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Goat Feed: mold in grains and fodder

Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley: A Technical report

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Abstract

An outbreak of a syndrome of unknown etiology associated with the feeding of moldy maize grain and green fodder to the male goat in a herd of 3853  meant for sale for Dashahara festival during the month of October-2010 in Kathmandu valley of which in a period of 10 days 500 goats suddenly became ill with symptoms  of anorexia, apathy, diarrhea and ruminal stasis .On clinical examination these goats were provisionally diagnosed as sudden illness due to moldy corn/fodder poisoning were treated with Biolive,tetrachlor, polyte,C-lyte,Stresscare, Antidegnala liquor, of which  250 male goat died.

Necrosis of the fore stomach mucosa was the most characteristic gross pathological change. Clinical pathological findings included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum and omasum and congestion and hemorrhages in the abomasum. Liver with shrunken appearance pale to yellowish discoloration with bile filled distended bladder pin point hemorrhage in kidney, small intestine with excessive mucus. On mycological and microbiological examination of tissue samples from post-mortem of dead goat on respective medium revealed the growth of fungal pathogens like  Penicillium spp with Staphylococcusi.These results provide circumstantial evidence that feeding of moldy maize grain and green fodder leaves infected by Penicillium and  may cause outbreaks of a systemic Mycosis in these goats.

Background

During the Dashahara festival of year 2010 about 3853 male goats intended to supplied by Nepal Food Corporation to the customers in Kathmandu valley were being purchased from Eastern region, Central region,Mid-western region of Nepal. In lairage these goats were being fed with occasionally whole maize grains and exclusively green fodder leaves. On clinical examination based on history these goats were provisionally diagnosed as sudden illness due to moldy corn/fodder poisoning were treated with Toxalivom Biolive,tetrachlor, polyte,C-lyte,Stresscare, Antidegnala liquor (Zinc salt solution) in drinking water.

Table: Total no of goat received in Nepal Food Corporation  Primacies 2010 dashain

 

1 from Dang and 1 from Lahan received dead on arrival.

Table: Mortality Pattern of goats



Material and Method:

1: Clinical examination of goats in lairage.

From 2067-6-20 about 500  goats present in lairage for sale in Nepal Food Corporation's compound on clinical examination were found having symptoms like Anorexia, Ataxia, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Generalized weakness, and ruminal stasis,  similar to reported by Dr. Maurice E. White 2008, , Schneider DJ, Marasas WF, Collett MG, van der Westhuizen GC, 1985. R. W. Medd, G. M. Murray and D. I. Pickering,2008. : L. W. Whitlow and W. M. Hagler, Jr.2008.

2: Post-Mortem Examination of dead goats.

On Post-Mortem examination of all  male dead goat in premises of food corporation compound revealed the lesions which   included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum and omasum and congestion and hemorrhages in the abomasum.Liver with shrunken appearance pale to yellowish discoloration with bile filled distended bladder pin point hemorrhage in kidney, small intestine with excessive mucus similar to lesions experimentally induced by Schneider DJ, Marasas WF, Collett MG, van der Westhuizen GC, 1985,and reported by DhamaK, ChauhanR S1,*, MahendranMahesh, SinghKP1, TelangAG1, SinghalLokesh1, TomarSimmi2   2007, R. W. Medd, G. M. Murray and D. I. Pickering,2008; Hussein S. Hussein,  and Jeffrey M. Brasel 2001.

3: Microbial/Mycobial Culture examination of Post-Mortem Tissue samples.

On mycological and microbiological examination of tissue samples from post-mortem of dead goat on respective medium revealed the growth of fungal pathogens like Penicillium spp with Staphylococcos similar to the findings of Karki et.al.2008 C. Wendell Horne 2008, www.springerlink.com/index/q7g038v8x3m10026.pdf 2008 Sabreen, M. S. and Zaky, Z. M.* 2001 .Where as all nasal and rectal swabs  from  sick and dead animals tested for PPR with penside test turn out to be negative.

Treatment and preventive measure applied:

All the goat presented in lairage were treated with Toxalivom Biolive, tetrachlor, polyte, C-lyte,Stresscare, Antidegnala liquor (Zinc salt solution) as described by C. Pinto, V. M. Santos, J. Dinis, M. C. Peleteiro, J. M. Fitzgerald, A. D. Hawkes,B. L. Smith in controlling Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) in ruminants in the Azores, Portugal in drinking water.

Result and Discussion

As during warm humid climate of tropics and subtropics favors growth of mold and fungus in feed grains and fodder especially after heavy monsoon rain feeding of exclusively such grain to livestock and poultry seems to cause the detrimental effect in the health these animals. As in this investigation clinical signs of anorexia, apathy, diarrhea and ruminal stasis and Clinical pathological findings included mild focal erosions to severe, diffuse, coagulative necrosis of the mucosa in the rumen, reticulum and omasum and congestion and hemorrhages in the abomasum.Liver with shrunken appearance pale to yellowish discoloration with bile filled distended bladder pin point hemorrhage in kidney, small intestine with excessive mucus. On mycological and microbiological examination of tissue samples from post-mortem of dead goat on respective medium revealed the growth of fungal pathogens like Aspergillus and Penicillium spp with Staphylococcus spp.These results provide circumstantial evidence that feeding of moldy maize grain and green fodder leaves infected by Penicillium and Aspergillus spp may have caused this outbreaks of a systemic Mycosis in these goats need to be thoroughly investigated in field areas  from where these goats were bought.

References:

1:C. Pinto, V. M. Santos, J. Dinis, M. C. Peleteiro, J. M. Fitzgerald, A. D. Hawkes, B. L. Smith: Pithomycotoxicosis (facial eczema) in ruminants in the Azores, Portugal: veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/157/... doi: 10.1136/vr.157.25.805 Veterinary Record 2005 157: 805-810

2: Schneider DJ, Marasas WF, Collett MG, van der Westhuizen GC. An experimental mycotoxicosis in sheep and goats caused by Drechslera campanulata, a fungal pathogen of green oats.  Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1985 Jun;52(2):93-100. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4047622 -:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

3;R. W. Medd, G. M. Murray and D. I. Pickering :Review of the epidemiology and economic importance of Pyrenophora semeniperda. Australasian Plant Pathology 32(4) 539 - 550. www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=AP03059.pdf:-Retrived on 29  october 2010

4:   DhamaK, ChauhanR S1,*, MahendranMahesh, SinghKP1, TelangAG1, SinghalLokesh1, TomarSimmi2   Aflatoxins-hazard to livestock and poultry production: A review Journal of Immunology & Immunopathology Year : 2007, Volume : 9, Issue : 1 and 2. Division of Pathology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (UP), INDIA. 1CADRAD, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (UP), INDIA. 2Division of Animal Sciences, Central Agricultural Research Institute(CARI), Port Blair, A&N Islands, INDIA. indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jii&volume=9&issue=1and2&article=001&type=pdf -:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

5:  outbreaks called "moldy corn toxicosis," "poultry hemorrhagic syndrome, ... Adult cattle, sheep, and goats are relatively resistant to the acute form of the ...www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/212202.htm :-Retrived on 29 october 2010

6:  C. Wendell Horne, MYCOTOXINS IN FEED AND FOOD-PRODUCING CROPS Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Plant Pathology and Microbiology and CommittiChairmanpublications.tamu.edu/publications/Corn/B-1279 Mycotoxins.pdf:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

7: L. W. Whitlow and W. M. Hagler, Jr. Mold and Mycotoxin Issues in Dairy Cattle: Effects, Prevention and treatment www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster/drought/Mycotoxin-Review.pdf:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

8: L. W. Whitlow, Department of Animal Science and W. M. Hagler, Jr., Mycotoxin Contamination of Feedstuffs - An Additional Stress Factor for Dairy Cattle Department of Poultry Science North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC www.cals.ncsu.edu/an_sci/extension/dairy/mycoto~1.pdf:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

9: Dr. Maurice E. White: AFLATOXIN TOXICITY, AFLATOXICOSIS IN SHEEP AND GOATS : A Diagnostic Support System for Veterinary Medicine Cause Page: 2008 Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. :-Retrived on 29 october 2010

10:Aspergillus/aspergillosiswebsite;www.aspergillus.org.uk/secure/veterinary/chap1mammalian.htm - 24k -:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

11: Meat and meat products: Other animals carrying E. coli O157 include sheep, goats, wild deer, pigs, ...... by Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aspergillus spp. (ICMSF, 1980b). www.springerlink.com/index/q7g038v8x3m10026.pdf:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

12: Sabreen, M. S. and Zaky, Z. M.* Incidence of Aflatoxigenic Moulds and Aflatoxins in Cheeses. Food Hygiene Dept., and *Forensic Med. & Toxicology Dept., Fac. of Vet.Med., Assiut Univ. BULLETIN : Its Cong of Food Hygiene & Human Health, 6-8 February 2001 Dept. of FoodHygiene, Fac. Vet. Med., Assiut. www.aun.edu.eg/env_enc/ee2002/1-50_n_.PDF:-Retrived on 29 october 2010

13: Hussein S. Hussein,  and Jeffrey M. Brasel; Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals  School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nevada-Reno, Mail Stop 202, Reno, NV 89557, USA  Received 16 April 2001; accepted 10 July 2001.  Available online 19 September 2001.linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0300483X01004711. :-Retrived on 29 october 2010

14: Kedar Karki and Purnima Manandhar: Clinical-Epidemiological Investigation of Mouldy Corn Poisoning due to Penicillium spp. in mules at Udayapur District, Nepal: Veterinary World   pp 107-110 vol. 1 no. 4 April 2oo8.

Acknowledgment:

I would like to thank to Mr. Bal Bahadur Kunwar Mr. Tek Bahadur Air Senior Vet. Technician and Mr.Bhimsen Adhikari Vet. Technician of Microbioly Unit,Mr Purna Maharajan Vet Technician of Central Veterinary Laboratory for doing the microbiology  and post-mortem works and office assistant Mr. Chandra Bahadur Rana for his tireless effort in handling the carcass during post-mortem work .

 

 

 

 
Author/s
Bagmati, Nepal
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
(1763)
(4)
Re: Forum: Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley: A Technical report
01/20/2011 | The danger of feeding mouldy grains and fodder to livestock is often reported. The careful examination of fodder could reveal the moulds on it. The contamination of aflatoxin in feed could not be assesssed unless it was sent to a lab. The strict law in the country could stop such accidents.

A new technology of rearing goats with zero grazing and no forage feeding has been developed in the name Broiler goat. The technical paper on it has been published by me in this forum. The above technology would not only produce goat meat very economically with a conversion rate (FCR) 2.3-2.7. The special feed could be made available from feed plants with strict quality check to avoid toxicity problems.
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Dr. Karki Kedar
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, Bagmati, Nepal
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Re: Forum: Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley: A Technical report
01/20/2011 |

Many parts of tropics and subtropic still goat production is either nomadic or pastoral form we have to cope with as it is but provided with some and fungal or mycotoxin inactivative chemical like Zn may reduce both effect of fungal spore or mycotoxin

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Re: Forum: Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley: A Technical report
01/20/2011 | The suggestion to add zinc to counter act toxicity due to moiuld is indeed disputable. The addition zeolites with Zn has been tried to reduce the absorption of toxins. In case of nomadic husbandry it may find ineffective. The scientists are striving to modernise the husbandry practices and evolve technologies to produce animal products with higher conversion efficiency. In such context any way the toxins and moulds are not acceptable.
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Dr.deepa Ananth
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Mumbai, Kerala,Mumbai, India
Animal Nutritionist
Re: Forum: Clinical Epidemiological Investigation of Moldy Grain and Fodder Poisoning in Goat in Kathmandu Valley: A Technical report
01/20/2011 |

Goats are sturdy animals and thrive well in hilly areas. In that context, extensive reariing would be well suited and economical in Katmandu-Nepal area. The maize which is given as source of energy is often infested with fungi causing mycotoxin in animals. This is often world wide problem. Some precautions can be taken to avoid further casualities like this. Making the nomadic community aware of implications of feeding mould infested maize. checking the quality of maize while purchasing or feeding. Immediate withdrawal of maize as soon as the suspecion of toxicosis arises, Practising simple technique like drying in sun to prevent mycosis(Ofcourse toxins will not be destroyed by drying). Feeding toxin binders,mannanoligosaccharides etc to prevent toxicosis. Finding alternate energy sources.Proper ensiling technologies may help to preserve the fodder
Dr.Deepa Ananth

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