Engormix/Poultry Industry/Technical articles

Effect of Different Vitamin Levels in the Carcass Yield of Broilers Challenged by Mycotoxins

Published on: 9/19/2012
Author/s : Viviane Murer Fruchi (University of Sao Paulo), Isaac Bittar Filho, Rafael Gustavo Hermes (DSM Nutritional Products, Brazil), Jéssica de Sousa Viela (UNESP), Cristiane Soares da Silva Araujo, Lucio Francelino Araujo (University of Sao Paulo)

The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of two vitamin levels on broilers diets, from 1 to 44 days and experimentally challenged by mycotoxins. It was used 1800 one-day old chicks (Cobb, males), distributed in eight treatments with 15 replicates (15 birds each one) in a factorial design (2 x 2 x 2) with two different vitamin levels (low and optimal); two aflatoxins levels (0 and 0.5 ppm) and two mycotoxin binder levels (0 and 10 kg/ton). Studied parameters were carcass yield, breast and legs relative weight. Analysis of variance of data was performed to check statistical differences between treatments (P ≤ 0.05). It was not observed effects from neither mycotoxin challenge nor binder used. Optimal vitamin level increased (P < 0.05) carcass yield compared to low level (69.61 vs. 70.31% ± 0.23), but no significant differences for breast and legs relative weight. Results demonstrate the importance of optimum vitamin levels to assure productivity of broilers.

KEYWORDS: aflatoxin, micotoxin binders, carcass traits, vitamins

The levels of vitamins for poultry have changed a little over the last 40 years; however, the modern broiler has improved drastically its performance during the same period. Furthermore, an optimum level of vitamins is crucial under high stress condition to allow the birds achieve good performance and adequate health status. In this context, aflatoxin contamination of foods and livestock feeds became a great issue being a challenge for broilers. In poultry production, this kind of contamination in livestock feeds often results in poor performance, high mortality rates, and a greater susceptibility to diseases (Jones et al., 1982; Huff et al., 1986). Several strategies for the reduction or inactivation of aflatoxins have been previously reviewed and include diverse physical, chemical, and biological methods (Phillips et al., 1994, 2002; Phillips, 1999). The increase in supplementation of certain vitamins has positive effects on broiler production. For this reason, the major objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of two vitamin levels in broilers experimentally challenged by aflatoxin on carcass yield. 
A total of 1,800 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks    were obtained from a commercial hatchery.  The chicks were arranged in a completely randomized design with eight dietary treatments. There were 225 chicks per treatment, each treatment had 15 replication having 15 chicks each  in a factorial design (2 x 2 x 2) with two different vitamin levels (low and optimal); two aflatoxins levels (0 and 0.5 ppm) and two levels of mycotoxin binders (0 and 10 kg/ton). Each pen contained old litter, one tube feeder, and a nipple drinker line. Additionally, the experimental house heating was accomplished by forced air furnaces, and cooling was accomplished by negative pressure ventilation using two 48 inch fans pulling air through cool cell pads. Broilers received lighting program as recommend by management guide. All diets were primarily composed of corn and soybean meal and were fed in mash form. At 44 d of age, two broilers of each pen were weighed separately and processed to determine carcass characterisitcs (carcass yield, breast and legs relative weight). Data were analyzed as a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial by analysis of variance using the General Linear Models procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 2000). All statements of significance are based on the 0.05 level of probability. 
There was no interaction between the factors studied and the presence of aflatoxin or binder did not affect carcass characteristics (Table 1). However, through the contrast analyze birds fed OVN diets had significantly higher percentage of carcass yield when compared to birds fed low levels of vitamins (Table 2).  According to Santurio (2000) when some vitamins are deficient in the diets birds became more susceptible to aflatoxin resulting in poor performance. In the present work, the result indicates that an optimum level of vitamins in the diet was essential to improve carcass yield.
Table 1. Carcass of broilers fed different levels of vitamins with or without aflatoxin and binder in the diet
Effect of Different Vitamin Levels in the Carcass Yield of Broilers Challenged by Mycotoxins - Image 1
Table 2. Contrast between the different levels of vitamins on carcass yield in broilers 
Effect of Different Vitamin Levels in the Carcass Yield of Broilers Challenged by Mycotoxins - Image 2
Supplemetation of vitamins in the diets can improve carcass yield in broilers.  
HUFF, W. E., L. F. KUBENA, D. E. HARVEY, D. E. CORRIER, AND H.H.MOLLENHAUER (1986) Progression of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Poultry Science 65:1891–1899.
JONES, F. T., W. H. HAGLER, AND P. B. HAMILTON (1982). Association of low levels of aflatoxin in feed with productivity losses in commercial broiler operations. Poultry Science 61:861–868.
PHILLIPS, T. D., B. A. CLEMENT, AND D. L. PARK (1994) Approaches to reduction of aflatoxins in foods and feeds. In: The Toxicology of Aflatoxins:Human Health, Veterinary, and Agricultural Significance. D. L. Eaton and J. D. Groopman, ed. Academic Press,New York. p. 383-406
PHILLIPS, T. D. (1999). Dietary clay in the chemoprevention of aflatoxin-induced disease. Toxicological Sciences. 52:118–126.
SANTURIO, J.M. (2000) Micotoxinas e micotoxicoses na avicultura. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 2:1-12.
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