Penicillium Moulds in silage

Forum: Penicillium Moulds in Silage. How they affect Rumen Health

Published on: 05/24/2011
Author/s : Dr. Anna Catharina Berge, Berge Veterinary Consulting
Introduction Moulds and their toxins in feed are an increasing global challenge, and multiple environmental and pre-harvest and post-harvest agricultural practices may contribute to this increase. Mouldy feed and mycotoxins have been associated with lower feed intake, reduced digestibility and health disorders in ruminants. An array of mycotoxins can be present in mouldy silage, some of which are...
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May 24, 2011

Interesting article about Penicillium Moulds in Silage.
What happen if a cow has being exposed to the mycotoxins for a long period of time, how long should we wait for the rumen to recover its health? Or will never recover it?

Reply
Dr.Thirumeignanam, D., Dr.Thirumeignanam, D.,
PhD in Animal Nutrition
May 24, 2011

Very good article about Penicillium Moulds in Silage. I would like to know Mycotoxin binder (Mycosorb) can reduce the Aflatoxin M1 in milk. If so how much dose should be included per day per cow or per tone?.
What will the effect of dose on animal health and mineral availability?
Thanks

Reply
Drmuhammad Shafique Drmuhammad Shafique
Veterinary Doctor
May 24, 2011

Penicillium Moulds in Silage making is not an easy technique it require expertise and vast knowledge about the problem creating factors which deteriorate the whole effort of the silage making and cost of silage.in this article efforts are exploited to minimize the problems which pave the way for heath hazard effect on cattle and other small ruminants. Anna Catharina Berge efforts are appreciable and problem solvers.

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Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 25, 2011

Thanks for very informatic information about Penicillium Moulds in Silage. I amalso working in this line but alone

Reply
Anna Catharina Berge Anna Catharina Berge
PhD in Comparative Pathology
Berge Veterinary Consulting Berge Veterinary Consulting
Brabant, Belgium
May 25, 2011
Dear Engormix readers. I have contacted expertise for Mycosorb concentrations. Mycosorb will bind Aflatoxin a1. At an inclusion rate of 0,0125% of mycosorb, it will bind 50% of Aflatoxins (200 ppb) in the feed. At a concentration of 0.05% they will bing 75% of aflatoxins (200 ppb in feed). Mycosorb in contrast to clay adsorbents furthermore binds a wide range of mycotoxins that are now found in feed. I will provide data on inclusion rates and reduction in milk (have requested data). The time before health is restored may vary depending in farm situation, the mycosorb is active within 25 minutes of ingestion, health improvements can be seen within 24 hours, but it may take longer depending on circumstances, I will request data on this. As regards mineral availability, I believe this is not affected, but have requested information on this,
Kind regards, Anna Catharina
Reply
Dr.Thirumeignanam, D., Dr.Thirumeignanam, D.,
PhD in Animal Nutrition
May 25, 2011

Thanks for your information About Penicillium Moulds in Silage. If you have data on reduction of AFLA M1 in milk with dose, kindly get back to us.
Regards

Reply
Ines Rodrigues Ines Rodrigues
Zootechnist
May 25, 2011

Dear Dr. Anna Catharina Berge,
Thank you for sharing with us your very interesting article about Penicillium Moulds in Silage. 

I would like to share with you some information regarding the adsorption of mycotoxins and specifically on the adsorption of aflatoxins and the use of yeast or yeast-derived glucomannan products.
On a very interesting and comprehensive s scientific report submitted to EFSA (European feed Safety Authority) an overview is given on this type of substances. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/22e.pdf
In page 107 of this report it can be read:
In vitro studied reported that yeast-derived glucomannan bound 96.2%, but the subsequent in vivo study reported that this product at 0.5% of a diet containing 170 µg of AFB1/kg of feed was not effective in reducing milk AFM1 concentrations (-8%), aflatoxin excretion (-7%), or aflatoxin transfer (-4%) from feed to milk. Similarly, Kutz et al., Waltman et al., Battacone et al. found that the addition of different kinds of non-digestible yeast oligosaccharides were not effective in reducing the AFM1 concentrations in milk (Battacone et al., 2009; Kutz et al., 2009; Waltman et al., 2008). In the study of Waltman et al., experimental sequestering agents (10g/cow/daily) consisting of yeast-derived glucomannan did not affect AFM1 concentrations when cows were fed diets containing 80 to 100 µg of AFB1/kg of diet. Kutz et al. found that yeast-derived glucomannan (0.56%) was not effective in reducing milk AFM1 concentrations (-4%), AFM1 excretion (-5%), or aflatoxin transfer from feed to milk (-2.52%) in cows consuming a total mixed ration containing 112 µg of AFB1/kg of diet. Battacone et al. showed that a dried yeast culture product (which is marketed as a probiotic feed supplement for high-producing dairy ruminants) fed at 12 g/day per ewe did not affect absorption of the aflatoxin in the gastro-intestinal tract of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with 1-5 µg of AFB1/kg of feed.
If a comparison is to be done with clay binders, then here is what the same report (page 100) says about the use of this type of materials for the sequestration of aflatoxins:
Over the past two decades the use of smectite clays to suppress aflatoxins has been demonstrated for many farm animals. In a series of experiments on growing swine, Lindemann et al. demonstrated that the addition of sodium bentonite (0.5%) to diets contaminated with 800 ppb AFB1 improved average daily feed intake and increased average daily gain. Bentonite supplementation significantly improved concentrations of blood urea, total protein, albumin and activities of AST, ALP and GGT, which were significantly altered by AFB1 (Lindemann et al., 1993).
Furthermore and regarding the use of these products to counteract aflatoxins in milk, Pietri et al., 2009 reported a reduction on the AfM1 content in milk of more than 40 % with an inclusion rate of 50 g per cow and day. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=ijds.2009.34.42&linkid=pdf
For the other mycotoxins and due to the non-adsorbability of other mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes, zearalenone, ochratoxins and fumonisins, adsorption is known not to be effective, and therefore other strategies must be used as biological detoxification. This is regarded as the biotransformation or degradation of the toxin by microorganisms/enzymes to produce metabolites that are either non-toxic when ingested by animals or less toxic than the parent toxin molecule.
Kind Regards,
Inês Rodrigues

Reply
Dr. Karki Kedar Dr. Karki Kedar
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
May 26, 2011

Mycotoxin in ruminant cause an oxidative stress,apart of that it chans the elastin fiber to enzyme elastase,and collagen fiber to collagenes enzyme thus causing coagutative necrosis of mucosa in forstomach in ruminanants

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May 27, 2011

Readers, this if Swamy from Alltech. The recovery from mycotoxins depends on the duration of exposure to mycotoxins. Silage mycotoxins affect rumen micro organisms, according to this study it may take 2 to 8 weeks to respond to any prevention procedures such as use of Mycosorb. Please note that to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to look at mycotoxin binders to prevent the effects of silage mycotoxins. Regarding aflatoxin M1, Mycosorb dose is between 10 and 30 g per cow per day depending on the level of aflatoxin B1 in feed. If you need papers on this, please contact me. Mycosorb do not bind minerals as it does not work by charges. It binds by hydrogen and van der wall bonds. There are many products on the market which can take care of aflatoxins. Some of the good quality silicates and bentonites are also effective. However, silage mycotoxins and Fusarium mycotoxins are difficult to deal with. That is where Mycosorb has an upper hand. However, note that clays need to be included at higher levels and make sure you are buying from a repuated company who sell synthetic clays. Natural clays are poor binder of mycotoxins. The paper discussed here is an excellent example for why we see poor performance in cows even when aflatoxins and Fusarium mycotoxins are not detectable. We need to educate dairy farmers on this area. Thanks for the discussion.

Reply
Muhammad Adeel Muhammad Adeel
Veterinary Doctor
April 30, 2013
Dear Dr. Anna Catharina Berge, and Swamy Haladi
Thank you for sharing with us your very interesting detail about Penicillium Moulds in Silage
Regards
dr adeel
Reply
Rk Walter Rk Walter
Specialist in Animal Nutrition
July 21, 2013
Dear Dr Swamy
Could you throw light on those synthetic clay in preference to natural clay.
Regards
rk walter
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