July 29, 2019
Dear Dr Albin

I agree entirely with your comment; In addition, have always been very keen to point out that to refer to a FFSB product simply by name of which process was employed is also fraught with difficulties. All processing technologies have variables (mainly temperature, time and moisture as well as any pre-conditioning that may be involved) which will influence nutritional value of the product.

Best wishes
JW
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Nelson Ruiz Nelson Ruiz
Chemist, MS, PhD
July 30, 2019

Dr. Albin and Dr. Wiseman, yes indeed I also agree with your comments because the video presented is actually a clip of a longer video and it is not fully representative of all of what I have to say reference full-fat soybeans. But both of you, Gentlemen, are authorities on the subject, have lots of experience and knowledge on the nutritional value of full-fat soybeans, so you can also further discuss the issues. I have watched and listened to Dr. Albin in some of his videos. Just for the record and the audience in Engormix, I have recently discussed the differentiation of quality control procedures when applied to soybean meal, and when the same procedures are applied to full-fat soybeans thinking that what applies to soybean meal applies directly and automatically to full-fat soybeans. And precisely one of the points that I have emphasized in this discussion is that soybean meal and full-fat soybeans are TWO DIFFERENT ingredients that emerge from two very different processes. While the predominant process for soybean meal production worldwide, as we all know, is the solvent-extraction process, for full-fat soybeans the processes are quite diverse. There are as many qualities of full-fat soybeans as processes exist, each one with its own conditions, advantages and limitations. To the best of my knowledge the term "FULL-FAT SOYBEANS" is a generic term for the product of processing RAW SOYBEANS (which ARE NOT full-fat soybeans as an INGREDIENT, with the possible exception of ruminants) to generate the animal feed ingredient, full-fat soybeans. In our experience there is not a correlation between urease activity and trypsin inhibitors ACROSS processing methods of full-fat soybeans, and consequently urease activity cannot be used as a guideline to indirectly estimate trypsin inhibitors. In contrast, also in our experience, solvent-extracted soybean meal ACROSS processing plants shows a fairly good correlation between urease activity and trypsin inhibitors. In a recent comment in Engormix I discussed in detail the scientific literature supporting the correlation in soybean meal. A similar discussion can be done to demonstrate that the solubility of the protein in potassium hydroxide is not correlated to digestible amino acid coefficients as it is in soybean meal. Consequently, KOH protein solubility does not apply to full-fat soybeans ACROSS commercial processing methods. So, what in our experience is the quality control test to determine if a lot of full-fat soybeans is adequate for monogastric nutrition? TRYPSIN INHIBITORS. This assertion does not preclude that another in vitro test, easier to run and also less expensive may be correlated with trypsin inhibitors. There are basis to believe that the protein dispersibility index (PDI) as utilized by dairy nutritionists [Hsu, J.T., and L.D. Satter, 1995. Procedures for measuring the quality of heat-treated soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1353-1361] may represent such an opportunity. We have no data for monogastric nutrition, yet. NELSON RUIZ NUTRITION, LLC; nelsonruiz@nelsonruiznutrition.com; Suwanee, GA USA.

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July 30, 2019

"Soybean Meal" is produced by solvent extraction of the oil, typically in large scale plants (500 to 5,000+ MTD) that operate 24/7 so the processing conditions tend to be very stable. In the last stages of the extraction process the meal is desolventized and toasted to insure all of the hexane (solvent used to remove the oil) is recovered using both direct and indirect steam heating. The result is that the process conditions of temperature and moisture are very well controlled and take place over a relatively long period of time, 20 to 40 minutes, and a relatively low temperatures resulting in a very consistent finished product. Certainly in some locations the meal can be "over toasted" making the protein less bioavailable, or "under toasted" and the enzyme deactivation inadequate, but all in all the products from a solvent extraction process are very consistent over time. The residual oil in solvent extracted meal is generally between 0.5 and 1%.

Most full fat soybean processes use a short time, high temperature process such as extrusion and expansion or the use of grain roasting equipment. As a result, the process is more difficult to control precisely and as a result some products may be over or under "cooked" which will impact both the nutrient availability, and the levels of the anti-nutritional enzymes that naturally occur in soybeans. This is further complicated by the fact that the processes do not run continuously and are subject to varying conditions during each start up and shut down sequence. As a result, "full fat soya" products tend to be more variable in terms of protein availability and anti-nutritional enzyme activity. The oil content in full fat soya products will typically range from 18 to 20%.

To complicate the issue even further, there are mechanical methods to extract soybean oil (screw presses) that normally work at high temperature and pressure to achieve the highest oil extraction, but do tend to "overcook" the proteins to the point they are only really useful as bypass protein in ruminant diets. The residual oil in the mechanical extracted meal is generally around 8-10%.

Due to the wide variety of processing methods, quality control tests that correlate well for one process (urease activity, KOH solubility) will not necessarily apply to alternative processes.

Reply
Dave Albin, Ph.D. Dave Albin, Ph.D.
VP, Nutrition & Extrusion Technologies
July 30, 2019

Mark Heimann Solvent extraction does exhibit variation from location to location, as you indicate yourself, and to the point that differences can be picked up when samples are taken from different plants and animal experiments performed.
Mechanical methods are just like any other - as long as the process is understood and controlled, the variation between batches at an individual plant can be very minimal. It's true that if two mechanical plants run the same equipment differently that the results will differ, but as long as you have a process that is easily understood and controlled, high quality ingredients for all species (not just ruminants) will be produced.

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Anyanwu Dominic Ifeanyi Dan Anyanwu Dominic Ifeanyi Dan
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. MSc. Animal Science. Master of Business Administration.
August 9, 2019

We have to accept within a narrow view that Soybean meal refers to solvent extracted meal, and full fat soya for extruded expanded soya bean with the entire oil intact.
I have come to realise that in the industry we cannot but recognise 3 types of Soymeal that are produced commonly. The first is solvent extracted meal. The second is full fat soymeal. The third is crushed soycake usually produced by mechanical press. In the mash form, the term meal applies.
When properly processed for monogastric nutrition, they present different nutrient analyses. The oil levels are prominent. While soymeal can showcase 0.5 to 1.5% oil, soycake has 6 to 8%, and full fat 18 to 20%. Variations can occur as a result of levels of machinery efficiency.
It is necessary to accord recognition to these 3 products. We must carry the soycake along, while educating livestock and oilseed industry players on the differences between the products.
Dr. Anyanwu D.I.D. is a Veterinary practitioner, Animal Nutritionist, and Soya bean Processor.

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August 10, 2019

Thanks for your information. I would like to see what is the kinds of soy that give a good durability in formulating turkey fattening.

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Anyanwu Dominic Ifeanyi Dan Anyanwu Dominic Ifeanyi Dan
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. MSc. Animal Science. Master of Business Administration.
August 11, 2019

Bouassida hichem, Soy, whether solvent defatted, mechanical press defatted, or full fat can be used extensively in turkey feeds depending on the array of other ingredients at your disposal.
Because turkey feed needs both High Protein and High Energy, it has become conventional to draw cheap energy from Fuufat soy. Hence there is high inclusion of both full fat and solvent defatted soy. Yet only soycake from press can surface.
Durability of feeds above 21 days of manufacture cannot be assured unless stabilized with antioxidants. You are, however, encouraged to use only fresh feeds to maximize nutrients availability.
Stringent storage condition in cool dry conditions may be required to keep your feeds safe and wholly nutritional.

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