The poultry industry has experienced unprecedented growth in size and rapid growth. However, the poultry industry faces a narrow margin of profit as well as the risks that cause the weakness of the safety cycle. Especially after the intensive concentration of poultry farms and after the obsolete concept of the use of antibiotics as a panacea, as it did not realize that antibiotics have deteriorated in recent years. The emergence of resistance against antibiotics has led to thinking more about the use of safer and environmentally friendly elements. To not affect human health, it has come as vital security and an ideal way to face those risks, poultry production and, in the end, prevention not treatment. Hence the importance of biosecurity in poultry farms.
Where do diseases come from?
Disease-causing viruses and bacteria can be transported from one flock to another on bird transporting equipment, trucks, tractors and other farm equipment as well as egg flats and cases.
Disease enters the farm through several methods:
- Water: contaminated water sources.
- Air (and take into account the design of farms to the wind).
- Breeding different ages: old age is a source of infection for young age.
- Contaminated feed.
- Transport vehicles and maintenance.
- Old waste.
- Live vaccines themselves
- Pests such as rodents, dogs, insects, and spikes.
- The entry of sick birds through the same company produces the chicks from sick mothers who are carrying the disease vertically.
- Contaminated eggs.
- Neighbor infected farm.
- Dust – Feathers.
- Or because of the human factor such as hands, feet, contaminated shoes, clothes, visitors and guards who move from farm to farm.
What is biosecurity?
A specific set and series of measures or measures taken to protect public health, animal health, plants and the environment to reduce the entry and spread of pathogens or pathogenic agents.
What is the importance of biosecurity?
The occurrence of a disease of any animal herd or animal farm can destroy everything and cause loss of animals and sales, and a decline in production and high costs of veterinary health care and the consequent disinfection.
Productive statistics indicate that diseases that kill the poultry industry annually are estimated at 9%-13% of the total value of the cost.
These losses can be reversed in two directions if we anticipate and implement biosecurity to reduce the percentage of mortalities this will increase the production of eggs and reduce production costs.
We return to say that it has introduced the concept of the industry for the poultry trade for many years and the speed of education and the concentration of large numbers of birds in one area, and high productivity, has become a strong target for infection and exposure to disasters at any time.
It is important to pay attention to the process of breeding from the ground up and protect it from any factor that could cause the emergence of disease and death and the resulting dead birds, which must be buried immediately and not left among other birds, but must be burned and buried so as not to attract flies and other predators. The environmental factor should also be used to control any disease, such as sun and drought, and to leave time intervals between breeding herd and herd.
What constitutes biosecurity?
Which is done by keeping the animal in a controlled environment by fencing the farm to prevent animals from coming out and preventing birds and other animals from entering and applying the principle of all in - all out by disinfection and sterilization periodically on all incoming and outgoing to and from the farm.
Minimize movement as much as possible of human elements by locking doors and preventing visitors from entering the house without the permission of the Department, for a specific purpose and for the necessary staff only, after taking off their clothes, wearing special clothes for the farm and cleaning the portable devices. Control of movements is not restricted to humans but other animals Such as rats, wild birds, predators and cats. Some say that cats are considered as an aid to eliminate rodents, but that their disadvantages outweigh their advantages and preferably rodenticide. Also fill all gaps and openings that can allow the entry of any animal, mowing the grass periodically around the Planter to reduce the risk of fire and nesting rodents and insects.
Visitors should be kept on time for the visit and, if necessary, only as maintenance workers and inspectors, and are required to wear afrools, kufu and shoes after taking a hot bath and for this purpose If there is a need for a new hot bath, wear their own clothes and go out, there should be clear instructions by placing signs that are marked with no entry. The doors must remain locked. The keys are kept in a safe and secure place. The car must be sprayed and pass through a bath filled with disinfectant and the driver remains in the transport of feed or chicks.
It is an important aspect in biosecurity and is considered a major part of the triangle of biosecurity to prevent disease through the application of immunizations, especially viral ones, which there is no other way to prevent them except on this road, which is not useful with antibiotics and be careful to choose the type of vaccine Appropriate and given in a timely manner through the work of a program covering all the gaps in the time of breeding and it should be noted here that some vaccines give good immunity, but at the same time gives strong and harsh reactions to the flock and affect the emergence of other diseases.
Is the most difficult stage of biosecurity. Leaving the litter parts around the farm after the cleaning process reduces or even eliminates the cleansing process as a whole. All surfaces inside and outside, and the feeder and maintenance tools must be cleared from the top and the bottom.
- Remove the waste from the chicken farm and take it outside the farm for a long distance and then make sure that the waste does not reach the entrance to the farm. Then the process of cleaning the farm comes from the remains of the litter.
- Remove lighting bulbs - fan blades and remove worn bulbs.
- Remove miscellaneous equipment such as feeders, stripes and even tools from guard rooms, workers and service.
- We start by sterilizing the ceiling and curtains carefully, fences, drains, stripes and other equipment with good disinfectants, lifting the curtains up and cleaning them. When the curtains are sprayed down to allow the air to remove the traces of disinfectant smells.
- Use a clean, screw-free, dry and easy-to-absorbent litter.
- Use insecticides around farms and fences.
- After that the farm is closed and the curtains are lifted and the sterilization is evaporated and left for 24 hours and then the curtains are opened for ventilation.
- Do not forget to unload the silo (feed tank) from the remaining feed from a previous flock and disinfect it from the inside with gaseous disinfectants. Remove the feed from the feed lines and not use them in the next flock.
- Cleaning the water lines using a sodium hypochlorite disinfectant is a household bleach and leave and should not stay more than 24 hours so as not to spoil the rubber nipples and make sure the arrival of the sterilizer by sniffing the smell of chlorine at the end of the tubes and then rinsed vigorously and enough time with running water to make sure there is no trace of the smell of chlorine.
Post-cleansing and sterilization:
- Return tools to their natural places such as feeders and stripes.
- Make sure to fill the water tanks.
- Ensuring that generators work.
- Check and operate automatic feeders.
- Check the burners and make sure they burn well.
- Check strip lines and leak water.
Application of Biosecurity in Poultry Farms:
Biosecurity is a set of procedures that are followed in poultry farms that prevent the arrival of pathogens for birds. Biosecurity programs are the cornerstone of the poultry industry in general and in modern intensive education systems in particular.
The biosecurity program aims at three points:
- Reduce exposure to pathogens by applying health care programs.
- Increased bird resistance to disease through immunization programs against. communicable diseases.
- Combating disease epidemics with medicines that completely eliminate or help prevent it.
The health care programs in poultry projects are concerned with reducing the level of microbial contamination in the environment surrounding the birds as one of the standard procedures used to start from the breeder farms through the hatchery to reach the broiler farms.
There are a number of concepts that need to be clarified, namely, some common terms such as sterilization, disinfection and cleaning. The term sterilization is called a set of chemical and physical means (such as radiation and heat) that completely eliminate any microbial contamination on surfaces or tools, including fungus spores. Disinfection means reducing the number of microbes in the medium where birds live to the minimum extent possible (except for fungal spores) using chemical solutions called antiseptics. While cleaning means the disposal of all organic substances, bacteria and microbes through mechanical washing processes and using special compounds called detergents.
The rule for cleaning poultry farm is that it must be preceded by a cleaning process so that the remaining residues of the previous batch, which may contain microbial contaminants that are the focal points of the infection as well as the disposal of organic materials that may prevent the arrival of disinfectant to the surfaces to be cleaned, which loses much of its effectiveness.
Perfect detergent specifications:
- Highly efficient for removing various organic substances and fats.
- Do not be affected by the quality of water used in washing.
- Do not leave any residue on surfaces after washing may interfere with disinfectants used.
- Does not have any toxic effect.
- Does not react with metals.
- Perfect disinfectant specifications:
- Wide spectrum which affects viruses, bacteria and fungi.
- Economical cost compared to its features.
- Do not lose any of its activity in the presence of organic matter or soap.
- It has no toxic effect on birds.
- It has an extended effect on the surfaces that have been cleared.
- Does not affect the metals or other materials involved in the installation of the Farm.
- Soluble in water and not affected by acids or alkalis or water hardness.
- Its activity is not affected by temperature.
- It does not take long to eliminate the microbes.