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Veterinary Ayurveda : A Holistic Approach to One Health Mission

Published: December 19, 2022
By: Dr. Shivi Maini, General Manager Technical, Indian Herbs Specialities Pvt. Ltd., India
One Health Mission
For most of the 20th century, society viewed veterinary medicine primarily as an animal health medical discipline. In recent years, highly publicized public health threats have helped many realize the fundamental linkages between veterinary medicine and human health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), one or more new infectious diseases have emerged each year since the 1970s (WHO 2007). The majority of these have been zoonoses, diseases caused by pathogens that can be transmitted between animals and humans, with more than three-quarters originating from wildlife. Of the 1400 diseases now recognized in humans, 64% are caused by pathogens transmissible across species. These trends have led to support for a more integrated and holistic approach to human, animal and environmental health. Known as One Health, this approach has received growing attention over the past decade among policy makers, practitioners and funding agencies seeking more effective prevention, control and treatment responses in an increasingly populous and globalized world.
One Health Mission
Veterinary medicine plays a critical role in promoting the bounty, safety and food security, helps protect the public from zoonotic infectious diseases, and contributes to important biomedical research. Today, many leaders in science and medicine have adopted a One Health approach to global wellbeing. One Health recognizes the complex interrelationships that exist between people, animals and the environment as they interact in an era of globalization. One Health encourages a holistic, ecosystem-based approach to human, animal and environmental health.
One health initiatives
The concept that human and animal health is linked is not new. What is new is that in recent years, a number of like-minded individuals across professional spectrums began recognizing it as an essential element for advancing research progress for human and animal health. The emergence of West Nile virus in New York City in 1999 was a seminal event. A veterinarian played a key role in recognising that the disease in humans and animals was linked by a newly emerged virus, emphasizing the critical role for One Health principles in public health. With regard to One Health necessity, virtual elimination of rinderpest by livestock vaccination, supervised by veterinary medical epidemiologists, has improved nutrition for millions of people across sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and India. Drug treatment for bovine African trypanosomiasis has opened up huge areas of grazing land in Africa to pastoralists. The avian influenza (H5N1) illustrates another major zoonotic challenge from poultry.
Holistic Approach in Veterinary Medicine
Holistic Veterinary Medicine is a term that the American Veterinary Medical Association defines as “a comprehensive approach to health care employing natural and conventional diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In practice, it incorporates but is not limited to the principles of acupuncture and acutherapy, botanical medicine, chiropractic, homeopathy massage therapy, nutraceuticals and physical therapy as well as conventional medicine, surgery and dentistry”. The vision of this approach is to take the best of both holistic, natural approaches to animal health and combine them with the best of conventional veterinary medicine. No one form of medicine has all the answers, cures to all problems. It just seems prudent to take the best from all fields and integrate them into a new comprehensive form of animal health care. Where do we start with integrative animal health care then?
Holistic approach is to offer the livestock a balanced approach to health care, offering the best of both conventional or natural and complementary medicine. Prevention is always better than cure. Ayurveda or Ethnoveterinary practices offers managemental approach for sustainable livestock production, control of diseases and improving farm profitability. Ayurvedic preparations incorporate ingredients derived from plant origin. The plant materials have been scientifically evaluated to testify the ancient wisdom blended with modern scientific precision & technology validating their usage for animal & human health care to achieve health, wellness & maximum productivity from livestock. Emergence of the resistant pathogenic strains against antibiotics & deadly chemicals coupled with ever growing concerns of toxicity & environmental contamination has lead to scientific & technological advancement in last few decades, reviving the interest of modern scientist & health care practitioners in herbals.
Ayurveda : A holistic approach in Veterinary Medicine
Ayurveda (The Science of healthy living), a centuries old traditional Indian system of health care, is an evidence based science and one of the oldest medical discipline. Relevance of science of Ayurveda, as applied to animal health, can be traced back to Mahabharata. Ayurveda is a complete system which emphasizes living in harmony with the environment. Ayurveda is the synthesis of Ayur- meaning ‘life’ and Veda meaning – ‘knowledge’. Ayurveda, the Science of Life , based on strong pillar of  positive health, is a holistic approach to  total healthcare by  means of preventive & curative medicine to maintain complete internal-milieu (dhatusamaya), ‘Homeo-stasis’ or equilibrium of the various dhatus. It insists on the pro-host approach: “Strengthening the body defense system to fight infection”.  Ayurveda emphasizes mainly on prevention of illnesses and maintenance of health. Relevance of science of Ayurveda, as applied to animal health, can be traced back to Mahabharata.
Ayurveda : A holistic approach in Veterinary Medicine
Herbal medicine is today a valid & proven science, with great potential for integration with allopathic medicine to the benefit of human & animal health. Recently Ayurveda has been documented and practiced on animals not only for treating them but also to improve their productivity, for prevention & treatment of diseases as integrated approach with complementary medicine.
As an alternative to synthetic medicinal supplements, herbal veterinary products are available for prophylaxis, therapeutics and as nutraceuticals and feed supplements for prevention and treatment of various diseases and for maximizing productivity from livestock.
Antimicrobial effect of Phytobioactives
The medicinal or antimicrobial properties of plant-derived substances have been well known for centuries. This property is mainly attributed to the essential oils and plants viz carom, thymol, curcumin, anthraquinones & many more. Oregano and thymol are among those which have received a great deal of interest. These plants contain the monoterpenes, carvacrol and thymol. Many other essential oils and bioactives. Eucalyptus oil, Ocimum sanctum and Cedrus deodara oils have demonstrated high efficacy in vitro against several pathogens found in the intestinal and respiratory tract. This suggests that phytogenic feed additives are suitable replacements for in-feed antibiotics to improve livestock health and growth performance, for control of gut & respiratory infections and for prevention of zoonotic diseases.
Antimicrobial effect of Phytobioactives
Herbiotic FS is a natural phytobiotic for complete replacement of in-feed antimicrobials recommended for control of gut infections besides having beneficial effects on gut innate immunity, gut histomorphogenesis and improved nutrient utilization thereby promoting growth & feed efficiency. Animunin is a non-antibiotic respiratory tonic for control of respiratory infections. This is a unique combination of essential oils and herbal extracts. Animunin is having comprehensive & broad spectrum mode of action for control of bacterial & viral infections as well as for management of Mycoplasma. ZeeCox is Phytogenic multistage anticoccidal which can replace ionophores and synthetic anticoccidials as part of shuttle and rotation programme. After three cycles of using same ionophore or synthetic anticoccidial, the number of resistant oocysts increases and sensitivity of Eimeria is substantially reduced.  Resting the ionophores can prolong their efficacy. When ionophore is rotated with ZeeCox or is part of shuttle program it leads to recovery of sensitivity of ionophores. This trio combination of phytogenic products Herbiotic FS, Animunin and ZeeCox is smart non-antibiotic solution for control of gut infections, respiratory infections and coccidiosis.   These Alternates are the perfect choice to limit usage of antimicrobials & ionophores in poultry production system thereby helping to prolong efficacy of these antibiotics and ionophores.
For maintaining optimum body defense and good health: In today's livestock and poultry farming, frequent failure of vaccines, emergence of new mutated strains of bacteria and viruses and resistance against even new generation antibiotics are commonly observed. Different kinds of stresses; viral, bacterial and other challenges; debilitating diseases; use of pesticides, antibiotics and chemical drugs; presence of even low level of mycotoxins in feed cause weakening of immune system, which pre-disposes the animals and poultry birds to various diseases and mortality. Low maternal immunity also contributes to high mortality and poor growth of chicks and young animals. There is no specific treatment for viral infections while for prevention the vaccines are available for few viruses only. In such condition when conventional chemical medicines, vaccines and antibiotics have begun to fail, we need to optimize the body's ability to defend itself with strong immune system. ImmuPlus AFS, a unique herbal feed supplement has therefore been developed for optimising body defences and immune-competence of poultry and farm animals. ImmuPlus AFS is prepared from the extracts of selected natural plants, containing unique Pro-vitamins and Pro-nutrients such as Terpenes, Phenols, Amino-acids, Natural Vit-C and Vit-E and Oligosaccharides etc. The body uses these substances as base to elaborate some of immunological and metabolic functions to optimize body defenses, promote good health and production and to minimise the possibilities of viral, bacterial and other infections and disease conditions. The vitamins and phenolic compounds play very effective role in boosting defense mechanisms and to naturally inhibit growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. ImmuPlus AFS also facilitates optimum production of immunoglobulins, antibodies and other immune components. ImmuPlus optimizes the immune status of the birds and animals to enable them to successfully meet the challenges of viral, bacterial, fungal and other infections.  In many studies, ImmuPlus AFS has been found useful to stimulate bone marrow stem cells for the formation of monocyte-macrophages and to increase the size, number, phagocytic activity and intracellular killing capacity of macrophages. ImmuPlus AFS has also been shown to enhance the microbicidal activity of heterophils/neutrophils and activity of NK cells. It was also observed that ImmuPlus AFS enhances the GM-CSF level in serum and stimulates lymphokine secretion and increases the total leucocyte count, absolute lymphocyte count, heterophil and neutrophil count as well as T-cell maturation. ImmuPlus could also enhance the level and smooth passage of maternal immunity from mother to new born chicks, calves, kids etc. for their better health and livability. ImmuPlus restores and improves the immune status of immuno-compromised hosts. ImmuPlus also helps to maintain strong body defenses and optimum immune functions in the face of challenges by immune-suppressants and disease causing bacteria, viruses and parasites etc. It has also been noticed that ImmuPlus enhances the immune status of mammary glands through combined effect of recruitment of effector cells to the mammary glands, enhanced bacterial clearance by phagocytic cells and modulation of acute inflammatory reactions for quick and complete recovery from Mastitis as well as to prevent recurrence along with improvement in the level of leucocytes and immunnoglobulins, significant reduction in somatic cell.
Herbal neutraceutical & feed supplements: Feed additives depending on the specificity of function of herbs and their Phytoingredients/bioactives have been developed to improve the health, digestibility, productivity and immunity. It is scientifically established have antimicrobial activity. that inclusion of herbal feed additives to ration improves overall growth, performance and productivity of animals, enhances nutrient utilization and feed efficiency, possess immunopotentiating and antioxidant effect, improves gut microflora and also have antimicrobial activity.
Herbal neutraceutical & feed supplements:
Metabolic & Liver Tonic and Growth Promoter: The use of antibiotics and other chemical substances for growth promotion in poultry and livestock is reported to cause residual toxicity. Supplementation of Hepato-efficiency enhancershelp to increase the secretion and flow of bile for better digestion and to treat anorexia by maintaining the liver parenchyma in healthy state. Many herbs such as Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta alba, Picrorhiza kurroa, Phyllanthus niruri, Tephrosia purpurea, Tinospora cardifolia and Boerhavia diffusa have been proved to improve feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain and reduce mortality in poultry and swine;owing to their Hepato-protective, Hepato-stimulants and growth promoting properties. LivoLiv 250 is a herbal feed supplement which promotes growth and production performance along with improvement in FCR by optimizing digestion, absorption and metabolization of nutrients. Herbal liver tonic supplementation optimizes endogenous synthesis and bioavailability of digestive enzymes, provides protection to the liver, helps to maintain regeneration of damaged liver tissues for optimum hepatic cell functions, promotes efficient detoxification and metabolization, helps to counteract the damaging effects of mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, antibiotics and other chemical substances, stimulates the intestinal CCK receptors and enhances the release of cholecystokinin and thus ensures optimum absorption and utilisation of fats and fat- soluble vitamins, helps avoid the possibilities of ascites in poultry and ensures improvement in productivity and quality of meat. Supplementation of LivoLiv -250 works as New Generation Performance Enhancing System for Higher Production and Farm Profits.
Traditional system of medicines has stood the test of tie for over 4000 years and should not be considered as an alternate to the modern medicine; rather they complement and enhance the production of livestock.Researchers have found that ethnoveterinary treatments are primary recourse for livestock owner when their animal is ill. If ethnoveterinary practices blend with complementary medicine this will open a wide scope towards one health mission. Herbal additives have aroused much scientific interest over the past few years to explore their role as performance enhancers in livestock production. The cited instances in this text are just glimpses from the vast and virgin world of Ayurveda through the clear eye of modern science. It is upto our scientist & industry how best they use this precious gift from Mother Nature for health and welfare of livestock and in turn mankind.




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24 de diciembre de 2022
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