Coccidiosis in Broiler Breeders, Broilers & Layers

Published on: 6/29/2016
Author/s : Courtesy of Growell India

Coccidiosis is a disease caused by a microscopic animal or protozoa and is characterized by diarrhoea, unthriftiness and variable levels of mortality.  Tissue damage and changes in intestinal tract function may allow colonization by various harmful bacteria leading to necrotic enteritis. Immunosuppressive diseases may act in concert with coccidiosis to produce more severe diseases. That is why there is a need for a product that does not allow tissue damage and changes in intestinal tract function without causing any negative side effects.

How strategy for Coccidiosis control in broiler breeders is different from that in broilers

It is important to point out that the objectives for managing coccidia in the breeder pullets are substantially different from the objectives used in rearing broilers. In broilers, primary consideration must be given to maximizing bird performance, which is the key measurement. With the breeder pullet, however, the foremost objective must be to develop a sound immune response to the parasites. This can be done by a vaccine or some other method (feed additive) that can develop immune response.

Limitations of existing Coccidiostats

Coccidiostats cannot be used prophylactically in birds kept for breeding or commercial egg production after they reach laying age, which is around 16 weeks. This is to prevent possible carryover of the drugs into eggs that might reach consumer markets. To prevent coccidiosis in replacement pullets, several different strategies have been developed. They include: 

(a) Continuous feeding of coccidiostats to 8 to 16 weeks of age in birds destined for cages.
(b) "Step down" programs in which drug inclusion levels are decreased at intervals during rearing and discontinued by 8 weeks of age in order to allow birds to develop immunity.
(c) Vaccination.
(d) No prophylactic treatment. Birds are treated therapeutically if a clinical outbreak of coccidiosis occurs. 

What is being done now when broiler breeders or layers have an outbreak

Presently, field people have limited choice in products like Amprolium, roxarsone and sulpha products, that are shown to exert activity against E. tenella and E. necatrix, but with minimal or no activity against other coccidial species in chickens (Amprolium). This situation has led to confusion among field personnel, who frequently consider the compound coccidiostatic (particularly against the upper intestinal species).  Care must be used with their application, because large doses, common in therapeutic applications, may produce toxicity. Hemorrhages, kidney damage and altered growth are known to occur in these situations.

Our suggestion

Coxynil is the first herbal-mineral Anticoccidial that answers to this problem. Coxynil is a combination of select herbs which works as coccidiocidal without causing any negative side effects e.g. weight gain problem or feed intake problem. At the same time, Coxynil is shown to develop immunity levels significantly upwards (Cell immunity, HI titres against New Castle disease, Cell mediated immune response (skin thickness), T Cell counts (ANAE) in various trials). Additionally, Coxynil does not allow the ingested coccidia to penetrate the linings of the intestine & further, does not allow reproduction thus saving the tissue damage.

Mode of action

Coxynil is an anticoccidial product that acts early in the coccidial life cycle before damage can occur to the gut lining. Coxynil remains present in small intestine, lower small intestine, duodenal loop and eliminates sporocysts as it finds them alien to body and further, creates such conditions that the process of release of sporozoites from sporocysts is checked. Further, sporozoites, since their gravity is reduced significantly, are unable to enter epithelial cell or intraepithelial lymphocytes and development process is minimized to insignificant levels. Sporulation of oocysts is prohibited completely.

Additional feature

Coxynil has been tested to inhibit Clostridium perfringens (in vitro).

Dosage & administration
Broilers:  500 gms per Ton of Feed (To be administered from day 1 till marketing).
Broiler Breeders/Layers: 0-3 weeks (500 gm/Ton), 4 to 14 weeks (750 gm to1000 gm/Ton – to be adjusted for restricted feeding).
Animals: Cattle/Sheep/Goat/Pigs/Lamb/Creep/Weaner/Other animals: 4 gm/day/per 100 kg of live weight.
COXYNIL LIQUID: to be given @ 2 litre per 1000 Litres of water for 2 days and thereafter, 1 Litre per 1000 Litres of water for 3 next days for speedy recovery.

Important Note: In case of replacing an existing Anticoccidial half way with Coxynil, Coxynil should be given at double dosage for one week, followed by normal dosage. In case of an outbreak, double dosage should be administered for 7 days followed by normal dosage.


Efficacy studies

1) Coxynil’s in – vitro activity against coccidia oocysts  (Nagpur Vet College - 2003).
2) Coxynil’s in – vitro activity against Clostridia perfringens (Bombay Vet College - 2003).
3) Natural Anticoccidial (Coxynil) for Broilers (with or without coccidiosis vaccine)  – Federal University of Parana, Biological Sciences Sector, Dept. of Physiology, Brazil – 2003.
4) Role of Coxynil in Pathology of coccidiosis in Poultry (challenge studies in Broilers & ND Titre studies in New Castle) – Nagpur Vet. College – 2000.
5) Challenge studies in coccidiosis of Goats – Coxynil – a case study – February 2001.
6) Challenge studies in coccidiosis of Sheep – Coxynil – a case study – March 2001.
7) Field trial report of Coxynil in Commercial Broilers in Mexico vis a vis Monesin & Nicarbazin– 2002.
8) Challenge studies on Coxynil in mice coccidiosis – Germany – 2002.
9) Trial of Herbolife (combination of Coxynil & Growell) at DPI, Brisbane, Australia in Broilers for coccidiosis control and growth promotion – 2002.
10) Effect of Coxynil vs. Salinomycin in pathology of Coccidiosis in Broilers (Challenge & Control studies, Immunity parameters like T Cell & ND titres studies )– Bombay Vet. College, India – 2003.
11) Field trial report of Coxynil in commercial broilers (cobb 500) in Italy vs. a vis. Maxiban-Monensin – 2003.
12) Field trial report of Coxynil in commercial broilers (Coxynil vs. Salinomycin + Diclazuril) – India – 2003.
13) Field trial report of Coxynil in Commercial broilers in E. Acervulina – Turkey - 2004. 

Safety studies

1) Residues of Animal Drugs (Antibiotic analysis) & Plant protective residues (Pesticide residue analysis) – Poultry Diagnostic and Research Centre of Venkateshwara Hatcheries Ltd., Pune, India.
2) LD 50 studies (Acute oral toxicity).
3) Mucous membrane test.
4) Skin irritation test.
5) Environment safety – Coxynil’s effect on Soil Microorganisms at normal and ten times dosage. 

Stability studies

1) Thermal & Accelerated Stability (following OECD guidelines).

Bio-degradability studies

1) Bio-degradability studies (following OECD guidelines).

Chemical / proximate studies

1) Proximate analysis.
2) Chemical analysis.

Microbiological studies

1) E Coli.
2) Salmonella.
3) Clostridia.
4) Coliforms.

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