Current Situation of Avian Influenza in Iran and around the World
Published:December 11, 2013
Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections can be a devastating viral disease causing enormous losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Since the re-emergence of the H5N1 subtype of AIV in 2003 in Asia, Africa, the Pacific Region, Europe and the Middle East, the H5N1 virus has become endemic in some countries and continues to cause outbreaks in poultry. More importantly, it is now ...
Really comprehensive and practical article. As it is RNA Virus, so it will continue to change (Influenza Virus), but vaccination will continue to work for the control of repeated outbreaks of H9N2 (which is continued). As mentioned in the article, bio-security and better management practices particularly proper disposal of mortality will help in control.
As per my observations it is more in winter, when in try to maintain the shed/house temperature air quality goes poor, particularly Ammonia, (CO, CO2) level rises in air damaging the 1st protection of respiratory system of birds i-e Cilia. By the increase in level of Ammonia Cilia are 1st paralyzed followed by Ciliostasis leaving bird more prone to respiratory infections.Ventilation management will also help in prevention of outbreaks.
Surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Virus for vaccine update will be helpful to keep in control.
Iran situation of Avian Influenza viruses is well addressed in this article. However, H9N2 is a world-wide problem.
In Pakistan, H9N2 appears endemic since 1998. According to the author "the low pathogenic H9N2 are permanently circulating from 1998 to date in Iran". Chronologically, relating Iran H9N2 serotype origin from Pakistan H9N2 strains may be questionable. We need to quantify the magnitude of trade of poultry or poultry products between the two countries before relating poultry diseases.
In poultry, H9N2 impacts mainly egg production and occasionally mortality particularly when combined with ND virus and MS.
To develop control measures, let us address these two questions:
1. Does H9N2 vaccination stop infection and virus shedding?
2. Do antiviral drugs, mentioned in this article cure sick birds?
According to available information and practice, vaccination against H9N2 does not stop infection or virus shedding. It simply reduces virus shedding ... which means making H9N2 endemic.
Regarding chemotherapy, none of the drugs mentioned in this article, has cured disease outbreaks under field conditions. Furthermore, resistance to these drugs will impede their use in humans. Let these drugs be reserved for human use.
Probably vaccination and certainly antiviral drugs are not the choice for controlling H9N2 in poultry. Let us practice biosecurity to keep it away (or down) and control other respiratory diseases to reduce losses due to H9N2.
my observation on AIV in Pakistan is some what peculiar in the sense that new entity in Pakistan always started at the beginning of summer specially in Hazara region of Pakistan where i am witness to AIV outbreaks since 1985 when first outbreak of H7 was recorded during May. The Temperature of that day was 41 degree centigrade. Again first outbreak of H5 was recorded in April 2006. Migratory birds have perhaps the main role in brought of infection either on down migration from China to Indian coast of Bengal or vice verca. However link to this aspect could not be established so for.