AGPs in broiler diets

Forum: Phytogenic growth promoters as replacement for AGPs in broiler diets

Published on: 04/28/2010
Author/s : Sudipto Haldar
Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been an integral part of the poultry feed industry for more than fifty years. However, a search for the alternatives to the AGPs has been initiated since their prolonged use has precipitated some problems such as development of resistant strains within groups of primary pathogens or opportunistic bacteria and break down of the symbiosis between the animal an...
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Dr Zahid Nasir Dr Zahid Nasir
Animal Nutritionist
April 28, 2010
This is an interesting article showing the effects of a mixture/cocktail of different feed additives on broiler performance. But there is no information available in the article about composition of the tested product and either these effects were due to one of these additives or is there some synergy.

Composition of basal diet show availability of nutrients in sufficient amount but it is unclear why growth performance of control birds was also very less. Were there some other stress factors ?
April 29, 2010
yes we must use the probiotic instead of antibiotic espicially for residue in the meat and eggs.
and in this time we encountered with the bacteria which resistant to many antibiotics as lincomycine ,spiramycine ,and etc
thank you and best regards
November 29, 2010
Interesting article and interesting findings. I would further like to know its effect on Clostridia as it is the major concern of poultry industry.

February 13, 2011
I would agree with the comment of Dr. Zahid Nasir that there must have been something wrong with the control group, as the Daily Weight Gain is only about 36.01 grams per day and the FCR is at the level for growing pigs. Even the performance by the treatment groups (about 46 grams) is far below the Cobb 400 Standard. Its also strange that there is a 10 points and significant difference in FCR between 100 ppm and 150 ppm of the product. It is generally recognised that the effect of AGPs on FCR is about 2-4 points only. We would also suggest to use larger pens (minimum 30-40 birds instead of 10) and more replicates (10 instead of 6). From this study we could tend to conclude that the phytogenic product works opposite to the traditional antibiotic growth promoters, since it increases the Lactobacillus population, where-as AGPs normally slow down lactobacilli and their activity, since they are high nutrient consumers (WPSA-Brisbane). Trials in EU under well controled and semi-optimal conditions confirm above and the higher FCR. We wonder how the effect on villi and crypt parameters (data not in the article) were obtained and whats the explanation for such effect is.
Matt Pearce Matt Pearce
International Technical Support specialist
February 17, 2011
There is no international system currently available to sufficiently characterise and quantify biological properties of plants, and finally standardise their use as antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal or antioxidant agents (Ilias G, 2008). However, Oregano is the plant which is known to have the most potent content of phenolic compounds and direct antimicrobial action against pathogenic bacteria. Oregano, is also well known for its’ antioxidant properties (Sivropoulou et al., 1996). When an effective commercially available phytogenic feed additive is used, unlike AGP’s, intestinal pathogenic bacteria cannot develop resistance due to the unique mode of action on the cell membrane.

Waldenstedt (2003) compared the difference between the use of a live attenuated coccidiostat vaccine and OEO in organic chicken broiler production. Numbers of Clostridium perfringens in caeca were significantly lower in chickens given OEO at 31 days (log10 cfu 4.1 vs. 6.1, p<0.05), and chickens given OEO had a significantly higher live weight up to 48 days.

Fukayama 2005 found that an oregano based phytogenic feed additive in comparison with antibiotic feed additives had similar results of growth performance, carcass quality, anatomical and physiological analysis of the GI tract, and intestinal bacterial composition.

Several commercial trials which have not been published for reasons of proprietary protection have demonstrated that phytogenic feed additives are able to increase final harvest weights, reduce FCR and protect against problematic poultry pathogens. The fact that phytogenic feed additives are being so widely used in commercial production of poultry shows that they are a commercial success as well as scientific curiosity.
February 17, 2011
Very good article. There are large numbers of medicinal plants which can be used in broiler rations to replace AGP’s; like garlic, ginger, black cumin seeds, neam leaves etc.
Nadir Alloui Nadir Alloui
Veterinary Doctor
February 18, 2011

Recent studies on its compounds have shown some positive impact on the domestic animals performance, such as the antimicrobial effects, antioxidant and regulator of the intestinal flora of poultry. This indicates that plant extracts can be classified as growth promoter, but the approach to the efficacy and safety of their use as food additive remains to be seen.

Nadir Alloui Nadir Alloui
Veterinary Doctor
February 18, 2011

Here is an excellent book on phytogenics in animal nutrition , you can download it for free

Nadir Alloui
DVM- Ph D Animal Science

April 7, 2011
the article doesnot revieve much of technical possibilities. use of probiotics ,ezymes ,etc has shown its efficacy on field farming.why not incoporate HOMEOPATHIC drugs and carry the research, rather than hitting stick in water.
Ganesh Kumar Dahal Ganesh Kumar Dahal
Managing Director MDH Pharmaceuticals Pvt.Ltd.
April 7, 2011
I appreciate the work done by the author.

Phytobiotic growth promoters like Essential Oils are found to be much effective in large intestinal & caecal region of poultry. Among EOs, role of Oregano Essential Oil to reduce numbers of Clostridium perfringens have been well documented.

Now a days AGP are mostly replaced by other non-antibiotic growth promoters.
Dr.Arkan Baraa Mohamed Dr.Arkan Baraa Mohamed
Poultry farmer
April 7, 2011
dear sir ;
the artical is very good, and i agree with dr.Nasir about the your results , i see from my reaseach about the medical plant , it's can increase body weight ,FRC , ...etc and it's good antibacterial ...

Assist.Prof. Dr.arkan braa mohameed
Avian Physiology
Dr.sohail Ahmad Dr.sohail Ahmad
Animal Nutritionist
April 8, 2011

It is a good effort to replace antibiotics because antibiotics are banned in some countries due to their side effects in humans (residue of antibiotics in eggs and meat). I will not agree with the comments of Mr. Nitin about the article. I reviewed some parts of the article to under stand their theme.

Probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids have all shown promising results in controlling a wide array of bacteria including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium and E. coli. The phytogenic feed additives are a more recent addition in this list and are composed of plant extracts (microencapsulated essential oils, bitter substances, and pungent substances and may also include an acid substance and saponin). These preparations have been shown to activate digestion, strengthen the immune system and have antibacterial properties.

The efficacy of a phytogenic growth promoter or phytobiotic (Digstarom, Microplus Konzentrate GmbH, Germany), containing natural and artificial aromatics, including natural herbs and drugs as well as natural essential oils, was tested in a broiler trial.

A phytobiotic product was found to improve weight gains and FCR over that of birds supplemented with an AGP. Counts of the Lactobacilli spp. E. coli and Salmonella were reduced to zero in the crop, proventriculus, gizzard and small intestine of birds receiving antibiotic or phytobiotic supplementations. The phytobiotic growth promoter stimulated proliferation of Lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract. These findings confirmed the beneficial effects of a phytobiotic growth promoter on the beneficial microbes of the gut flora. The phytobiotic growth promoter sustained the crypt depth and the villi height to a greater degree than did the AGP.
Although the in sufficient availability of nutrients in composition of basal diet and other unknown stress factors effects the growth but overall this article will be opened the new window for the researchers to eliminate the antibiotics from the feed.
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