Mycotoxin control

Forum: Mycotoxin impacts and control strategies

Published on: 12/11/2012
Author/s : Carlos A. Mallmann, Paulo Dilkin, Adriano Olnei Mallmann, Denize Tyska (Federal University of Santa Maria, Department of Veterinary, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)
1. Factors that interfere in mycotoxin production Mycotoxins are toxic substances that result from secondary metabolism of several strains of filamentous fungi. They are organic compounds with low molecular weight and no immunogeneticity. In tropical and subtropical climates the fungi development is enhanced by factors such as excellent humidity and temperature conditions. Fungi grow and spread ...
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December 11, 2012

Thank you for your good comments and studies. The main concern today in the Mycotoxin problematic is the actual control by companies and growers. You can analyse all the symptons in histo pathology, but the main concern is the way companies employ resourses for testing and prevention. In my 34 years experience in the animal busines and more than 65 countries travelled, I hardly find a good control of mycotoxin prevention.
Owners against technitians are based on economical factors. When economical crisis affects growers and producer, the first to cut is testing, laboratory diagnois and detection methods.

If you travel to southern Asia, it is common for Afka to be at levels of 100-150 PPb and based on local studies that level does not affect any of their production. Of course they do not realize that they may have a synergy with other toxins that in fact may cause other problems. The first thing that owners allow is antibiotic use or vaccine prevention without realizing that sometimes it is a mycotoxing that is really the cause.

We need to educate the owners that mycotoxins is one of the main causes of their problems. They need to put more effort and cost effective methods to test, analyse and prevent, like ELISA's, PCR, etc. They also need to use mold inhibitors and mycotoxin adsorbents.

It is not a good pratice to use an adsorbent without a mold inhibitor, its like using oil and no fuel. In my experience, educating them how to take a sample, analyse, verify mixtures and feed ingredients that may affect their end product is escential to their elimination of antibiotic, and other vaccines that are not needed atn the time.

I understand that animal organs are affected at all times, a good adsorbent needs to have enzimes for replacement of damaged enzimes caused by mycotoxins, a good MOS, Beta glucan to enhance the immune system, FOS, MOS, Pro biotocs and Pre biotics, as well as a goos hepatic helper , like artichoke or cilimarine cactus.

It is crucial in helping the animal to regenerate it's defenses and protect the organs that could be damaged. For example in the US in Texas they make clays that are treated, but no other elements are factor into the solution of animal health except adsorbtion of mycotoxins. That is not the answer. You can work with a combination of clays, but you are not helping the regeneration of organs or elimainating bacteria or other elements in the health of the animal.

Let's try to concentrate in developing new products that could focus on many aspects of animal health. This is the answer of the future. while antibiotic are being banned in many countries, we need natural products that can replace medicines that could factor into a better protection in the animal health. 

Again, is all up to the production companies to invest and implement systems that will help them produce better and healthier animals.

May 27, 2013
Your comments are really interesting and important. First is about the synergistic or antagonistic effects of different mycotoxins. For instance some other mycotoxins have measurable effect on aflatoxins, but these interactions in vivo conditions is not yeat clear, and usually underestimated, and the in vitro data is not suitable for extrapolation to in vivo system. Determination of the real mycotoxin contamination with cost-effective methods is also questionable, but the main problem is the sampling protocols because the level of contamination is extremely different even in a small portion and if the sampling is not correct the result will be also questionable. I agree with you that the methods against mycotoxin contamination should be at two levels, first to use fungicide treatment of cereals grains and at second level use mycotoxin binders. However, using fungicide treatment of a highly contaminated grain kernel is not effective because most of mycotoxins remain stable during storage. Using absorbents or mycotoxin degrading/detoxifying enzymes is another problem. Most of mycotoxin binders did not evaluate accurately, but those are on the market without official registration, and there is not effective aflatoxin degrading enzyme available in the market. The supplementary treatments with immune stimulants, probiotics, prebiotics and other preparations for helping the regeneration of the damaged tissues, e.g. liver, seems to be suitable for prevention, but those effect as for therapy is more than questionable. I think that the best way to keep the health of our animals using high quality feeds with as low mycotoxin contamination as possible.
Sara Caballero Sara Caballero
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
June 3, 2013
Dear Doctors, talking about the effects of fungus toxins...I want to ask you something: We had a case of a 2 years old horse eating 2 monts with corn silage with fungus, the animal developed general allopecia, thin skin and hair follicle atrophy, and low concentrations of T4 ¿ Do you know if micotoxins have an antithyroid effect?
We will appreciate your opinion.
Sara Caballero
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