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Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland

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578 11 Statistics print

Introduction

In industrial poultry production, designing a preventive program for controlling coccidiosis is one of the most important decisions, in order to safeguard or improve zootechnical and financial results. Live coccidiosis vaccines are becoming increasingly popular, as they often provide a solution when the in-feed anticoccidials become inefficient, in fact they are able to promote the restoration of the sensitivity of Eimeria field strains towards anticoccidials (Williams, 2002; Mathis & Broussard, 2006; Peek & Landman 2011). The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a live coccidiosis vaccine (Hipracox®) to prevent clinical coccidiosis in 2 broiler farms. Moreover, we evaluated the zootechnical impact before, during and after coccidiosis vaccination, when returning to in-feed anticoccidials. The performance data of approximately 495,000 birds for Farm 1 and 960,000 birds for Farm 2 were evaluated.

 

Results & discussion

1. MORTALITY

The average mortality before vaccination was 3.13 %. During vaccination this mortality dropped to 2.67%, which is a 14.7% improvement. After vaccination the mortality rose again to 2.91%, which is still a 7.03% improvement.

 

2. BODY WEIGHT

Since final slaughter ages were different, average live body weights have been corrected at the same age (41 days). Before vaccination average body weight (BW) was 2409 grams, whereas after vaccination it was 2491 grams: an improvement of 82 grams.

 

3. FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR)

FCR was corrected for the weight of 2000 gram birds. FCR2000 during vaccination had 2 points of improvement and after vaccination it improved 8 points. When analyzing data of overall average FCR2000 of cycles before vaccination (CBV), cycles during vaccination (CDV) and cycles after vaccination (CAV) using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, we found a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Overall FCR2000 of CBV, CDV and CAV.

Values with different superscript letters show a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 by using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

 

4. AVERAGE DAILY GAIN (ADG)

CBV had an ADG of 58.39 grams, whereas CDV had a lower ADG of 58.04 grams. CAV had an improvement of 2.21 grams resulting in an overall ADG of 60.60 grams. When analyzing the data of overall ADG of CBV, CDV and CAV using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, we found a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 (Figure 2)

 

Figure 2. Overall ADG of CBV, CDV and CAV

Values with different superscript letters show a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

 

5. EUROPEAN PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY FACTOR (EPEF)

Before vaccination EPEF for all houses was 362, while during vaccination improved to 370: 8 points. After vaccination it improved 37 points compared to before vaccination. When analyzing with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, we found the data of overall EPEF of CBV, CDV and CAV to have a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3. Overall EPEF of CBV, CDV and CAV.

Values with different superscript letters show a statistically significant difference at P ≤ 0.05 by using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

 

6. ANTIBIOTIC USE DURING VACCINATION

Compared to cycles before vaccination, antibiotic use was not higher in terms of kg of active product during vaccination on both farms. The main difference between before and during vaccination was the age of the treatments: about one week earlier for the vaccinated cycles and thus the total amount of antibiotics was reduced.

 

Conclusions

We observed no statistical differences between pre- and inter-vaccination in any case, while absolute results of mortality, FCR2000 and EPEF improved while vaccinating. After vaccination, absolute results for all parameters are better compared to before vaccination, while ADG, FCR2000 and EPEF are statistically better than before and during vaccination. Thus, it seems clear that anticoccidial vaccination promotes the restoration of the sensitivity of Eimeria field strains towards anticoccidials. In conclusion, for the type of farms encountered during the trial, vaccination against coccidiosis with Hipracox® proved to be a valid economical approach during vaccination and especially when returning to in-feed anticoccidials

 

References

1. Mathis, G.F., Broussard, C. (2006). Increased level of Eimeria sensitivity to diclazuril after using a live coccidial vaccine. Avian Diseases, 50 (3), 321-324.

2. Peek, H.W., Landman W.J. (2011). Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies. Veterinary Quarterly, 31 (3), 143-161.

3. Williams, R.B. (2002). Anticoccidial vaccines for broilers: pathway to success. Avian Pathology, 31 (4), 317-353. Erratum in Avian Pathology (2003), 32 (2), 429.

Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
20/02/2017 | I would ask was the anticoccidial drug used CBV the same as used CAV. If yes then shift in sensitivity is likely, if not then maybe but also could be more effective anticoccidial drug used in CAV program.
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
21/02/2017 | The use of coccidial vaccine in the BROILERS is expensive especially for the African farmers. Such vaccines are used in the breeders and PARACOX 8 is one of the best vaccine.
Martina Dardi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
21/02/2017 |

Hi Dr. Ashraf El-Shafie
Many thanks for your questions and interest! I will try to reply:
1. Birds are vaccinated at one day of age via coarse spray either at the hatchery or at the arrival on farm when they are still inside the boxes. In this last case, they need to be left in the boxes at least for 30'-45', in order to give them the change to pick up the vaccine;
2. As you may have understood from above, the way of administration is coarse spray for oral intake;
3. We monitor both the vaccine intake (in terms of uniformity of application and onset of immunity) and the field challenge collecting fresh faces and /or litter samples weekly from week 2 up to week 5;
3. Birds were all slaughtered between 40 and 42 days with a thinning at 32-35 days.

Hope I answered to all questions

Martina Dardi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
21/02/2017 | Hi Dr. Mathis

Thanks for your question. In Farm 2 we used exactly the same programme CBV and CAV, whereas in Farm 1 before the first CDV we used a full chemical programme. However, in this last case the the anticoccidial programme before the chemical and CAV was the same.

Michael Roe
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
01/03/2017 | It could be argued that the 2 houses were "seeded" with the vaccine strains as the dominant strains after vaccination and in subsequent cycles and in turn showed greater sensitivity to the anticoccidial. Generally with live anticoccidial vaccination the idea is to replace the field strains with the more precocious but less pathogenic vaccine strains.
Martina Dardi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
02/03/2017 | Thanks Dr. Michael Roe! What you have explained, it is exactly one of the main aims of using a coccidiosis vaccine in rotation with anticoccidials!
Onwuka A. Onwuka
Poultry farmer
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
06/03/2017 |

How can I get the anticoccidial vaccine?

Martina Dardi
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
06/03/2017 | Dear Mr. Onwuka
I am afraid this vaccine it is not registered in your country. Best regards
Onwuka A. Onwuka
Poultry farmer
Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
07/03/2017 |

Could you send us some quantity as sample for test (trial) to enable us study the vaccine here in Nigeria. Thanks.

Re: Zootechnical and Economical Evaluation of the Use of a Live Anticoccidial Vaccine in Rotation with Anticoccidial Products in Broiler Chickens: Results of a Set of Field Trials from Belgium and The Netherland
20/03/2017 | From my experience about coccidiosis vaccine ,the succes depending on some factors mainly vaccine application,management and keeping gut integrity so we should focus on necrotic enteritis when we apply the vaccine so we should monitor gut package complaints .finally coccidiosis vaccine is not just ampoule,it is programme including vaccine ,application and follow up and monitoring .
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