Good quality feed pellets - Does it make sense?

Published on: 06/12/2017
Author/s : Mahmoud Farahat, Ph.D. / Consulting Nutritionist - Zagazig University.

IntroductionFeed pelleting can be defined as conversion of finely ground mash feed into dense, free flowing pellets or capsules, in a process involves steam injection (moisture & heat) and mechanical pressure.There are several advantages for feeding broilers on pelleted rather than mash feed. The main advantage is the improved bird performance (improved feed intake, weight gain and feed conver...

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Alagbe olujimi John Alagbe olujimi John
Animal Production & Health
June 12, 2017
I totally agree with you Doc, feeding broilers on pelleted feeds enhance a positive growth performance on the birds in terms of final live weight, FCR and reduce feed wastage thereby reducing the cost of production.
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wameq wameq
Poultry farmer
June 13, 2017

It's great.

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PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR
Agricultural Engineer
June 13, 2017

Thanks. Very good and informative article, I would be further greatful if author replies on question: if instead of direct steaming, can't we dry the ejected pellet and can save the cost of steaming by drying little longer say for 6 hours.

P P Ambalkar

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June 14, 2017

It is a very impressive article, as it will even help to reduce wastage in the giving of feed to the birds and will also assist cohesiveness of ingredients and nutrient together as compared to feeds in mash form.
I would want to advise that this innovation should be made public and farmers and feed millers should embrace such standards.

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Sushil Chandra Sushil Chandra
Master in Poultry Nutrition 1975
June 15, 2017
Good article on pellet vs mash
My reply to Mr Ambalkar on producing pellet without steam.
Pl note that steam requirement for geletinization of feed particles and for also increasing the temp of mix feed to the tune of 75 degree and above so that at high temp and pressure material can pass thru die of 3 mm to make compact pellet
Pellets are complete feed

Regards
Dr chandra
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PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR
Agricultural Engineer
June 24, 2017
Dr Chandra thanks for kind information, but my question is why to use steam generator for steam if 75 degree temperature can also be set during drying stage of pellet in dryer. But pellet size is definitely would be large say 8 mm which maybe crumbled for desired particle size.? I just want that other way round can we eliminate steam conditioner from entire pellet processing and final production.
With regards,
PP AMBALKAR
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Rene Cibrian Rene Cibrian
Agriculture mechanic Engineer
June 24, 2017
Dear Sir

Regarding to use no steam at all at pellet process, it's feasible, however it's also a fact the power consumption it's increased without steam.
To rise such amount of mash temperature (65-75° C), require about 35-50 kgs steam @ 1.7 bar 2720 kJ/kg in order the produce the enthalpy, this is because the gelatinization it's given after steam energy transfer (enthalpy) to the mash previously to get contact with the die hole where help to pass as lubricant thru the die.
The saturated hot water at 75°C has only around 315 kJ/kg, very few energy to get gelatinization.
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Mel Raymundo Mel Raymundo
Industrial Engineer
June 24, 2017
Dear Mr. Ambalkar, in pelleting process you can't omit the conditioner since it is one of the Important part of the process since at conditioner you are cooking the materials to make it gelatinize for better digestibility, second it sterilize the compound feeds, third it will help to increase your throughput of your pellet mill with lesser electricity costs. Forth, you will have better FACT if you use pellets for your birds. At pelleting process you don't need a dryer you just need a cooler unless your process is an extrusion.
Actually, 75° still at low side ideally it must be 80-85°C conditioner temperature to have proper gelatinization. Please consider also your retention time at conditioner. I hope I help you. Thank you.
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PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR
Agricultural Engineer
June 25, 2017
Dear Sir,
I mean wet pelleting with increased moisture percent and then use of dryer . As dryer is easy to handle and operate in comparison to steam generator? The process of production should be short and would also reduce manpower requirement at small farmer's level not at commercial level? May kindly comment.
With regds,
PP AMBALKAR
Reply
Sushil Chandra Sushil Chandra
Master in Poultry Nutrition 1975
June 25, 2017

Pl visit a pellet mill and try to produce pellets without steam, you will have your own experience and the answer
This will be seeing is believing
Regards
Dr sushil chandra

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PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR
Agricultural Engineer
June 25, 2017
Sir,
I have produced good quality pellets without steam conditioning and results are encouraging however, I believe more techno commercial research is required from small and scattered farmer's view point.
With regrds,
PP Ambalkar
Reply
June 26, 2017
Ambalkar Please check micbiology testing status means pathogenic analysis. If no pathogenic threats with your dryer, having good PDI, good FCR , It's good if cost effective for small scale. Validate the dryer time
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PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR PRAKASH P. AMBALKAR
Agricultural Engineer
June 26, 2017
OK, Thank you Sir
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Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo
Factory Director
June 27, 2017
Dear colleagues. Help to solve the problem with the quality of the granule. We produce fodder for fish, but our PDI is not very good.
What is the consistency of raw materials from the air conditioner?
What temperature should be the raw material on leaving the air conditioner?
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Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo
Factory Director
June 27, 2017
Sorry, not the air conditioner, but the pre-conditioner
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Mel Raymundo Mel Raymundo
Industrial Engineer
June 27, 2017

Dear Mr. Ambalkar. I suggest you support your claim by analyzing your product in terms of % cooking or how any % gelatinize. Then in your dryer what is your source of heat?

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James Igbekoyi James Igbekoyi
Student
June 30, 2017

I produced pellets with 35%, 40%, 45%, 50% and 55% milled cassava peel without steam but water was added though nut hot. However, the pellets were hot on arrival.

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Rene Cibrian Rene Cibrian
Agriculture mechanic Engineer
July 2, 2017

Dear Denizzo,

To produce aquatic feed pellet requires to activate all gelatinization as possible and might have to add some binder to keep pellets in good shape under the water.
The standard requirements are:
Get less than 300 microns particle size from post grinder, use at least +90 seconds retention time at conditioner (output would be up 80°C), then increase the die compression at least +16:1 or higher.
If your existing conditioner doesn't reach min 90 seconds that could be recommended to use a post conditioner to keep cooking for about +20 minutes.

Hope with all this suggestion can help to your process.

Reply
Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo Denizzo
Factory Director
September 22, 2017
Rene Cibrian
Dear Rene, thank you for your recommendation. We did as you recommended and the quality of the granule improved noticeably. Especially the appearance.
Also, we constantly grind the inner surface of the die holes. From prolonged work they wear out and spoil the surface of the granule.
But as before, we can not achieve water resistance over 4 hours.
Tell me please what kind of binder is better to add and in what proportions, so as not to harm the health of fish?
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Rizwan Aslam Rizwan Aslam
Mechanical Engineer
July 2, 2017
Moisture control of pellets is most important. IT can make hard or very soft pellets. Additional water and steam are crucial part
Reply
Janardan Gore Janardan Gore
Microbiologist
July 3, 2017
Good discussion on the topic. Elevated tempt essentail to control pathogenic/ Microbial count in the feed.
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