Role of Betaine as a Methyl Group Donor

remove_red_eye 5480 forum 80 bar_chart Statistics share
Share :
close
Video information
See more
Brad Lawrence Brad Lawrence
Technical Manager - Pork Business Team North America
Novus International Novus International
St Charles, Missouri, United States
June 1, 2021

As nutritionists we must remember the methionine cycle and transulfuration pathway to cysteine should be considered as just that, a cycle, dependent on or including choline, betaine and certain of the b vitamins. Failure to include any one component could result in the cycle not being optimized resulting in homocysteine buildup, limiting TSAA supply and an under-estimation of the TSAA requirement.

Reply
James S Tuan James S Tuan
Executive Director
June 1, 2021

Choline's role in methylation is mediated through betaine. Therefore, direct supplementation of betaine provides the most effective means to get the benefits attributed to choline in methylation. The proximate methyl donor in vivo is SAM. SAM is converted to homocysteine after its methyl group is donated in a variety of metabolic pathways, including the synthesis of carnitine from lysine. By efficiently recycling the homocysteine back to methionine using betaine, the entire methylation system would work at its optimum, including efficient metabolism of fat via the beta-oxidation pathway in the mitochondria that is mediated by carnitine. This would minimize the occurrence of fatty liver syndrome as well as reduce the overall serum homocysteine levels, a stress indicator. While at the same time, the unique molecular structure of betaine delivers energy-free cellular osmotic protection. Betaine is indeed a wonderful molecule and its use should be even more widely adopted.

Reply
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
June 1, 2021

Dear James S Tuan,

I fully agree and many thanks for your valuable contribution!
All best and kind regards,
Ana Gavr?u

Reply
Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 18, 2021
James S Tuan
I would appreciate to have the copy of trial report with a control group insisting on Choline Chloride and the experimental group with exposure to Betain HCL replacing choline chloride gradually in suitable proportion. The study would reveal the FCR along with Meat quality of breast part. This study would entail a concensus to incorporate Betain HCL with confidence replacing Choline Chloride to contain price hike.
Reply
James S Tuan James S Tuan
Executive Director
July 18, 2021
Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty Please email me at james.tuan@auroranutrition.com with your contact info.
Reply
James S Tuan James S Tuan
Executive Director
June 1, 2021

Even with the ideal levels of essential amino acids in a diet, as crude protein is lowered, the levels of other "non-essential" amino acids, e.g. glycine, may drop below the optimal levels for animal performance. However, direct supplementation with glycine has been shown to affect gut microbiome, immune response gene expression, and serum concentrations of various amino acids (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426780/). Betaine could benefit low protein diets by supplying animals with a form of glycine that is released slowly after the betaine molecule has already contributed its methyl group so that the negative effects of glycine can be avoided. This is an area worthy of additional research.

Reply
fatai adeyemi yisau fatai adeyemi yisau
Poultry farmer
June 14, 2021
Dear all ,

I have gone through all the comments there all interesting. But l would like to know the use of betaine .
Is it at stage of mixing feed ?
Or betaine can be use orally.
Please i want you to guide me.
Am having problem with the feed supplied to us .
The birds are not laying very.
We have tried various feed produce in Nigeria. All of them are the same thing.
Please i want to recommend the type of drug we can buy to improve their egg production.
Regards.
Farabes farm
Reply
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
June 15, 2021
Dear Fatai Adeyemi Visau,

We have very good results, meaning as feedback from our customers in laying henns: improved laying rate and FCR with our natural betaine product ActiBeet- using 700 mg of betaine/ kg of complete feed (mixed feed); by 100% replacing the added choline (as choline chloride), without saving methionine. Regarding the nutrients in the feed, our customers are following generally the nutritional guidelines provided by the breeding companies. In heat stress conditions you should use 1000 mg of betaine/ kg of mixed feed.

All best and kind regards,
Ana Gavrau
Reply
June 15, 2021
fatai adeyemi yisau
Under heat stress conditions, betaine supplementation should be beneficial to your layer operation. Poor laying efficiency may also benefit from the use of 25-OH vitamin D3. My team launched this product (HyD) in the late 1990s before the business was acquired by Roche/DSM. There are now alternative suppliers. You can message me for more information.
Reply
Asad Ur Rehman Asad Ur Rehman
M.Sc. Hons. Animal Nutrition
July 30, 2021
100% replacement if choline without any adverse effect??
Reply
Dr Piotr Stanislawski Dr Piotr Stanislawski
Nutritionist
DSM DSM
June 16, 2021
Dear Fatai Adeyemi Visau, we have not much info re.your layers performance; egg production,age,temperature,maintenence etc. It is difficult to advice you the solution. I am sure that there are no additives (even betaine) that help you in case your feed formula is disballanced. You should start with the proper diet. Then,of course some additives are adviced to improve already good results. Betaine works excellent in osmoregulation (heat stress), as choline replacement, as glicyne supply and methionine sparring (in case you have enough cysteine in the diet). This was already said. Maybe you could share some more info - production level, maintenance, feed base etc? Then you could receive more adequate advices.
Reply
July 16, 2021
Yes. I will also be interested in knowing high feed grade betaine HCl marketers in Nigeria.
Reply
July 18, 2021
Dear Anna
What is role of Choline in Broiler Breeders & commercial layers in case of hysteria & aggressive behavior?
Reply
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
August 4, 2021
Dr Hafiz Rizwan Akram,

thank you for your question, which is a really good one and please apologize for my delayed feedback.
With aggressiveness you mean feather pecking and cannibalism, which are really multifactorial problems; at the one side genetical, at the other side management: housing, lightning - respectively the light intensity, stocking density existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration), and of course nutrition related. ‘Aggression is highly related to responses to pain in almost all species (Craig, 1981)”. Feed restriction will also trigger aggressiveness. “Frustration was inflicted to hungry birds by covering the feed tray with clear plastic, so that the food was seen but could not be touched (Duncan and Wood-Gush, 1971)”. This means that ad libitum feeding could be one of the solutions against aggression and to avoid any kind of discomfort. This is also the reason why in diets with lowered CP the single EAA need to be supplied. As first limiting in poultry, are Meth + Cys important, and one of the nutrition related tools is especially Tryptophan, 1,5%/ kg of feed decreases aggression in several studies, but also Mg, Na, and the B vitamins, especially B6 are useful nutrition related tools against aggressivity in monogastric animals in generally, and water of course is important as well.

Regarding Choline, we know that choline is a precursor for acetyl choline synthesis, the transmission agent for impulses along the sympathetic nervous system and acetyl choline is an excitatory neurotransmitter. So not really helpful against aggression, as here we need an inhibitory neurotransmitter :).
In the methylation cycle, Betaine as a methyl group donor is more efficient that choline because it can donate the needed methyl group directly, without any metabolic conversion. Choline needs to be converted first via two steps into Betaine and only then can contribute to the methylation cycle as a methyl group donor.

Thank you again!
All best and kind regards,
Ana Gavrau
Reply
Saifur Rahaman Saifur Rahaman
DVM, MS(Pharmacology) also Commonwealth Executive-MBA
July 23, 2021
Betaine work as osmoregulation, but how it is work as choline?
Reply
Ana Gavrӑu Ana Gavrӑu
Global Technical Product Manager
August 4, 2021
Dear Saifur Rahaman,

The role of Choline in the methylation cycle, more exactly in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, is fulfilled by Betaine, becasue Choline needs to be converted first, via two steps into Betaine, and only then can act as a methyl group donor. Therefore, Betaine as a methyl group donor is more efficient than choline, because it can donate the needed methyl group directly via the enzyme BHMT, without any metabolic conversion step.
We do not question the role of choline, we say that there is enough native choline in the feed materials to fulfill the other functions of choline for phospholipid synthesis and formation of acethyl choline.
All best and kind regards,
Ana Gavrau
Reply
August 5, 2021
When I was studying at the university, the subject "biological chemistry" (1971) already mentioned the relationship between betaine and methionine. But in turn, also in nutritional terms in poultry farming, methionine could be interconverted into cystine and vice versa. Choline also appeared as a methyl donor. My experience in this question is that it is a metabolic question where it is not clear what the needs of each particular thing are, if it is not taken as a whole. I must clarify that the professionals of animal nutrition, in our country, do not have the means for such research. So let's do what we can. Also all these substances, which are usually used as liver protectors, are administered together with INOSITOL. I apologize for my english from google translator.

Reply
MOSES BAHAGO MOSES BAHAGO
Student
August 15, 2021
Good observation though.
It is equally important to note that such additives must be carefully added to avoid abnormality in the poultry performance
Reply
Engormix reserves the right to delete and/or modify comments. See more details
Post a comment
 
Copyright © 1999-2021 Engormix - All Rights Reserved