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Participation in Forum on March 12, 2021
Juarez Donzele In 1994, we found that the small intestine of pigs extracted glutamine but not other amino acids (including glutamate) from the arterial blood.Thus, it is true that the mucosa of the small intestine received two sources of glutamine: the diet and blood. This is very different from glutamate. It is glutamine but not glutamate that is used for the synthesis of nucleic acids in animal ...
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Participation in Forum on March 12, 2021
Juarez Donzele In the pig small intestine, glutamine is a major metabolic fuel but glutamine also has many other important functions, as explained in my JAS paper.
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Participation in Forum on March 12, 2021
For an update on glutamate and glutamine nutrition in swine, the following paper may be of interest to you all. Hou, Y.Q. and G. Wu. 2018. L-Glutamate nutrition and metabolism in swine. Amino Acids 50:1497-1510. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30116978/ Wu, G., F.W. Bazer, G.A. Johnson, D.A. Knabe, R.C. Burghardt, T.E. Spencer, X.L. Li, and J.J. Wang. 2011. Important roles for L-glutamine in s ...
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Participation in Forum on March 12, 2021
Both glutamate and glutamine are major energy sources for the small intestine of pigs. The pig’s small-intestinal mucosa has a limited ability to synthesize glutamine from glutamate but actively converts glutamine into glutamate via glutaminase. So, for the small intestine of pigs, glutamine can replace glutamate but the vice versa. Both glutamate and glutamine have their important functions beyon ...
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Participation in Forum on March 12, 2021
Both glutamate and glutamine can be used for animal feeding if they are approved for this purpose by the State Chemist Office of a state in the U.S. and If glutamate and glutamine are produced by the U.S. state that has granted the approval. Texas is among many U.S. states that have approved the use of glutamate and glutamine for animal feeding.
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Participation in Forum on March 10, 2021
Juarez Donzele Thanks for your helpful comment. It is the time to use the updated term in our discussion so that we all recognize the nutritional and physiological roles of functional amino acids, as well as their practical applications in animal production.
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Guoyao Wu likes the comment:
.Guoyao Wu I did not make use of the suggested thermology, simply to avoid further discourse, since the non-essential name is more in the domain of the scientific milieu. However, I fully agree that the classification of these three amino acids, as functional amino acids, is more appropriate, mainly due to their actions maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of birds and swine. Best ...
Participation in Forum on March 10, 2021
I suggest that we discontinue using the term “nonessential amino acids” for glutamate, glutamine and glycine. These three amino acids are nutritionally and physiologically essential for pigs and poultry, particularly for the health and function of their small intestine. Let’s call these amino acids “functional amino acids” in animal nutrition. Please see Wu, G. 2018. Principles of Animal Nutritio ...
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Participation in Forum on March 8, 2021
This paper also has important implications for animal nutrition.
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Article published the March 8, 2021
Introduction The scientific conference entitled "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" hosted by New York Academy of Sciences highlighted growing controversies on meat consumption by humans in the U.S. (Wu et al. 2014). Over the past decades, there have been growing concerns that consumption of red meat (e.g., beef) increases ...
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