Negative energy balance in dairy cows

Forum: Effects of negative energy balance on reproduction in dairy cows

Published on: 11/04/2009
Summary In many countries the milk production per cow has more than doubled in the last 40 years (OLTENACU, 2007). The increase in production has been accompanied by increasing incidence of health problems, declining ability to reproduce and declining the fertility of modern dairy cows. High producing dairy cows need to mobilize body reserves to be able to sustain their milk production. In early...
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November 4, 2009
The article on effects of negative energy balance on reproduction is very nice and will prove a boon not only to dairy farmers but also to the technical staff like Vets & paravets. I extend warm wishes & thanks to worthy author for providing us such a nice compilation and information

Dr. Neelesh Sindhu
PhD. Scholar, Veterinary Clinical Medicine,
Veterinary College Central laboratory, CCSHAU, Hisar
Haryana, India
November 4, 2009

Keeping in view the rise in demand of meat n milk every producer wants to have high milking animals however most of them forget that higher milk requires certain protocols to be observed constantly to maintain this yield level and general traits of animal productivity.
This article very rightly addresses the issue of maintaining higher productivity of high yielding animals. I congratulate the writers for this productive article for drawing attention of those dairy producers who always complain of observing productivity of high producing animals going down.The writer has pointed one important factor to maintain productivity of high yielding animals.

M Subhan Qureshi M Subhan Qureshi
Professor and Dean FAHVS, University of Agriculture, Peshawar-25120, Pakistan; Chief Organizer, Dairy Science Park
November 4, 2009

The artilce has reviewed the reproduction nutrition relationship in dairy cows. We have investigated this interaction in dairy buffaloes. Seasonality of reproduction is evident from the shortest postpartum ovulation interval noted during autumn with lowest incidence of silent ovulations. It coincided with the minimum intake of crude protein and maximum intake of metabolizable energy (ME). Photoperiod has a marked influence on buffalo reproduction in certain areas of the world, however in some tropical areas nearest to the equator the light seems to have a minimal or no effect on the reproductive cues however the nutrition and heat stress measured throughout temperature-humidity-indexes play an important role in the reproductive functions of buffaloes. Body condition score (BCS) has been used as a good indicator of energy status and the animals receiving more ME above requirements during prepartum period were able to maintain a relatively good BCS despite mobilization of body reserves. Concentrates supplementation raised milk progesterone levels (MPL) in high and low yielding buffaloes. Growth and development of follicles during periods of negative energy balance lead to impaired development of the CL and a reduction in progesterone secretion. MPL showed a pattern opposite to atmospheric temperature. It may be concluded that nutrition intervenes in reproductive functions at almost all stages and it also interacts with other environmental parameters. A proper strategy is needed to keep the animal productive, healthy and fertile with minimum input costs.

Opinder Bawa Opinder Bawa
Marketing Manager
November 4, 2009
The transition from late gestation to early lactation is regarded as one of the most challenging elements of the production cycle.
Perhaps the most important physiological change occurring during this period is the decrease in dry matter intake around parturition and the sudden increase in nutrients that cattle need for milk production. As a result of these remarkable changes, most of the infectious diseases and metabolic disorders occur during this time.
The reducing availability of glucogenic compounds during the negative energy balance period may lead to fatty liver syndrome. Other metabolic disorders may include ketosis, displaced abomasums and hypocalcaemia.
Calcium propionate provides a rapid source of absorbable calcium. The propionate fraction is converted to blood glucose as an energy source. Propionate is the glucogenic fatty acid (VFA) of the rumen.
Drenching cattle with water and nutrients may be beneficial during post parturient period. A larger water volume (10-15lt) replaces the volume and weight lost when the calf, the fluids and membranes are gone at calving plus rehydrates the cows.
Feed additives that can be added to the drench mixture are: calcium propionate, yeast culture, potassium chloride, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride, organic source of trace minerals, sodium bicarbonate, biotin, niacin, vitamin A D3 E & B12
Supplying both additional energy and calcium during the post parturient period may be of benefit of cattle. Dietary glucogenic precursor can be used to improve the metabolic status of the transition cattle.
Prevention and treatment of post-calving metabolic disorders requires sound nutritional management, record-keeping of problems (such as when problem occurred), and stringent post-calving protocols.

CALSIP DRY is a nutritional solution for preventing these conditions and help the animal to overcome negative energy balance

Composition: Each 100gm Contains

Tri Basic Calcium Phosphate 10 gm
Calcium Propionate 12.5 gm
Vitamin A 80000 IU
Vitamin D3 16000 IU
Vitamin B 12 100 mcg
Vitamin E 100 IU
Yeast Culture 100 Billion CFU

Ravinder Grewal Ravinder Grewal
Animal Nutritionist
November 6, 2009
Minimising the prepartum DMI depression and maximising the postpartum DMI while maintaining the optimum rumen function is the key for successful transition period management. Vit E and mineral levels are also important.
November 9, 2009

Negative energy balance has adverse effect on dairy animal performance in respect of milk production and in beef animals in weight gain.Buffaloes particularly in our area Faisalabad,pakistan are not receiving balanced ration, they are only manage on traditional feeding methods which are not balanced faced sever engery deficit.they are at negative energy balance.this techical article gives a valuable information to control these nutrional related problems.

Parminder Singh Chawla Parminder Singh Chawla
Animal Nutritionist
November 17, 2009
High density ration during transition stage is recommended. But availability of quality ingredients and price factor come into the picture. The aricle covered phisiology of the animal in detail. Congratulations!
November 17, 2009

The artical strenthens the establshed fact that energy balance is must for the commercial dairy production. In this respect management of dairy animals during dry period is very important. this part of animal management in 100[percent] cases is neglected in developing countries. Only lactating animals get feeding attention and dry animals survive on low quality feed resources. Normally a dairy animal needs around 140 MJ Energy daily but in developing countries only 60[percent] requirements are met. The result is short lactation length, bdoy depletion, low production and longer calving intervel. All these factors make commercial dairy farming a loosing enterprize.
Secondly, the nutrients requirement of buffalo and cattle ate not addressed separately. Both have different feeding requirements. The buffalo is yielding more energy in milk and her needs should be addressed differently than cattle.

A good dairy animal is always busy in production cycle if not lactating she is incalf so a good animal always needs supply of nutrients at a constant rate according to her needs.
Only an expert can formulate a nutrition program for dairy herd and should be consulted to avoid problems.

December 1, 2009
I am interested in knowing how to evaluate the energy requirement of cows/bufaloes during the last trimister of pregnancy. Are there any tools which can be used to establish the energy requirement in pregnant animals.
December 1, 2009

Its really nice that Engormix is putting such a nice and utility articles on its forums and negative energy balance such a thing which everybody dont understand after reading this article which is authentic in all the acpects it will be usefull for dairy farming industry and veterinary fretinity.

Saadat Changezi Saadat Changezi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
December 2, 2009

The performance of an animal especially a dairy depends on the reproduction performance,this is a very informative article providing amense of information regarding the management of reproductive system.
Dr.Saadat Ali Changezi

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