Broiler Goat- A Technology Explanation

Published on: 06/18/2013
Author/s : Dr.P.George Kunju John (Animal Feed Consultant)

Introduction Broiler goat has been evolved to enhance goat meat production in areas were land availability is scarce and fodder become dear. The browsing character of goats destroys the crops. Eventually goat rearing became very problematic. At this situation the new technology to grow goats in goat houses abandoning grazing, feeding high tech feed by reducing FCR to 2.5 ...

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Sara Lomi Sara Lomi
Feed Mill and Goat
June 18, 2013
As a feed and goat producer, I am interested in this model of production. Why particularly do you say the investment is too large to be of use? I have lots of customers who are attempting to grow multiple goats on limited property; if Im able to produce a feed for them to facilitate that growth, how is it not viable? Unfortunately this article raised a lot more questions than it answered. Also I think its misleading to say first world countries dont have the consumption rates required for goat meat- here in the southeastern US goats are a valuable commodity and its consumption grows yearly. As beef becomes more expensive I think we'll see a sharp trend upward in the consumption rate of goats due to their inherent efficiency.
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Dr Muhammad Ramzan Dr Muhammad Ramzan
DVM. M. Phil
June 18, 2013
A ery good,interested and educating article. Very high profitability needs further explanation that wheathe feed @ Rs 15/Kg is available with this FCR. IF so ,no other livestock business has matching profitability.Good luck to goat farmers.
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 19, 2013
Farming Economics requires a balance between production costs and gains+farmer compensation. Unfortunately the conversion rate of meat in goat farming is lower than for sheep, chicken, and pork, for example. While beef prices are rising to the consumer, the cost of supplemental feeding of housed goats plus the cost of manure disposal and labor costs also are rising. This fact is usually beyond what the market will bring to cover the cost/income + compensation formula. Present husbandry practices with stabled goats has not, as yet, allowed farmers to surpass this obstacle. I think Dr. John's article makes it clear that we must find new ways to raise goats as short cycle end product market animals. Remember, that with the cost/gain + farmer compensation formula reproductive stock must be raised and maintained as well.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 20, 2013
Dear Linda,
your valuation of the system is based on the available literature data related to ruminant feeding. It was unbelievable to veterinarians that goats can survive without feeeding forage. But later they accepted the feed technoloy of bypass nutrients.

i agree with you that USA where grazing land has no limit the intensive way of goat production will see with doubts. the chevon group also had such feelings. but when they calculate the cost of creeper feed yheu give as supplement is not considered. you would kindly appreciate that the whole economics will largely depend on feed conversion. I am ready to associate with any feed company with you for further development under my consultancy service. you may wish to contact me at pgkjohn@gmail.com
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 20, 2013
dear sara you may wish to contact me at pgkjohn@gmail.com
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 20, 2013
Well, yes, Dr. John, the evaluation is based on the available literature but also on almost 30 years of experience. I raise dairy goats under intensive management and during the dry season we are forced to feed whatever forage we can find which includes all kinds of tropical tree leaves from palm shrouds to mango, from legume trees to acacia. Most concentrates today are evaluated on the amount of bypass proteins that they contain but that still doesn't allow us to remove forage even if it is dry fodder such as rice straw. Pre-weaned goat kids have been successfully raised for several months to an acceptable slaughter weight of 40 lbs on milk stomachs. However the flavor and texture of such chevon may be less than acceptable to the consumer. Economically, I'm not sure that it has proven profitable when you compare the price of the milk that has been used and the labor of feeding it. Also, we are only talking about slaughter kids and not the breeding stock necessary to produce those kids. I find your article intriguing and certainly worthwhile for further study but I'm afraid that finding the support for such research may be hard to come bu. I hope that you will be able to pursue your ideas.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 20, 2013
thanks Linda for your response. My idea is to bypass rumen fermentation of nutrients. Therefore no need to think of tropical leaves etc. Once you feed fibre the conversion drops FCR become over 8 like ruminant animas. it will take more time to accept the technology. Every day several people contact me for advice. But the industiral approach to the solurion would be feasible. Feed is the vital factor. it could not be processed in house like the farmers do toay. Any way thanks again.
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 20, 2013
Then are you saying that the ruminant will become a monogastric animal?
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
Linda,
indeed a good question.No one can convert a ruminant animal into a monogastric one except Jesus the God. But we can incorporate the technological knowhow. I hope you will be able to understand the technology. It is well established the fact that ruminant animal is a poor effecient convertor. theor effeciency is around 20% obly. rumen fermentation is the reason. the scientists have evolved a feed technology that can save nutrients from rumen fermentation. this is known as 'bypss nutrienttechnology' Even though it was established in UK in 1072 USA accepted it in 1984 only. In the case of broiler goat technology i use the jids of 2 months old and accomplish the growth with in three months. that stage we call as'preruminant stage' normally it takes 6 months for full development of a full rumen. I hope it is clear now.
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 21, 2013
My kids began ruminating somewhere around a month old and by two months are eating forage as well as concentrate. The bucklings, by 2 1/2 months old raised on the dam and allowed free access to concentrate in a creep feeder along with high quality fresh cut forage will weigh between 37 1/2 to 42 pounds. Carcass quality is excellent with abut a 46 to 47% meat to total weight. I see no advantage to keeping them as preruminants until they are 6 months old unless your technology is developed and is economically feasible to apply to market animals.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
You are right because your feeding system is based on forgae based. It is difficult to convince a traditional farner who will never change his age old practices. I am not contraditing your observations. but if you can understand the technology you can realize the economical advantages. Please calculate feed conversion in your system. as per the data it will be around 8 means 8kg feed for 1 kg meat. In oue new system it is 2.5 now dressing percentage is 56% against your 48%. Meat is like broiler meat.

any way thank you for your comments. i have detailed discussions in'chevon talk'. according to Madam Suzzan the US farmers are admanat to change. unless you experiment it will be impossible for you to believe. as an independant consulyant i may not be able to attend your querries.
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Mohammad Ali Mohammad Ali
Agricultural Engineer
June 21, 2013
I think this is a good Idea specially for the food security and employment in some eastern countries who like to consume more red meat. I imagine that it is like broiler chicken production in which launched 50-60 years ago in western countries and know it is a huge industry which many nations are depend on this complex.
Anyhow, the status of genetic potential in this idea would raise, the analysis of the price for the market regarding : nutrition, genetic potential, health care, housing, equipment and the availability of each and everyone should economically and ecologically should analyzed.
finally I am ready to discuss more about this title.this is my interesting issue and I would like to continue...
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
Thamks again. It would become like broiler chicken one day. Genetic development is possible to increase the growth potential.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
Dear Mr. Ali,
The reason why such a good concept is not popularised in the world because it was developed by me a poor Indian. if i was born in USA the situation could be different. Several universities from different countries approached me. But they are unable to get research funds for want of research data. None of the scientists could not contradict my technical approach. any industrial company that can invest on this development would make it available in future. let us hope for the best
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Mohammad Ali Mohammad Ali
Agricultural Engineer
June 21, 2013
Thanks Dear DR.George
That is write, in developing countries there is miss management of human resources. hopefully sometimes in the future the authorities understand the problem.
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 21, 2013
Dear Dr. John: I don't think that your ideas are not accepted for research grants because you are a "poor Indian". I raise my goats in the Dominican Republic and work in the field with many "poor Dominicans". They raise goats in the traditional way and your technology would have to work for them. If not, raising goats in intensive conditions, with housing and labor costs, plus the cost of the "by-pass" feed necessary to get them to market age would have to be convincing to them and within their reach. You don't have to prove your point based on poverty but your technique will have to be convincing to those who live in poverty or you are only appealing to those who have the funds to buy your product.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
Sorry Linda you took my words with a political view. I am happy to know that you work in a poor country. I have worked 25 years with the poor people of India and took the country to the top of milk production in the world. I hope you must have read about 'operation flood' a massive dairy project in India. we organised cooperatives in every villages and collect the milk to 126 million tonnes per year.

i am sure that you could not understand the technolog. we give the feed and advice the farmers to ffeed it. they are not bothered about bypass nutrient technology. the famers have to build cages that is the only cost. labor cost is neglegable. Keep feed and water available all the time then no need to attend them. after three months they can sell the goats for meat.

no need to spend money on research. all the research findings are already established by NRC and ARC. what is needed is to manufacture the special feed.if you really understand the FCR then you may not doubt it. if you are interested to help the poor farmers why not organise their company to produce goat meat. As an international consultant i am not looking for any industrialist to support my technology. once the technology is developed it will be implemented some how or other.

i know Americans will never accept any technology evolved in the third world.
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 21, 2013
Dear Mr. Ali,
you must have read the comment of Linda. The third world will accept the technology from developed countries. I proved the technology in Dubai but again it will be accepted if it was recommended by US.i still believe that the above technology can produce meat in deserts without forages. But they will go fr hydroponics but not zero forage meat production. they have no problem for importing corn soya from USA for growing chicken. No one will ask the cost: profit ratio. because they rule the world.
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Linda Mcmillan Linda Mcmillan
Agriculturist
June 21, 2013
Interesting, so you are saying that in Dubai you were able to raise market goats to 6 months of age with zero forage?
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Dr.P.George Kunju John Dr.P.George Kunju John
Feed Consultant
June 22, 2013
Linda,
i did it. It will be ardeous to convince you because of your ignorance on fed technology. morevoer i have no time to watse such triveal discussions. i responded thinking that you are an experienced person in goat husbandry so that i may get some scientific facts to refine the technology. sorry i am least bothered in the politics.
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