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Mycotoxin report and Management

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Mary Magonka Mary Magonka
Research
July 15, 2019
Thank you for a good report. Mycotoxin has been recognized as a potential threat to animal health especially in poultry which results in economic losses. This is a challenge for scientists working in a wide range of disciplines. Exploring different ways of reducing the toxins in poultry feeds using various species could be useful to farmers.
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Zahid Rasool Zahid Rasool
Animal Nutritionist
July 16, 2019

Toxins are everywhere in feed raw materials. I think stress aggravate the situation in broiler birds at the time of 21-35 days and causes issues. It is multiple levels of different toxins play their role.

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July 30, 2019
Zahid Rasool yes it is. I think so, the main danger is mycotoxins accumulation is in parental birds, because their life cycle is much more longer, if to compare with chicken.
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RAMA PRASAD CHAKRABORTY RAMA PRASAD CHAKRABORTY
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 17, 2019
Please send a trial report in details with strength of flock getting challanged with ochratoxin first before throwing any comment on dark.
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July 17, 2019
Please forward the article and also some pictures of gizzard - underneath sheet.
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mohammad aslam mohammad aslam
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 18, 2019

Thank you for an excellent work and reporting. The best preventive strategy against mycotoxin in feed is the best selection of grains and raw material, compromising on sub-standard grains a little bit with cheaper prices that will cost you more in terms of bird performance. Even low or mild levels of mycotoxins in feed do not show the deleterious signs and symptoms but still there is something wrong at sub-clinical levels and you have to pay in case of performance and efficiency.

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July 30, 2019

mohammad aslam, thanks a lot for your comment, I absolutely agree with your opinion. Mycotoxin sorbtion is the final step to combat against mycotoxins. The first step of mycotoxin prevention is to use natural fungi antagonists, such as bacteria, during plants growth. it is necessary to start from the field! My firm is producer of bacteria (not GMO), highly antagonistic against fungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and other). In contrast of sorbents, some bacteries can destroy mycotoxins using enzymes. It is not binding process, it is direct destroying of mycotoxin molecules, and it is no risk to decrease vitamines content in the feed. My email is marchenkov150@gmail.com, welcome.

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July 18, 2019
That's very true but I must add that even if you use the best grain, the problem starts when the feed is produced, taken to farms and kept in bad storage conditions where the conditions are very conducive to form molds and gradually gets severe. So in my humble opinion, prevention is better than cure and toxin binder must be used if not to eradicate completely but at least to prevent it to a greater extent.
We are suffering because we are penny wise miser and pound foolish. Thanks.
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mohammad aslam mohammad aslam
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 24, 2019
Mian Tariq Pervaiz then why not we should use mold inhibitors in feed as mycotoxins are fungal metabolites as you say prevention is better than cure, we should prevent mold growth in feed.
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John Kaijage John Kaijage
PhD in Tropical Animal Production
July 19, 2019

Thank you very much for the report and management of mycotoxin. Actually, mycotoxin is a very critical issue in the livestock production particularly poultry production. Most of the feed ingredients used in compounding poultry feeds such as maize, sorghum and sunflower seed meal are prone to mycotoxin. These are toxic substances produced by different types fungi and have different effects depending on type mycotoxin, dosage, species and animal affected. Mycotoxin producing fungi thrive better in warm humid conditions. The feed ingredients might be contaminated with fungi in the field prior harvesting and during storage particularly if grains or seeds contain high moisture content in high humid conditions. Management of mycotoxin should start from the field by controlling growth of fungi in the field, harvesting well dried ingredients, proper drying of ingredients prior storage, avoiding storage of feed and feed ingredients in high humid stores. However, the most practical control of mycotoxin is regular testing for mycotoxin in lab, prior feed compounding or use of different mycotoxin binders.

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July 21, 2019

Mycotoxins are metabolized in the alimentary canal, liver or kidneys of the poultry in accordance with their chemical properties. Their transfer to poultry meat and eggs leads to undesirable health effects in humans, leading to major concerns in public health. Contamination of the feeds with fungi both damages their organoleptic properties and increases poisoning risk by decreasing their nutritional value. Toxicity of the mycotoxins depends on the amount of absorption, number of the metabolites that are formed, exposure period and sensitivity of the animal.

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Todd Applegate Todd Applegate
Professor- Head of Department of Poultry Science
July 23, 2019
While I am general agreement with the current comments, a friendly reminder that mycotoxins can not be generalized. For example, binding efficacy of aflatoxin is rather high, but with DON and Fumonisin extremely low. Additionally, DON and FUM are both "field" mycotoxins (occurrence in the crop prior to harvest) vs that of aflatoxin and T2 which can largely occur during storage. Incidence rates and predominant occurrence varies throughout the world, with recurring issues in the US mainly with DON and FUM.
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Jonathan Tarus Jonathan Tarus
Student
July 24, 2019

I also agree with most of the comments concerning mycotoxins in poultry production. Preventive measures should be a foremost step especially in commonly used feed ingredients known to be major sources of contamination. Farmers should be educated on matters concerning mycotoxin contamination at farm level; introduce hands-on analysis methods close to the farming communities so as to encourage farmers to invest in the analysis. This is largely because mycotoxins have been shown to be tasteless, colorless & odorless; these properties might challenge farmers(especially in developing nations) in conceptualizing the existence of these fungal metabolites. I'm confident that if this is done, contamination and losses can be minimized at farm level. Processors to come in second.

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