mastitis therapy in buffalo

Forum: Pathobiology, etiology and novel mastitis therapy in buffalo

Published on: 02/15/2012
Author/s : K. S. Dhillon, Ph.D and Jasmer Singh, Ph.D (College of Veterinary Science GADVASU)
Abstract             Milk pH of 21 dairy buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis ranged from 7.00-8.50. Citrate content of mastitic milk ranged from 24.00-47.50 mg /100ml. Cultured milk yielded Staphylococci, Streptococci, Escherichia coli, Bacilli and Klebsiella. The animals were treated with 12gm and 30gm of tri-Sodium citrate in 250 ml of water orally once...
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February 15, 2012
Dear Mr Singh,

I work with organic milk production and this treatment with tri-Sodium citrate souns like music!!
It is very interesting and important. I would like to know if it could be used in cows.

Thank you
Reply
Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
February 15, 2012
The treatment of bovine mastitis is still challenge in the world, hence scientists those are working in mastitis are concentrating only on management practices, awareness and molecular and stem cell research to findout some fruitful findings to control this deadly disease. Regarding treatment with Tri-sodium citrate, this is not a novel research, because this practices in India is goingon since very long time trisodium citrate as supportive therapy.
Reply
February 16, 2012

Dear Doctor,

As we all aware that the MASTITIS is an economically devastating disease in the Dairy Industry progress.

I acquiese that your study shows the recovery of subclinical and clincial mastitis by Tri sodium citrate. But the situation warrants of using Potassium Iodide either as a drench or in the feed. This article gives more information towards prevention rather than the treatment process.

The udder health will be protected by substituting Vit H, Zn, Se etc for the prevention of Oxidative stress.
Adjusting the energy in the feed during the transition period is also equally important.

As mentioned in the article, we can find the products to prevent mastitis in and around Punjab, that contains.,

Tri sodium citrate
Vitamin E
Selenium
vitaminH
FeSo4
CuSo4
KI
Zn
Many more.


With Regards,
Dr.Amarnath,M.V.Sc,Animal Nutrition
NATURAL REMEDIES P LTD,
Bangalore, India.
Reply
Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
February 16, 2012
Dear Dr. Amarnath
Your views are ok and well known. But now the time to change from blind supplementation/treatment concepts to specific or targeted treatment. If any one diseases/condition is responding to any one mineral or compound then you start blind treatment with others also. How we can give vitamin E, selenium oe other minerals without knowing the exact blood level of the animal or surrounding soil & fodder level. Its not always and everywhere sure that blind supplementation of vitamin E and selenium will reduce or prevent the mastitis, because as we know excess supplementation may cause toxicity instead of improvement. Overall conclusion is that on the basis of one finding/report we can not recommend anything.
Reply
Arshaq Ramzee Arshaq Ramzee
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
February 16, 2012
Excellent research to support production of organic milk.
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
February 16, 2012

Mr Fabiola
The treatment with tri-Sodium citrate is equally effective in cows rather in other milk producing species too. This is due to the fact that the synthesis and production of milk is remarkably similar in all these species. 
Dr Dhillon and Dr Jasmer

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
February 17, 2012

Dr Neelesh Sharma
Your views on finding control measures for mastitis through molecular and stem-cell research appear to be well thought of but treatment with tri-Sodium citrate also works at the molecular level. The treatment of mastitis with tri-Sodium citrate in dairy animals was first time reported by us in 1989 followed by some more publications (see references in our paper above). Further, you have rightly pointed out the irrational use of minerals and vitamins in animal as it might result in toxicity.Moreover, the imbalance of trace minerals like copper, zinc, selenium, iron etc., has already been vastly reported in the literature extant for which we need to be careful. 


Dr Jasmer Singh

Reply
Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
February 17, 2012

Dear Sir
I know use of Tri-sodium citrate in India started from PAU, Ludhiana, thatswhy it is very frequently using in Jammu also. No doubt it has good results as supportive therapy in mastitis particularly during antibiotic therapy in the field even some times we used as such juice of citrus fruits. Everybody know that each chemical or element works at cellular level and target cell signaling for the its action. Therefore, as I mentioned that its (use of Tri-sodium citrate) not new findings because it is most commonly using in India since last very long time (or since your discovery). But now need to findout some more effective solution for mastitis. No doubt developing countries are trying lot to findout some suitable solution for the control of mastitis. Even recently Merk comp in Netherland working on "Evasion molecules" to get success in mastitis vaccination. Although mastitis is non ending field of research............

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
February 18, 2012

Dr Neelesh Sharma

We would like to put the things straight regarding the use of tri-sodium citrate alone for the treatment of 'acute, subacute, recurrent and even resistant to currently used antimicrobials. This salt is not used as a support for antimicrobials rather it is solely best curative measure in comparison to antibiotics/sulpha drugs etc., in controlling most commonly encountered cases of mastitis in dairy animals ( cows and buffaloes). Moreover, this treatment (tri-Sodium citrate) alone has been recorded to be the best in restoring the normal pH, biochemical constituents and alleviation of clinical signs of mastitis in affected animals. Treatment with this salt is versatile due to the fact that it preserves the normal milieus of the udder in which the commonly isolated environmental organisms ( E. coli, Strept. Staph. etc) can not thrive. See refs.

Dr KS Dhillon and Dr Jasmer Singh ( Rtd. Profs. PAU ,Ludhiana)

Dr KS Dhillon and Dr Jasmer Singh (Rtd. Profs. PAU, Ludhiana).

Dr Dhillon and Dr Jasmer ( Rtd. Profs.PAU Ludhiana).

Reply
Dr Neelesh Sharma Dr Neelesh Sharma
Veterinary Doctor
February 18, 2012

Dear Dr.
Practically and Personally I do not agree with the statement that only Tri-sodim citrate is enough for the treatment of mastitis in bovine because I have used in so many cases. If I have worked on the topic, after that I do not believe on reference or publications. I have many papers even not only in mastitis they are showing good results although practically results are Zero. Even you can find many papers on Homeopathy treatment in mastitis and showing high efficacy, while on real ground efficacy is ZERO.
Conclusion is that I do not want to discuss more on this topic because I have enough knowledge on this aspect particularly in India. I now very well about mastitis situation and its treatment in field conditions.
Thanx for sharing your knowledge and views.

Reply
Aravinth Aravinth
Veterinary Doctor
February 23, 2012

The article about mastitis therapy in buffalo is good and the cost of treatment is cheap/economical

Reply
W. Harewood W. Harewood
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 5, 2012
Dear Dr Singh,

I write seeking your assistance in verifying the chemical formulas for the tri sodium citrate used in your research

Can you send me the chemical formula for tri-sodium citrate?

I requested tri sodium citrate from a supplier and received the following:
HOC(COONa)(CH2COONa)2.2H2O or C6H5Na3O2.2H2O which is trisodium citrate dihydrate

Is this the same chemical used in in your research on tri sodium citrate?
What is the chemical formula of the tri sodium citrate used in your research?

Thanking you in advance, I look forward to your reply with interest.

wh
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
April 5, 2012

Hi WH You have got the right formulae of tri-Sodium citrate i.e., Na3 C6 H5 O7 . 2H2O. Pl note whenever you use this salt for mastitis treatment in dairy animals inform me about the results. We can reschedule the medication dosage. Kindly do reply.

with regards Jasmer

Reply
W. Harewood W. Harewood
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 7, 2012

Dear Dr Singh,
Thanks a million & one for your rely.
I am very interested in using this salt for the treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.
The option of using a non antibiotic to treat dairy cattle mastitis is very appealing to me.
It would be an honour to be able to inform you of the results.

One other question, can you provide some information about how to prepare the sterile 5% solution in saline for intravenous administration?

Thanking you advance, I look forward to your reply with interest.

wh
which will be adwhich willi would be a would ide

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
April 7, 2012
Hello WH
It is a pleasure for me to communicate with you. The simplest way to prepare this solution is, dissolve 5gms of tri-Sodium citrate in 100ml of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) in glass bottles and than autoclave it and the solution is ready for I/V injection (slowly). You can prepare this soluttion as much quantity as is required accordingly.

with regards Jasmer
Reply
W. Harewood W. Harewood
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 8, 2012

Dear Dr Singh,
Thanks for your reply.
The solution would be prepared, as per the method you provided..
The results of treatment of cows with clinical mastitis would be communicated to you.
Looking forward to having interaction with you on this activity.

Many thanks and best regards.

wh.

Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
April 9, 2012

HI WH -Pl see that you record the pH of milk on the spot with graded pH papers or with a pen-pH meter. The ideal thing would be to estimate the citrate content in milk before and after treatment to grade the severity of the disease. These parameters can be recorded daily to establish the extent of disease and duration of cure with/without any complication from the treatment. Moreover, the procedure of grading the severity of this disease is explained through pictures in our article in Engormix.com. The treatment scedule is 50ml of the above sol. I/V morning and evening which can be repeated or followed by oral administeration of 30gms of tri-Sodium citrate in ~100ml of water.daily till recovery.

The other biomarkers like- consistency, flakes,color , presence of blood, smell, condition of udder/teat/ quarter etc., are good parameters for determining the progress of the treatment. Any other criterion which you may deem valuable in this process can be included as per your fecilities available ar hand.

With regards Jasmer

Reply
W. Harewood W. Harewood
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 11, 2012
Dear Dr Singh,
Much thanks for your valuable suggestions.
It was not the intention to measure pre and post treatment milk pH, nor citrate.
However, the wisdom of your council much appreciated.
It would mean, re thinking the approach I originally intended, based upon your suggestions.

One issue / challenge, is the logistics of the twice daily IV administration of the treatment.
One approach would be to administer the twice daily iv treatment on the first day and then follow up with oral treatment, which can be administered by the farmer. Though I would much prefer to use the twice daily iv treatment for the duration of treatment. Unfortunately, the logistics of this is a challenge at this time.

However, the pre and post milk pH and as well as some other biomarkers would be recorded.

Thanks once again for your invaluable suggestions. I would keep you in formed.

wh
Reply
Jasmer Singh Jasmer Singh
scientist
April 11, 2012
Hi WH- The intention of recording pH is to ascertain the extent of this malady and monitor daily for the prognosis because this parameter is a cardinal sign and simple, economica and sufficiently reliable. You can adopt any schedule of therapy i.e., I/V morning and evening followed by oral administeration by the farmer(s). We have tested different scedules which are very safe and since tri-Sodium citrate per say is a normal content being central to the tricoboxilic acid cycle. Any other information which you might need please do ask me. I shall be very happy to discuss different aspects of the investigation.

with regards Jasmer
Reply
W. Harewood W. Harewood
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
April 17, 2012

Dear Dr Singh

The treatment of initial mastitis case with sodium citrate will begin today. Oral administration would be the method employed.

When the sterile IV solution become available, treatment would be IV for the first day follwed by oral treatment, if / as required. I would inform you of the result of this inituial case.

In an previous communication you stated " We can reschedule the medication dosage. Kindly do reply. "

My question is:-
Are there other suggestions for treatment apart from those reported in the article (ie 12.5 grams or 30 grams given once daily by oral route and the twice daily Intravenous administration of tri-Sodium citrate as 5% in normal saline)?

I look forward with interest to your reply.

wh

Reply
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