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Article published the June 24, 2024
1. IntroductionBoth L-glutamate (Glu) and L-glutamine (Gln) are abundant amino acids (AAs) in plant, microbial, and animal proteins [1]. In the whole bodies of sheep and cattle, Glu and Gln are the third and eighth most abundant AAs, respectively. For comparison, the total content of these two AAs, along with other AAs, in feeds [e.g., Bermuda grass, distillers dried grains, and solubles (DDGS)], ...
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Participation in Forum on June 5, 2024
Glycine is the most abundant amino acids in animal bodies but is deficient in the diets of growing pigs and hybrid striped bass. Thus, glycine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for them, in contrast to the traditional concept.
Article published the June 5, 2024
IntroductionCreatine (essential for energy metabolism) and glutathione (GSH; an important non-enzymatic antioxidant) are major metabolites of glycine [the simplest amino acid (AA)] in animals (Fig.  1). Specifically, arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) convert glycine into creatine in the presence of arginine and methionine, whereas &gamm ...
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Participation in Forum on April 27, 2024
A new book "Nutrition and Metabolism of Dogs and Cats" was recently published by Springer in the well-established series of "Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology". Here is the link to this book:
Article published the April 26, 2024
4.1 IntroductionThe metabolism of most nutrients in domestic dogs and cats is similar to that in other mammals (Baker and Czarnecki-Maulden 1991). Thus, the qualitative dietary requirements of dogs and cats for most nutrients [e.g., amino acids (AAs) that are not formed de novo in animal cells] are similar to those for omnivores (e.g., humans and pigs). However, dogs and cats have a relatively sho ...
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Participation in Forum on April 19, 2024
Your definition of amino acids applies only to proteinogenic amino acids, but not all amino acids. For example, taurine, does not have either an alpha-amino group or any carboxyl group, but is a well-recognized amino acid in animals.
Article published the July 5, 2023
1. IntroductionThe small intestine is a highly differentiated and complex organ with many nutritional, physiological, and immunological functions [1–8]. First, the small intestine is responsible for the terminal digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients and is, therefore, essential to health, growth, development, reproduction, and sustaining life in organisms. Second, the neonatal small ...
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Article published the June 7, 2023
IntroductionThe domestic dog (Canis familiaris) and the domestic cat (Felis catus) have been human companions for at least 12,000 and 9000years, respectively [1, 2]. These animals contribute to the mental health and well-being of children, adolescents, and adults, and have become increasingly popular in many countries and worldwide over the past decades (Table  1). For example, the numbers of ...
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Participation in Forum on May 17, 2023
Thanks for sharing this interesting article. We should stop calling these amino acids "nonessential". They are truly functional amino acids in animal nutrition. For example, in chickens, glutamate and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for enterocytes of the small intestine. In addition, glutamine stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown in chicken skeletal muscle. We now know ...
Participation in Forum on April 11, 2023
This technical issue has now been resolved by using enzymatic analysis. If you are interested in step-by-step procedures, please send me an email, and I would be glad to forward my published article to you. My email address is Thanks!
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