Understanding Mastitis: From Perspective of Inflammation

Published on: 12/15/2014
Author/s : Dr. Zafar Ahmad & Dr. Divya Divakaran, Product Managers, Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore

Inflammation and infection are among the commonest buzzwords in veterinary practice. The fact that inflammation appears to play a major role in many diseases makes it the fieriest topic of discussion nonetheless inflammation protects and heals the body after an injury or infection. Inflammation is an amazing process that, from the surface appears swelling and can hurt, but it’s all part of m...

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Ubaldo Barria Ubaldo Barria
Veterinary Doctor
January 5, 2015

I think Doctor's Singh presentation on mastitis from perspective of inflamation is very interesting, of high scientific level, clearly explains the pathophyisiology of mastitis including its role in women breast cancer.It is the best and most important comment have read lately and no doubt it will be helplful in my large animals practice.
Dr. Ubaldo Barría
Panamá

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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
January 5, 2015
My question is, if it is effective within 5-6 dias via oral why take a chance of introducing bacteria in the udder by using an udder infusion? I do everything possible orally with my goats.
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Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
January 6, 2015
Hi Dr Ubaldo, Thanks for your appreciation of the theory we propound. Indeed we have been using this -Trisodium citrate for the last about twenty five years as a treatment and preventative most effectively to control Mastitis in all the dairy animals. We have used this treatment without any side effects. Furthermore, citrate is normal and indispensable component of each living cell for the production of energy and other cellular metabolic functions (Citric acid cycle/Kreb's cycle) and life without it might be very difficult.There is no need to discard milk, no public health hazard, least chance for development of resistance, economical, easy to administer and above all safest from any toxicity. The one most crucial aspect of the treatment of any disease is to first determine its basic cause. Once the cause of any ailment is known precisely the effective and certain remedy is usually at hand. This axiom adequately applies with regard to the control of mastitis in dairy animals. On the basis of our treatment of mastitis many pharmaceuticals have marketed this salt for the prevention and cure of mastitis in some countries.

Jasmer singh Ph D
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Nick Lyttle Nick Lyttle
Veterinary Doctor
January 6, 2015
Dr Singh, I have three questions. Firstly, can you please explain in more detail your understanding of the pathophysiology of the breakdown of the intercellular tight junctions. My current interpretation from your comments and other reading is that the loss of buffering function (from low citrate) and subsequent pH elevation in the mamary gland drives the calcium ions out of the tight junction structures and off the intercellular flexible hinges - hence loss of tight intercellular bonding and the beginning of the leakage and subsequent inflammatory process with domino effect on pH elevation and self propogation of the inflammatory process and potential microorganism invasion. Does this interpretation sequence agree with your understanding?
My second question is: What causes the initial drop in citrate?
And thirdly: Is the loss of tight junction functionality the key physical factor in mastitis pathogenesis in your opinion?
Thank you in advance.
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Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
January 6, 2015
Hello Dr Nick, As I have stated already that synthesis of Citrate in udder/breast is independent of the body metabolism, hence, any defect in its synthesis would result in its deficiency in the udder. The main function of citrate in udder is to keep Ca2++ sequestered ( citrate remains bound to Calcium) and maintain the pH of udder. For instance the pH of Calcium itself is ~10 hence , free calcium also might add to raise the udder pH. Calcium per say is obtained from blood for the synthesis of milk. Therefore, the initial injury inflicted by Free Ca2++ causes swelling-not inflammation and this swelling appears to cause the leaking of tight junctions followed by the swapping of ions like Na, K, Cl, Hco3 etc., which raises the pH of the udder. The injured site later is infected by environmental organisms e.g., Strept., Staph, E coli etc which triggers the body defense mechanisms resulting in infectious mastitis and inflammation due to mainly polymorphs and macrophases etc.

Jasmer Singh Ph D
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Peter Lester Peter Lester
Animal Nutritionist
January 7, 2015
If you go to my web page www.quantumlab.co.nz and look at the subject, "mastitis is a man made problem" you will get a perspective of our approach to this malady. We have had virtually a 100 % success through approaching this, and most metabolic problems by first addressing the levels and ratios of ingested feeds. As the soil is the plants rumen, this too must be take permanence over "Bug chasing" it is natural to be healthy and not natural to be sick.

Peter J Lester Ph D
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prakash kulkarni prakash kulkarni
B. V,Sc & A .H .
January 7, 2015
what are the defects causing problems in citrate synthesis? It is important to understand them for pvention measures .thanks
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
January 8, 2015
Mr. Lester: I just read your article and agree with most of what you are saying. The reason that I can't believe in the entire article is because it is impossible for me to prove one way or another (balancing the nutrients in the soil which in my case would be the hay that I feed) . Your laboratory is much too far away from us here in the Dominican Republic. 13,425 km to be exact from Santo Domingo to New Zealand. Our feeding system consists of concentrate, grass hay and a variety of tree leaves. We also give added minerals. Probably if all were put together there would be an inbalance because the goats do not have the privilege of free ranging. They are under intensive management with confined housing having only small grassy paddocks to roam in. So I'm sure there may be an imbalance with no way to identify it or balance it. We do not have a serious problem with mastitis. However, from the point of management if 3% of the milking string shows at one time or another during a 2 year lactation inflamation that concerns me. Fortunately we have been able to control most of it using a 10 day treatment of 2000 IU of oral Vitamin E daily plus garlic for 30 days or longer. We have seen udder halfs change from heavy and meaty to pliable and productive with that treatment. However the tricalcium citrate intriques me because of it's simplicity. It is not available here in the DR so I can't help but wonder if there isn't some other way to naturally buffer the acidity produced at lactation time especially in first fresheners. If you were closer I would really enjoy talking more. Thank you for the information. I wish I could put it to work here.


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Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
January 10, 2015








hi



Hi Linda, You have rightly pointed out regarding the balancing process of various minerals and other nutritional ingredients propounded by Dr Lester. He is also right in saying that "mastitis is a man-made-disease". However,it is easier said than done to regulate such balances simultaneously in at least two biological systems-soil and animal systems. To be more practical there is nothing to be intriguing regarding mastitis control with Trisodium Citrate, since its deficiency is the basic cause as evidenced by published clinical field trials in reputed scientific periodicals and its replenishment easily cures clinical/subclinical/chronic cases of this malady without any side effects. The most crucial aspect of mastitis control on a dairy farm is to monitor the pH of milk with graded paper strips or a pen pH meter and citrate with available kits. These two methods are very economical and easy to operate on the farm.

Jasmer Singh Ph D








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Ubaldo Barria Ubaldo Barria
Veterinary Doctor
January 10, 2015
Dr. Singh: the comment of Mr. Lester on mastitis as a man made disease focus on the tree not on the forest. In any infectious disease there are 3 important elements to be considered: microorganisma, hosts and enviroment. and of course man plays an important role since what the animals are depend on what the man feeds, gives, etc.. in conclusión nutrition is important but not all. improving the soil and forage is not enough..The maintenance of the udder pH is the key point and the increase of pH TRIGGERS mastitis.
Ubaldo Barría, Panamá
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
January 11, 2015
The trisodium citrate, as you say, would be very easy to manage but what can be done when trisodium citrate is not available in the country where we live. For that reason I ask if it might be known in another industry with another name or if there is a natural plant that could possibly be used. How can we make it here on our farm?
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Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
January 11, 2015
Hi Linda, I gave you the link earlier in this thread on 12.24.2014 from where Trisodium citrate can be procured i.e,. amazon.com and you inquired about its quality etc. It is available in different packs as 1lb 2lb, 5lb ,25lb and 50lbs and you can get it by just ordering Amazon (in USA). Any other problem please do inform me.
Jasmer Singh Ph D
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
January 11, 2015
Thank you. The first time I ran the search they said it was out of stock. Today I see it in Amazon and am preparing to investigate. Thank you.
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
January 13, 2015
Hi Linda , Please let me know when you lay hands on trisodium citrate so that we can plan control measures against MASTITIS in your herd of goats.

Jasmer Singh Ph D
Reply
Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
January 14, 2015
OK.
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
February 8, 2015
Hi Linda, I hope you might have procured the salt Trisodium citrate. Please let me know o that we can make a schedule for the control of mastitis in your goats at the farm.

Regards Jasmer
Reply
Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
February 8, 2015
I wasn't able to get the TS citrate. We aren't trying to control an active mastitis program but rather reduce the inflammation in first time lactations. We are now in kidding season and just tried garlic with a doe whose udder was beginning to show signs of inflamation and the garlic began to show results within 48 hours after giving her the garlic orally 3 times (we give it twice a day). Garlic is easy to come by here while the TS citrate presents a problem as to how to get it into the country if I do buy it on Amazon. So I think we'll continue to use the garlic as an experiment and then maybe we can compare results. Thanks for your inquery Dr. Singh.
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
February 8, 2015
Hi Linda, I would request you if the pH of the milk/any secretion from the udder is recorded with graded pH papers or a pen pH meter before and after the administration of garlic. Also please, If possible, could you manage to take some photographs of the inflamed udder, physical appearance of milk as to be bloody, watery or flakes etc., before and after the recovery. It will be nice observation and most useful for others in the business.

Regards Jasmer
Reply
Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
February 8, 2015
I can get the pictures when I have another one and can get the picture before beginning the garlic. I can also tell you that we do not have changes in the milk, only inflammation in the udder but no blood, flakes, clots or watery substances. I'll try to get some pH strips and check on that too.
Reply
February 9, 2015
Linda, I am interested in using garlic as a remedy, could you please let me know, what you found to work for you. I am from the states but have recently been dedicating myself to dairy cows in Peru. I don't know much about the scientifical aspect of mastitis bit I do know it occurs about every so often. I have about 20 cows milking, and another 30 on the farm, heifers calves etc. My email address is jhiraoka@aol.Com thanks. Joe
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