Poultry farming in India was mostly a backyard venture till 1960’s, and it is believed that the Indian poultry industry is 5000 years old. Since last 4 decades it began to witness remarkable growth from backyard to poultry industry. India is the 5th largest producer of egg and 9th largest producer of poultry meat . The broiler industry is well dominated in southern states in our country and contributes 60-70% of total output. The layer industry once again is represented more in southern states especially Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu & Maharashtra producing nearly 70% of the country’s egg production. Andhra Pradesh is the largest egg producing state accounting for one third of the country’s entire output. Mold occurrence and growth on poultry feeds is one of the major threats to economics & health. According to Leibetseder (1989) 30-40% of existing moulds can elaborate toxic substances under favourable conditions, called as mycotoxins. The majority of the toxic species belongs to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria. It is well established that contamination of poultry feeds with mycotoxins may induce sanitary disturbances and mortality among birds and secondary contamination of the human consumer via eggs, poultry meat and giblets. Regarding this issue I would like to publish a data on mycotoxin research in India especially in India. Dear members please send your valuable comments, which will helpful to Indian small poultry farmers.
I see that there are a lot of feed supplements used to detoxify and eliminate toxins. But there is not found any clinical trial, maybe you can do a research based on: Is there any beneficial effect of Feed supplements manufactures by different company in India against these toxins?It´s an emergency to show our customer whether these feed supplements works nicely on this or not.... So sir would you please do this research? Best of luck.....
It´s been very essential as Indian Poultry Industry is growing very fast .There are lot of things to be taken into consideration regarding Mycotoxins because, as far as my experience is concerned, in most of the farms every vehicle of Maize is not tested for Mycoplasma as sometimes time dosen't permit.whose effects are seen after 15 days wherein farmers had to go heavy loss . Sometimes blame goes to chick quality which actually is a blind decision. So taking clinical trials & getting permanent solution will surely help a lot. Actually, it is utmost important to cattle industry also. So please go ahead & kindly give more & more practical solutions if possible.
Dr Sharad Hol
Suguna Poultry Farm Ltd Pune (Maharashtra)
Poultry has advanced a lot in last 2 decades in India & Pakistan. Now there is need of time that we shall educate the agriculture producer that what quality grain, raw material is required by poultry. Most of the mycotoxins develope due to non awareness of its importance in the mind of agricultural producer. As poultry i smajor consumer for corn, other grains & other agricultural by products. Most . As a result poltry feed raw materials are contaminated with fungal toxins. In addition to use of toxin binders awareness compaign should be run from agriculture field to the feed mill store for proper harvesting, processing & storage, so that there are lesser chances of fungal growth on poultry raw material. If some grain or other raw material is exposed/infected to mycotoxins, that should be kept separte instead of mixing into materials free of fungal infections/ mycotoxins. Infected materials can be used/ handled with treatment with toxin binders. It is difficult to monitor all the raw material for presence of mycotoxins at the time of purchase of feed raw material by feed miller. Some incentives can be given to agricultural producers for production of grains & other agricultural products of better/ healthy quality. It is long term effort but I hope it will help.
Mycotoxicoses underlines simplicity of the source and the complexity of the problem. The fungi producing the chemical residues as mycotoxins are common, simple organisms which have very simple requirements for existence. Nutritional needs are met by a source of carbon and nitrogen; they do require water; all they need oxygen, although some require much less than other. Molds may be present without producing any toxin. Thus, the demonstration of mold contamination is not the same thing as the demonstration of mycotoxin contamination. As we know post-harvest period that is the "high hazard" time for aflatoxin production. Ideally Grain drying should not take place more than six hours after harvest.
Emphasis on Metabolism
Toxin binders have been studied by numerous research for their efficacy in minimising toxic effect.Hovever Toxin binding is not fool proof as the biding occurs invivo. Toxins being fat-soluble, there is every likely hood that they get absorbed across intestines. Dealing with the toxin metabolism is a new way of handling toxins beyond binding.Since mycotoxins are natural products, there is a lack in knowledge of metabolic pathways regarding many of the toxins. However, lot of research has been done w.r.t biotranformation and metabolim of few important toxins like aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes giving scope for interfering with metabolism.
Dr Manjunatha BP,Varsha Group
MYCOTOXINS DO HAVE A CONSIDERABLE EFFECT ON POULTRY ,BASICALLY TO HAMPER PRODUCTION ,AND MOST IMPORTANT IMMUNOSUPPRESION. THE TRICOTECHANS SPECIALLY THE F1 TOXIN HAVE A ESTROGENIC INDUCED EFFECT RESULTING IN SWOLLEN VENT ,PROLAPSE AND DROP IN EGG PRODUCTION,WHILE THE T2 TOXINS [MOULDY CORN DISEASE] EXHIBITS FEED REFUSAL AND ULCERS IN THE PROXIMAL OESOPHAGUS ,PALLATE , GIZZARD,AND THE INTESTINAL LINING,BECAUSE THESE ARE IRRITANT MYCOTOXINS. OCHRATOXIN ,AFLTOXIN AND ERGOTISM HAVE THEIR OWN EFFECT,
THE BASIC PROBLEM WITH MYCOTOXINS IS THAT THEY ARE NOT AGGREGATED AT ONE PLACE ,SO MANY TECHNIQUES OF ISOLATION MYCOTOXIN ASSAY BECOMES DIFFICULT.
HSCAS ,ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ,ORGANIC ACIDS ,AND PRESENTLY OLIGOSACCHARIDES ,HELP CONTROL MYCOTOXINS IN FEED IN ADDITION TO QUALITY CONTROL OF INCOMING FEED INGREDIENTS,