The interaction between betaine and crude protein and broiler feed

Published on: 07/01/2020
Author/s : Ana Gavrău, Global Technical Product Manager, Agrana Sales & Marketing GmbH

1.BackgroundThe impact on the environment, welfare issues, as well as the economic implications are challenging globally the modern livestock production. Employment of new nutritional strategies to limit the impact of the livestock production on the environment, have become an important task.Optimization in the feed formulation lowering the crude protein content, for the so-called N-reduced feedin...

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Alvaro Dubois Alvaro Dubois
Technical Consultant at Cargill
July 1, 2020
Dear Dr. Ana. Interesting results but I noticed that the experimental design does not allow you to have some of the stated conclusions. Only having your lower CP diet without betaine and then the same diet with added synthetic glycine would allow you to conclude that this diet was deficient in this amino acid. The response you got might be due only to a deficiency of methyl donors, due to the low level of added choline. Mentioning the ratio of sulfur amino acids to lysine would have helped to consider this hypothesis. Thank you.
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
July 3, 2020
Dear Mr. Dubois, thank you for your comment!

Please be informed that the lowered CP treatments (starter and grower) were not deficient on methyl groups, comparing to the normal CP groups (starter and grower).

For example in the lowered CP group in the starter phase, methionine was supplemented in higher amount, having a higher level on dMet 5,57 g/ kg, comparing to normal CP treatment with dMet 5,33 g/ kg.

The dM+C level was equal 8,4 g/ kg in both (normal CP and lowered CP), also the d.M+C/ d.Lysin ratio was the same in both 0,7; and with the same level on Choline in both starter groups.

The lowered CP diet was deficient in d.G+S level. The same situation in the grower groups, with adapted levels for the grower phase.

Fact is, that betaine as TMG donates its one methyl group in the Hcy- Met cycle, The second and third methyl groups of betaine, will form DMG-> Sarcosine-> Glycine (as shown in the fig.1 according to Craig, 2004); therefore the affirmation, that indirectly betaine is also a potential source of glycine, supported by the dG+S levels.
As far as I know, in the EU is no authorized feed grade glycine product available, but it is a good idea for a future trial to include a glycine group.

Thank you and best regards, Ana

P.S. I have a MSc degree in zootechnical engineering ??.

July 4, 2020

Ana Gavrau, considering the multiple functionality of betaine, I believe that it would be necessary to include a treatment in your study. That would be a treatment with the reduction of proteins with the addition of glycine, without betaine. These considerations seem to me consistent with those of Alvaro Dubois.

Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
July 7, 2020

Dear Professor Juarez Donzele,

thank you for your message.

As I mentioned, in the European Union is glycine for the feed industry not authorized and, in the practice when CP is lowered, are only the EAA supplemented. Therefore, we designed our trial without a glycine group. But it is correct, in a future trial, having a glycine group, we would be able to underline our results.
Thank you and kind regards,

July 6, 2020
Dear Dr Ana,
Table 2 seems to be missing.
Best regards
Lawal Sesan Lawal Sesan
B.SC, M.Sc and Ph.D IN VIEW
July 15, 2020

Whether we like it or not every chemical used in the feed has a residual effect no matter how small but this problem can be solved if we use organic feed completely.

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