This study aimed to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) on metabolic pathways related to detoxification, antioxidant response, inflammation, and barrier integrity, along broiler intestine. For this purpose, 378 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 treatments, each with 7 replicate pens. The experimental treatments were: predisposing dysbiosis diet (PDD), PDD supplemented with DON at 5 mg/kg of diet (DON), and PDD supplemented with FUM at 20 mg /kg of diet (FUM). Sampling was performed on d 39. Effects of DON and FUM on relative gene expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that DON increased (P < 0.05) the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 and 2 (AhR1, AhR2), cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κΒ) and decreased (P < 0.05) mucin 2 (MUC2), at the duodenum. At the jejunum, DON upregulated (P < 0.05) cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). At ileal level, DON induced (P < 0.05) the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hepatitis B virus X-associated protein (XAP2) Kelch-like Ech-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and decreased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) and claudin 1 (CLDN1). Furthermore, DON increased (P < 0.05) expression levels of Keap1 and HSP90, at ceca. On the other hand, at the duodenum, FUM upregulated (P < 0.05) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-κΒ and downregulated (P < 0.05) glutathione S-transferase A2 (GSTA2) and MUC2 expression. At the ileum, FUM increased (P < 0.05) CYP1A2 and lowered (P < 0.05) GPX2 and CLDN1. The expression levels of CYP1A2, Keap1, and HSP70 were increased (P < 0.05) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1) was downregulated (P < 0.05) by FUM, at the ceca. Our findings revealed that the impact of DON and FUM on broiler gut cytoprotective responses were shown to be mycotoxinand intestinal site-specific. Furthermore, these results could be highly relevant for the assessment of various dietary bioactive components in broiler diets, for protection against mycotoxins.
Key Words: mycotoxin, broiler, gut health, detoxification, antioxidant response.
Presented at the 9th Symposium on Gut Health in Production of Food Animals, St. Louis, USA, 2021. For information on the next edition, click here.