broiler performance

Forum: Formulating Feed for Broiler Performance

Published on: 01/27/2009
Author/s : Dr. K. R. Gunasekar (Courtesy of Avitech Animal Health Pvt. Ltd.)
Every year the marketing age of broilers decreases by an average of 0.75 days for the same performance. This trend is likely to continue in the same direction for the coming years. Nutrition plays a vital role in enabling this improvement. As the feed cost represents an expensive input (~70-80% of broiler production cost), the poultry producer should be aware of the dynamics of the feed in its inf...
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Ing. Dragan Ionut Ing. Dragan Ionut
Agro Engineer Zootechnist
August 2, 2015
Hello E.I.Mahbuh
you have enough to aquire 2 kg at 35 days with a feed conversion 1.55-1.6.
in Romania this is a standard.I can help you if you want.But , pay attention. everything is important : house , feed and poulty quality.
July 12, 2019
Ing. Dragan Ionut
What's your Cp, and ME level to achieve that please
September 12, 2015
Ing. Dragan Ionut Ing. Dragan Ionut
Agro Engineer Zootechnist
September 12, 2015
Dear Haleem.
Because you are a student , you can do it yourself.
Here you can find a program for formulation online:
You know what kind of raw material you have , what price for them and of course , you know what requirements you have for your animals
This software will give you the best formulation if you put the right restrictions inside.
Succes. If you need help , I am here
September 12, 2015

Factors forcing usage of alternative, non conventional feeding stuff.
After decades of research trials, poultry feed ingradients and formulations were very much streamlined.
However oflate many of these hitherto employed poultry feed inputs are used in alternate sectors limiting their availability for poultry and the prices are increasing at alarming rate giving a lethal blow to the poultry industry.

Factors limiting the use of alternative feed ingredients in feed formulations
Nutritional aspects
- High fibre content
- Limited information on the availability of nutrients
- Need for nutrient supplementation (added cost)
- Presence of anti-nutritional factor(s)
- Variability (or lack of consistency) in nutrient quality

Technical aspects
- Bulkiness, physical characteristics
- Limited research and development facilities for determining nutrient composition and inclusion levels in poultry diets
- Need for de-hulling and/or processing (drying, detoxification)
- Seasonal and unreliable supply

Socio-economic aspects
- Competition with use as human food
- Cost of processing
- Cost per unit of energy or limiting amino acids, relative to traditional feedstuffs (feed manufacturer)
- Poor prices relative to other arable crops (farmer)

Alfaalfameal 5 Scarce
Ambadi Cake 10
Barley 20-40 Scarce
Cassein 2 HIGH COST
Chia cake 1 LOW PROFILE
Copra meal 4 low protein, mycotoxins
Corn Gluten Meal 15 HIGH COST
Cotton seed meal 2 ANF (gossypol)
Cow Dung 3 Psychological
DDGS 10 to 20
De oiled Rice Bran 10 to 20
De Oiled Silk Worm Pupae 6 Scarce
Feather meal 3 Scarce
FISH MEAL 10 TOXINS, Sand silica, salt
Fish Solubles 3 Scarce
Ghee Residue 3 Scarce
G N Shell Powder 3 Fibre
Gram Chuni 10 to 15 Fibre
Gelatine 2 HIGH COST
Grape seed cake 5 Scarce
G N Cake De Oiled 20 Toxins
Groundnut leaf meal 5 Scarce
Guar Meal Korma 10
Hominey Feed 10 Scarce
Inactivated dried yeast 5 HIGH COST
Jowar 10 to 40
Kardi Cake (Safflower cake) 6
Korra Bran 3 Fiber
Leather Meal 3 Low Digestibility
Leafy vegetable meal 10
Linseed cake 5
Maize husk 5 Fiber, Moisture
Maize 60
Mango Seed Kernel 5 to 10 tannins
Meat Cum Bone Meal 10 Presence of Pathogens
Mutton Tallow 3 to 5
Meat Meal 8 Adulteration
Molasses 5 to 10 REGULATIONS and Wet Litter Problem
Napier, Lucerne Meal 5
Niger Cake 10
Oat meal 10 to 20 HIGH COST
Palm cake 6 high fibre, low palatability;
Poultry Litter 10 Low Digestibility
Prawn shell and Head Meal 4 Toxins, Pathogens
Ragi 30
Rape Seed Cake 15 glucosinolates
Rice brokens 40
Rice Polish 25-40
Rubber Seed Meal 5 to 10 low protein, presence of cyanogenic glucosides
Sago waste 15
Sal Seed Meal 3 to 5 LOW PROFILE
Safflower cake 6
Skimmed Milk Powder 4 HIGH COST
Soy cake 40 HIGH COST
Soy flour full fat 20 HIGH COST
Spent Coffee 2 SCARCE
Sunflower extraction 20 FIBER
Tamarind Skin Powder 1 ANF
Tapioca Chips (Cassava ) 10 to 20
Til Cake 15 high phytate content
Tomatto pomace 5
Triticale 40
Wheat Bran 10 to 15
Wheat Brokens 50
Wheat gluten 10 HIGH COST
Wheat middlings 15

Ambadi Cake

Availability of Ambadi cake in India is 0.33 x 10 ^5 tonnes

Crude Protein 23.4
Ether Extract 6.3
Crude Fiber 19.7
Nitrogen Free Extract 40.2
Ash 10.4
Digestible CP 18.7
TDN 63.8
(M .L. PUNJ)

The feeding value of ambadi-cake (kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for dairy cattle was assessed. The digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) content were 18.3 and 63.7% respectively. The animals maintained on cake and sorghum straw showed positive nitrogen balance. Three groups of growing crossbred (HF x Gir) bull-calves were fed concentrate mixture containing 0, 10 or 20% ambadi-cake for 183 days. The live-weight gains were 0.64, 0.66 and 0.73 kg/day in 0, 10 and 20% ambadi-cake groups respectively. During experimental period two metabolic trials were conducted. In all the groups the digestibility coefficients of ration for DM, OM, CF and NFE were significantly higher during trial 2 than in trial 1. The effect of feeding ambadi-cake-based concentrate was studied in 12 Jersey cows in 3 x 3 latin-square1119 design. Production of milk and fat-corrected milk (FCM) was, respectively, 1,258.66 and 1,562.00 kg in control group, 1,329 and 1,657.13 kg in 10% ambadi-cake group, and 1,244.0 and 1,570.78 kg in 20% ambadi-cake group. The differences were not statistically significant but cost of feed was lower for 20% ambadi-cake g
(Badve, V.C.; Waghmare, B.S.; Joshi, A.L.; Rangnekar, D.V. (Bhartiya Agro-Industries Foundation, Urulikanchan; India Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; Vol. No.v. 56(5) p. 562-567; (May 1986); Nutritive evaluation of ambadi-cake for dairy)

Ambadi cake upto20% in compound cattle feed had no adverse effect on growth of the animal and decreased cost of feeding of prevalent cost structure.
Fraction of feed nitrogen resistant to protease found to be significantly highin ambadi cake (47.46) as compare to other feed samples like GNC(12.97), meat & bone meal.
Maximum ADIN % content in ambadi cake than ground nut cake.
Rumen escape protein value % of ambadi cake (27.52) & meat & bonemeal (26.41) was found to be significantly high as compare to other feedsampals.

Rapid rumen soluble nitrogen expressed % rumen degradable Nsignificantly high in safflower cake(86.76) followed by GNC and ambadicake.
(Ramachandra et al.,)

Hydrolysed Cassein

Chia Seed Deoiled Cake
Oil Cake Profile
The values are calculated per 100g
Energy kcal 351
Energy kJ 1477
Protein 28.3g
Carbohydrate 37.6g
Omega 3 0.8g
Omega 6 1.2g
Sugars 0.2g
Starch 37.4g
Total Fat 6.3g
Saturates 1.6g
Mono unsaturated 2.3g
Poly unsaturated 2.1g
Fibre 15.4g
Sodium 0.00g
Dry matter 92.0%
Moisture 8.0%
Nitrogen 4.52%
Ash 4.4%

Cocoa pod husk.
Proximate composition of cocoa pod husk.
Components g/kg DM
Dry Matter 889.6 ± 1.5
Total Ash 90.7 ± 0.4
Crude protein 91.4 ± 1.7
Crude fibre 357.4 ± 0.9
NDF 597.8 ± 18.8
ADF 470.4 ± 9.3
Lignin 211.6 ± 2.6
Hemicellulose 127.5 ± 9.6
Cellulose 261.5 ± 3.0
Total Sugars 33.0 ± 0.6
Values are presented based on dry weight material
as Mean ± Standard deviation.
DM = Dry Matter.

Copra meal

Corn Gluten Meal
Cotton seed meal
Cow Dung
Crude protein, % 28.8-40%
Crude fat, % 7.9
NDF, % 52.9
ADF, % 23.8
ME (swine), kcal/kg 2130
Lysine, % 1.17
Methionine, % 0.49
Threonine, % 1.03
Tryptophan, % 0.28
Calcium, % 0.35
Phosphorus, % 0.56
P availability for swine, % 34

We conducted two feeding trials in which microbial enzymes were supplemented. In the first experiment, 432 day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 4 × 2 factorial design. Four levels of DDGS inclusion (0, 100, 200 or 300 g/kg) with or without a xylanase enzyme (Ronozyme WX, 1000 fungal Xylanase units per gram, DSM, Heerlen, Netherlands) were fed for 21 days in starter diets and then from 21 days to 35 days of age in finisher diets. Compared with the control diet, feed intake was increased (P < 0.001) by DDGS during the first 3 weeks and during the entire period of the study. Body weight gain was not affected by DDGS or xylanase. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) deteriorated (P 0.05) as the level of DDGS increased during the first 3 weeks of feeding. Over that period, the effect of xylanase supplementation was not significant for inclusion of up to 200 g/kg DDGS. However, in birds fed 300 g/ kg DDGS, xylanase supplementation improved FCR (P < 0.05) over the starter period and over the entire feeding period with the result that birds fed this diet ended the study with body weights similar to those of other treatments but tended to consume less feed than birds fed the other diets. These results concur with those reported by Liu et al. (2011) for maize DDGS.
Protein digestibility declined as the level of DDGS increased. This could be responsible for the increase in feed intake as a result of DDGS inclusion. However, starch digestibility was not affected by enzyme supplementation or DDGS.
Analysis of total NSPs (Table 3) showed that increasing the level of DDGS to 30% reduced the concentrations of rhamnose and fucose in ileal digesta. The concentrations of arabinose, ribose and total NSP in ileal digesta were not affected by DDGS level, whereas levels of glucose and xylose in ileal digesta rose as DDGS level rose to 30%. Xylanase supplementation increased xylose concentration in the digesta, but only at the 30% DDGS level.
It can be concluded from this study that inclusion of up to 30% DDGS in broiler diets is feasible and that when combined with carbohydrases, xylanase in particular, productivity is similar to that for DDGS-free diets. Xylanase may depolymerise viscous xylans, and therefore reduce their detrimental effect on nutrient digestion. This is partly responsible for the observed increase in the concentration of free xylose in digesta. However, protein digestibility and growth were reduced when diets contained 20% or 30% DDGS with no enzyme supplementation.


Total content (left) and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients (right) of corn, triticale and wheat DDGS as 30% replacement of a basal diet (85% wheat, 10% SBM) (Source - Zijlstra and Beltranena 2007

Distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are becoming increasingly important in poultry feeding. Research into the use of this material has focused largely on maize DDGS from North America and less work has been done on the predominantly sorghum DDGS that are produced in Australia. Barekatain, Iji and Choct at the University of New England in New South Wales conducted a feeding trial with sorghum DDGS and a xylanase enzyme (Ronozyme WX, DSM) in broiler chickens. They found that feed intake was significantly increased with the inclusion of dietary DDGS in the diet compared to the control diets. There was no effect on body weight gain from the addition of DDGS or xylanase. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) deteriorated significantly with the rising level of DDGS in diets during the first three weeks of feeding. Over that period, the effect of xylanase supplementation was not significant at up to 20% DDGS inclusion. However, in birds fed 30% DDGS, the FCR was significantly improved by the addition of xylanase, over the starter and the entire feeding period of the study, with birds ending up with similar body weight but tending to consume less feed as a result of xylanase addition. From this trial they concluded that xylanase may help to limit the detrimental effect of high DDGS inclusion especially in the starter phase of feeding.

De Oiled Silk Worm Pupae
Feather meal
Fish Solubles
Ghee Residue
G N Shell Powder
Gram Chuni
Grape seed cake
G N Cake De Oiled
Groundnut leaf meal

Guar Meal Korma
Product : Gaur Korma Soya Meal
Moisture 2.21 % 9-10%
Crude Protein 50-56.88 % 46-48%
Total Energy 4050 Kcal/Kg 3650 Kcal/Kg
Metabolic Energy (ME) 3191 Kcal/Kg 2400-2600 Kcal/Kg
ME Swine 3,450 k/cal
ME Poultry 2,520 k/cal
Crude Fiber 4.05-9.8% 5.00% - 6.00%
Crude Fat content(FOG) 4-7.08% 0.20% - 1.00%
Sand/Silica 0.15% 0.70% - 1.50%
Carbohydrates 28.54%
L-Lysine 2.17-3.22% 2.40%
L-Methionine 0.57-0.73% 0.55%
Arginine 3.62%
Cystine 0.79%
Isoleucine 2.31%
Leucine 3.7%
Meth+cystine 1.51%
Threonine 1.94%
Tryptophan 0.68%
Valine 2.35%

Protein solubility 89% 78%.
Trypsin Inhibitor Activity 2.0-5.0 mg/g 2.0-5.0 mg/g
Pepsin Digestibility 88.96% 84.0 %– 85.0%
TDN(Total Digestive Nutrient 86.4%

Total Phosphorus 0.74% 0.74%
Available Phosphorus 0.23% 0.15 %
Calcium 1.12% 0.35 %

Salmonella Absent Absent
Aflatoxin Total Below detection limits In range of 45-50 mcg/kg
Aflatoxin B1 1.7 mcg/kg 10 ppb

PARTICULARS - Maximum Limit
Dry Matter Not - Applicable
Crude Protein - 50-55%
Fat- 7%
Crude Fiber- 7 %
Neutral Detergent Fiber - Not Applicable
Acid Detergent Fiber- Not Applicable
Calcium Mg/100g- 420
Phosphorus Mg/100g- 350
Total Digestible Nutrients-Not Applicable
Net energy-Lactation- Not Applicable
Xanthophyll- Not Applicable
Metabolize Energy- Not Applicable
Methionine, L-Lysine- Not Applicable
Digestible Protein- Not Applicable
Calories K.CAL/100 Gm- 383.22
Total Plate Count CFU/GM-850
Yeast & Mould Count CFU/GM-80
ARSENIC ppm- 0.2
LEAD ppm- 0.1
ZINC ppm- N.D.

Higher percentage of Crude Protein (CP) 56.88 %
Higher Digestibility Index, due to elimination of anti nutritive factors.
More desirable and balanced amino acid Profile
Higher Energy content and FATS (oil) percentage. (Fat) in G Korma 7.08%; in Soya Meal 0.20% - 1.00%
Total Energy: Guar Korma. - 4050 Kcal/Kg; Soya Meal: 3650 Kcal/Kg
Metabolic Energy (ME) : Guar Korma - -3191 Kcal/Kg; Soya Meal: 2400-2600 Kcal/Kg
Low percentage of less digestible Fiber.
Higher Palatability, complete elimination of peculiar beany odour and taste
Low content of TVN
Free flowing, uniform fine particle size with good fat and water binding ability.

Trials done in past shows that this processed GK can be added to feed in following percentages for high Feed Conversation Ratio(FCR), low mortality and high weight gain :

Broiler : 5-7% for Starters and 5-12% for Finishers
Layers: 5%
Swine: Prestarters 5-7%, Starters 5-9%, Growers and Hinishers 5-12%, Breeders 5-10%.
Ruminants: 5-7%
Fish and Prawn: 10-20%

Guarmeal contains relatively high levels of saponins, which are known to have antiprotozoal activity and may be effective against coccidiosis. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment investigated the impact of guarmeal (0 or 5%) corn–soy-based starter broiler diets on chicks unchallenged or challenged with Eimeria tenella. At 1 day of age, 120 unsexed Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed among four treatment groups. Chicks were challenged with 5 × 103 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella in 0.5 ml at 10 days of age by oral gavage. Weekly body weight, body weight gains, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were recorded for chicks fed from 0 to 21 days of age. Oocysts shed per gram feces were recorded from 6 to 10 days post-challenge. Results showed that challenged chicks fed 0% guarmeal had significantly higher oocysts per gram shed in feces than the other groups. No significant differences among treatment groups in mortality rate were observed. Body weights of unchallenged and challenged chicks fed 0% guarmeal were significantly higher than those fed 5% guarmeal at 2 weeks of age. Results indicated that including 5% guarmeal in the diet of chicks challenged with E. tenella decreased oocysts shed per gram feces and prevented bloody diarrhea, but without affects on body weight and feed conversion ratio at 11 days post-challenge.
( )

A study was carried out to determine the effects of using different levels of Guar meal on
performance and blood metabolites in Holstein lactating cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows
(DIM=95±10) were used in Latin square design with 4 block and 4 repeats. Animal in each group
fed 1 of 4 experimental rations. Diets contain 0, 50, 75 and 100 percentage cottonseed meal were
replaced with gaur meal. Diets were similar as NEL and crude protein (Iso caloric and iso
nitrogenous) on dry basis. Cows were fed with total mixed ration individually. Dry matter intake
and milk yields were higher for cows fed with 0% guar meal and lowest for 100 cottonseed meal
replaced by guar meal, but no significant difference were found among FCM 4%. Milk fat and
protein percentage and yields were highest for 50 % Guar meal, but no significant difference was
found between milk lactose and calcium. Milk Urea Nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were not
significantly affected by experimental diets.

Data available show that guar meal is comparable to soybean meal in terms of nutritional content. For instance, the minimum crude protein percentage of guar meal is rated at 50% compared to 48% of soy bean meal. Its crude fiber is at 6.8% maximum, while that of soybean meal is at 3%; It has a minimum crude fat content of 5% versus 1% of soybean meal, and has a higher protein solubility of 89% than soybean meal with 78%.
Analysis for amino acids also showed that guar meal has 3.22% lysine, 0.79% cystine, 1.94% threonine, 3.62% arginine, 3.7% leucine, 0.73% methionine, 1.51% meth+cystine, 0.68% tryptophan, 2.31% isoleucine, and 2.35% valine. It has metabolizable energy of 3,450 k/cal for swine and 2,520 k/cal for poultry.
When mixed with feed formulation, guar meal can be given at 5% to 7% of total feed production for layers. In broilers, the recommended inclusion rate is 5%-7% for starter feeds, and 5%-12% for grower feeds.
For swine, the following dosages are recommended: 5%-7% (pre-starter), 59% (starter), 5%-12% (grower/finisher), and 5%-10% (breeder).
Guar meal is also suitable for use in ruminant feeds at a rate of 5%-7%, and for aquaculture feeds at 10%-20%.
Processed guar meal is also cheaper than soybean meal.
By Melpha M. Abello



Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Taubert.

Cordaea fabaeformis (L’Herit.) Spreng.
Cyamopsis psoraloides (Lam.) DC.
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.
Dolichos fabaeformis L’Her.
Dolichos fabiformis L’Her.
Dolichos psoraloides Lam.
Lopinus trifoliolatus Cav.
Lupinus trifoliatus Cav.
Psoralea tetragonoloba L.


Arab: Hindia; B: Jhar Sim; Bo: Gauri; E: Calcutta Lucerne, Guar Cluster Bean, Guar Bean, Siam Bean; Fr: Cyamopse Quatre Ailes; Guj: Guvarphalli, Gwaar Ki Phalli; H: Babachi, Goovaar, Govar, Gowar, Gearakhi Phali; Japan: Guaaru Gamu, Guaaru Mame, Guaaru Mame, Kuasuta Mame; Kan: Capparadavari, Gawarkai, Goreekaye, Gorikaayi,
Javali Kaayi; Mal: Kottamara, Kottavara; Malay: Kottavarai, Kotha Marakka, Kothavara, Kottamara, Kottavara; Mar: Bavachi, Gowar; Myanm: Walee Pe; Oriya: Guanra Chhuim; P: Guar, Kulti; S: Bakuchi, Dridhabija, Gaur, Gavar, Gawar, Goor, Gouree, Govar, Gowaree, Goraksaphalini, Gorakshaphalini, Gorani, Guara, Gunwar, Gorani,
Goraksaphalini, Ksudrasimbi, Nishandyaghni, Sushaka, Vakrashimbi; Swahili: Mgwaru; Tam: Cetiyavarai, Cottaveraykai, Goor, Kottavara, Kottavarai, Kothaverai, Kothaveray, Nilakikkottavarai; Tel: Goruchikudu;
Thai: Thua Gua; Urdu: Hab Qilqil.

Erect annual herb 1-2 m high; Leaves, trifoliate, pointed, saw-toothed; Flowers, small, purplish or rose-coloured, borne along the axis of a spikelet; Pods, hairy, 3-4 inches long, in clusters.

Fl & Fr: Sept.-Nov.

Parts Used
Fruit, leaves.

Prop: Seeds.

C & A P
Guar Gum; galactomannan, powder of endosperm seeds: colourless or pale yellowish white, dispersible in water forming a thick colloidal solution; not soluble in alcohol; contains guaran.

Cultivated in many parts of India mainly in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthann.

Used as a protective colloid, a binding and a disintegrating agent, bulk laxative, appetite depressant, and in peptic ulcer therapy; Reduces cholesterol content.

Fruit: Laxative; Used in gastric disturbances, biliousness and bad breath;
Leaves: To cure night blindness.

Guar gum: 5 g.

Affects Bile; Causes indigestion, bloating; Should not be used with

Gulkand, digestive tonics.

Gum substitutes locust bean gum.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL and Chopra IC (1956). Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants.
CSIR, New Delhi.
Yarra Subbarayudu and Vasthuguna Deepika. A B S Publishers, Rajahmundry-1.

Web Ref:

(Excerpt from Comprehensive Indian Medicinal Plants by G Vijaya Raghavan: Vol. 2; 2011; Studium Press)

Potential concerns
Gum content
Guar meal contains about 12 % gum residue (7 % in the germ fraction and 13% in the hulls) (Lee et al., 2005), which increases viscosity in the intestine, resulting in lower digestibilities and growth performance (Lee et al., 2009).

Other antinutritional factors
Guar meal contains other types of antinutritional factors: trypsin inhibitors, saponin, haemagglutinins, hydrocyanic acid and polyphenols have been identified (Verma et al., 1982; Gutierrez et al., 2007). However, anti-trypsic activity was found to be lower than in heat-treated soybean meal and therefore not the main cause of antinutritional effects in poultry (Lee et al., 2004). The large saponin content of guar seed (up to 13% DM) could have both antinutritionals effect and a positive antimicrobial activity (Hassan et al., 2010).

Dioxin and PCP contamination
In 2007, batches of Indian guar gum imported to Europe were found to be contaminated with PCP (pentachlorophenol, a chemical used as an insecticide and fungicide) and PCP-related dioxins, up to 1000 times above the legal limit. A EU mission sent to India could not determine the source of the contamination, but found that PCP was used extensively in the production of guar gum and that the controls in place were inadequate. The mission team also found guar splits contaminated with dioxins, though not related to PCP and likely to have come from another source (CEC, 2007).

Nutritional attributes
Guar meal is an interesting feedstuff due to its relatively high protein content, 40-45 % DM for the regular meal and 50-55 % DM for the korma meal. Its lysine (1.72 % DM) and sulphur aminoacids (methionine + cysteine 0.96 % DM) contents are comparable to those of groundnut meal but much lower than those of soybean meal (Feedipedia, 2011). Its main issues for all species are palatability and antinutritional content. The current manufacturing of guar meal involves toasting, which destroys antitrypsic inhibitors and haemagglutins, but the problems caused by the gum content may still require further processing. Guar meal is usually suitable for ruminants and can replace other protein sources up to a certain point, but its use in monogastrics is more limited.

The addition of guar by-products in poultry diets may be a useful economic strategy for decreasing feed costs while maintaining production levels provided that the inclusion rates are kept lower than 10 or even 5 %. Treatment of guar products can improve marginally the value of the product. Reported TME for poultry are in the 10.9-11.3 MJ/kg DM range
(Campbell et al., 1983; Nadeem et al., 2005).

Raw guar meal depresses growth and feed efficiency in chickens at inclusion rates as low as 7.5 % (Vohra et al., 1964a) and 10 % seems to be the maximum rate acceptable (Patel et al., 1985). An inclusion rate of 2.5 % untreated guar meal can support growth, feed consumption, feed:gain ratio, and meat yield equivalent to those of a corn-soybean meal diet (Conner, 2002). The antinutritional effects are more pronounced in young birds (Verma et al., 1982). The residual gum present in the hull fraction (and to a lesser extent in the germ) is thought to be the main cause of the antinutritional value of guar meal. The gum increases intestinal viscosity, preventing the correct mixing of digesta and their contact with digestive secretions. It also causes watery and sticky feces (Lee et al., 2009). The effects on animal performances of other antinutritional factors present in guar meal, notably anti-trypsin inhibitors, are less certain (Lee et al., 2004).
Several methods to improve the nutritive value of guar meal in poultry have been proposed, with variable success. Steam pelleting, toasting, water treatment and methionine supplementation failed to improve performance in broilers, while the addition of cellulase, hemicellulase or ß-mannanase improved feed utilization (though not necessarily body weight), as well as combinations of heat treatment (autoclaving) and enzyme treatment (Vohra et al., 1964a; Patel et al., 1985; Lee et al., 2003; Lee et al., 2004, Lee et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2009). Fermentation with Aspergillus niger or Fusarium sp. was also found to be useful (Nagra et al., 1998a; Nagra et al., 1998b). Autoclaving enhanced the stickiness of dropping, whereas hemicellulase prevented it (Patel et al., 1985). However, even for treated guar meal, the feeding threshold should remain as low as 5 % to avoid problems (Lee et al., 2005).

Laying hens
Guar meal included at 10 % or higher in the diet of laying hens decreases egg production and feed efficiency and diminishes egg yolk color. Guar germs and guar meal could be fed up to 5 % to high-production laying eggs without without unfavorable effects on egg production, feed consumption, eggshell quality, and solid egg components, but affected negatively feed conversion, egg weight, and total egg mass (Gutierrez et al., 2007).

Hominey Feed
Inactivated dried yeast
Kardi Cake (Safflower cake)
Korra Bran
Leather Meal
Leafy vegetable meal
Linseed cake
Maize husk


Odors Characteristic, free from rancid, smoky& foreign odor
Flavors Characteristic, free from rancid, smoky& foreign flavors
Moisture (%) 12%
OIL (%) 1.0%
Sand silica 1.5% max

Meat Cum Bone Meal
Mutton Tallow
Meat Meal
Napier, Lucerne Meal

NIGER CAKE (Guizotia abysainica):
Availability : 1 x 10^5tonnes of cake annually.
Richer in available lysine & methionine than groundnut cake
ME varies between 2700-2800kcal/kg

Parameter Percentage
Crude protein 34.2
Ether extract 5.7
Crude fibre 13.6
Nitrogen free extract 37.0
Ash 9.5
DCP 32.7
TDN 49.4
(M .L.PUNJ )

57 % Level in concentrate mixture of cross breed calves
Niger seed cake can completely replace GNC on the protein basis for growing chicks *if fiber content in ration is adjusted
In cattle ration as high as 10-15% is not uncommon
Higher levels causes depression in total solid in milk
Advisable to include along with other oil cake like GNC, Copra cake etc.



General Specifications:
• Moisture: 10% max
• Protein: 38% Min
• Oil Content: 1% Max
• Sand & Silica: 2.5% Max
• Fibre: 12% Max

Rubber Seed Meal
Sago waste
Sal Seed Meal
Safflower cake
Skimmed Milk Powder

Spent Coffee
Sunflower extraction
Tamarind Skin Powder


The use of cassava roots and other parts of the plant as an animal feed is traditional in Africa and Asia (Chauynarong et al., 2009).

Til Cake
Tomatto pomace

Metabolisable energy (ME) content, ME intake, net energy (NE) of production and energy retained as protein and fat for broilers fed diets based on triticale (Bogong, Canobolas, Endeavour, Jackie, Tobruk), wheat or maize as is basis.

Wheat Bran
Wheat Brokens
Wheat gluten

Wheat middlings
Wheat middlings or wheat mill run, stated by AAFCO, is coarse and fine particles of wheat bran and fine particles of wheat shorts, wheat germ, wheat flour and offal from the "tail of the mill".

Wheat middlings is an inexpensive byproduct intermediate of human food processing, commonly referred to as floor sweepings (although such products are generally captured long before they would end up on the floor). It is inexpensive filler in pet food and a basis for manufacturing semolina. It has 96 percent of the energy value of barley and 91 percent of the energy value of corn.

Due to its high energy content and low price, wheat middlings is being researched as a biofuel. A burner designed to make good use of it is the USDA-OARDC AFBC, a small scale Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor. This technology originated in the 1920s in the chemical industry and was adopted by the power sector in the 1980s. Dr. Harold Keener has led the research on the OARDC-AFBC for the past twenty years, though the project lost some funding after the resolution of the energy crisis associated with the 1990 oil price shock.
Nutrient Value
Analysis Percentage
Dry Matter 89%
Crude Protein 16.5%
Crude Fiber 7.5%
Neutral Detergent Fiber 32%

El Boushy, A.R.Y. & van der Poel, A.F.B. 1994. Poultry feed from waste: Processing and use. London, Chapman and Hall.
Ensminger, M.E., Oldfield, J.E. & Heinemann, W.W. 1990. Feeds & nutrition. Clovis, California, USA, Ensminger Publishing.
FAO. Feed Resources Information System, Animal Health and Production Division.
Kellems, R.O. & Church, D.C. 2010. Livestock feeds and feeding. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Prentice Hall.
Ravindran, V. & Blair, R. 1991. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. I. Energy sources. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 47: 213–231.
Ravindran, V. & Blair, R. 1992. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. II. Plant protein sources. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 48: 205–231.
Ravindran, V. & Blair, R. 1993. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. III. Animal protein sources. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 49: 219–235.
Ravindran, V. & Bryden, W.L. 1999. Amino acid availability in poultry – in vitro and in vivo measurements. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50: 889–908.
Sonaiya, E.B. 1995. Feed resources for smallholder poultry in Nigeria. World Animal Review, 82:25-33.

Jaster John Flores Iligan Jaster John Flores Iligan
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture,Major in Animal Science-Animal Nutrition
September 13, 2015
thanks for the information sir, i would like to ask if you have a formulation in broiler and layer using rice bran oil and corn syrup
Stephen Adejoro Dr Stephen Adejoro Dr
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
September 14, 2015
The critical issue in the utilization of the unconventional animal feed raw materials is the availability of modern technology on to maximally release the indigestible trapped nutrients in the polysaccharides and the complex pep tide chains
The pressure from competition for available raw materials for other industrial usages had commanded high prices for these categories of raw materials and affectedt their profitable inclusion in animal feed formulations
The solution to these problem are the progressive researches on new technology on how to maximize the inclusion of alternate feed raw materials utilization ,so as to obtain optimal least cost and profitable feed production for livestock and especially for poultry
The results of the numerous researches had culminated into the discoveries of Enzymes of various substrate, ,macrobiotics, neutraceaticals,organic acids, toxin binders and of recent the use of nanotechnology for food safety and mycotoxin decontamination
This recent innovation had made livestock feed formulation a sustainable business and a viable alternative to animal diseases management
Raw materials that were hither to not considered for broiler ration formulation like palm kernel nuts and cassava chips in the poor countries of the world can now be utilized with available relevant digest able enzymes for the optimal formulation of broiler ration
Stephen Adejoro
September 14, 2015

Dear Jaster John Flores Iligan,

Do you want to feed with only these two ingredients?
If so we can design a balanced liquid feed.
If you are having availability of Cereals, Cakes, Brans, we can plan for Mash or Pellets.

What equipment you are having and what volumes you want to produce?


Fatty acid Percentage
C14:0 Myristic acid
C16:0 Palmitic acid
C18:0 Stearic acid
C18:1 Oleic acid (an Omega 9 fatty acid)
C18:2 Linoleic acid (LA, an Omega 6 fatty acid)
C18:3 a-Linolenic acid (ALA, an Omega 3 fatty acid)

Physical Propreties of Crude & refined Rice bran oil [2][3]
character Crude Rice bran oil Refined oil
0.5-1.0% 0.1-0.15%
Density (15-15 °C)
0.913-0.920 0.913-0.920
Refractive Index
1.4672 1.4672
Iodine value
95-100 95-104
Saponification value
187 187
Unsaponifiable matter
4.5-5.5 1.8-2.5
Free fatty acids
5-15% 0.15-0.2%
2.0 1.5-1.8
0.15 0.05

Nutrition Facts of Light Corn Syrup (corn syrup, karo corn syrup)
per 60 g

Calories 210

Calories from Fat 0

Total Fat 0g 0%

Saturated Fat 0g 0%

Polyunsaturated Fat 0g

Monounsaturated Fat 0g

Cholesterol 0mg 0%

Sodium 140mg 6%

Carbohydrates 53g 18%

Dietary Fiber 0g 0%

Sugars 29g

(Calories in Karo - Light Corn Syrup | Nutrition and Health Facts


Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
September 14, 2015
You should take help from professional to formulate the high performing broiler feed based on your available ingredients at your door step.You may opt for conventional items of good protein value and for fat add raw soyabean oil instead of lard and keep energy protein ration between 120 to 130 from starter to finisher stage.

Veterinary Doctor
September 14, 2015
Dear Dr Ram Peasad,

In Broiler Feed

The Energy / Protein Ratio is Enough Between 120 to 130 for

Starter & Finisher Feed.
September 14, 2015
There is saying that "make tomorrow feed from today's wastes" there are lots of organic wastes from agriculture both leftover (or rejected) and by-products (direct or indirect). Shall will discuss the processing methods and utilization of today's wastes: edible mushroom rejected fruiting body, spawned substrate , dried bovine rumen contents, dried poultry gut e t c as meal in broiler diets. What are the pros and cons?
Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty Dr. Rama Prasad Chakraborty
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
September 15, 2015
It looks rhetoric to talk about inclusion of bio waste without conducting a trial and deriving through research their level og incorporation.The process of standardizing same requires time.vis a vis we presently in need of broiler feed formulsyion with conventional ingredients and to ensure growth of 2kg by 35 odd days.Hence it is now redundant to take about formulation with new stuff.
vijayaraghavan gonuguntla vijayaraghavan gonuguntla
September 16, 2015
Dear Gentlemen,
Already peak performance is achieved.
Without going for Genetic modifications, some of the options left with are employing the following novel concepts.
Nano Aminoacids
Nano Minerals
Herbal Digestives, appetizers, hepato protectors
Multi Enzymes
Toxin degrading Microbes
Predigestion of the feed by microbes
Liquid Feed
Absorption improvers like Nitrophenolates


Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar
B .Sc ( Mathematics , Physics and Chemistry ) ; P G Diploma in Environmental Studies ; P G Diploma in Industrial Pollution Management ; Industrial Chemistry ( B I E T )
September 16, 2015
What ever formulating feed for Broiler the ingredients taken should be free from solvent extraction residues
in case of rice bran ,oil cakes etc as solvents in micro level will harm the the bird or animal.The food should keep the immune system as the food contains the pesticide residues at present .Branded company should check for the above without any hesitation.
Farook Kahloon Farook Kahloon
September 16, 2015
Informative. Please specify the discussion. Anyway happy to join you
September 16, 2015
Thank you for the information re: Broiler feed formulation using rice bran oil and corn.

Harmony Agro-Ecological Farms, Inc., is a truly organic enterprise envisioning to venture to full layer production of free range colored chickens and broiler utilizing an initial area of 10 hectares in Central Luzon.

Our biggest challenge is to formulate an organic feed formulation utilizing local ingredients. We have sorghum and floater weeds (duck weed, kelps and seaweeds, oysters, fish amino, lots of veggies that we produce, aside from the grazing grass that can be provided. The feed formulation is an augmentation to support the feed requirements or vise versa. We got lots of rains here which can switch the feeding mechanism to formulated organic feeds during weather disturbance.

We can no longer use corn and soya as mostly are GMOs. Of course we may resort to importing organic corn as the main staple but if we can utilize the local ingredients that would greatly reduce our import requirements.

It would be of great assistance if your kind indulgence could provide a formulation based on sorghum and also organic corn as the main base. My number is +63917 889 1948 and email address

Lastly, kindly provide list of companies and theri contact numbers that we can source our importation for ingredients in these feed formulations.

Organically yours,

art millare

Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar Sataluri Satagopa Raja Ayyangar
B .Sc ( Mathematics , Physics and Chemistry ) ; P G Diploma in Environmental Studies ; P G Diploma in Industrial Pollution Management ; Industrial Chemistry ( B I E T )
September 17, 2015
There are so many natural herbal antibiotics available which will not effect the animal and end user. Only thing is to select the combination of herbs and with keen observation . People are spending more money on synthetic antibiotics which are harmful in long run to the environment. Turmeric,Basil,Nux, Acorous calamous
Neem,Kalamegh etc.can be used.
Erdinc Ikizoglu Erdinc Ikizoglu
Chemical Engineer
September 20, 2015

we have developed zeolite powder product including phenolics, sugars and organic acids extracted from olive oil mill wastewater. It has antimicrobial and growth promoting properties.
mark tivfa mark tivfa
September 22, 2015
feed were administered to broilers without including methionine mistakenly, so please how can we correct that mistake and obtain a maximum yield before there ninth week of age. n:b. they will be nine weeks of age by Tuesday next week
October 10, 2015
What is the difference between normal broiler feed and high density broiler feed.also can we convert normal feed into hd feed .what are the extra ingredients included in hd feed not in normal feed.
vijay savaliya vijay savaliya
Animal Health Technologist
October 15, 2015
what are the ingredients use for poultry and cattle feed supplements???
is there any additives which we can provide with enzymes for animal feed supplements?
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