Due to the constant genetic evolution in both the production of broilers, nutritionists must constantly adapt their nutritional recommendations and feeding programs to maximize economic results at all times. These management and nutrition decisions must take into account: the animal (potential for growth), environmental conditions and the composition of the feed, which affect feed consumption and, consequently, the performance of birds. And economic benefits.
We traditionally formulate rations with the nutritional recommendations of genetic houses, university tables, and amino acid manufacturers (eg, Evonik, Adisseo, Etc.). We ignore the factors that affect the nutrient demand of an animal in its different physiological and productive stages, management, environment, challenge of pathogens and the nutritional needs of the immune system when inflammation occurs (cytokines) and immunonutrition is activated.
Increased utilization of an amino acid or other nutrient during immune system stimulation may not reflect an increased dietary requirement, as endogenous sources can supply nutrients to meet the need for increased utilization.
The primary lymphoid organ in the birds:
-Poultry nutritionists must constantly evaluate their feeds and feeding programs in light of ongoing changes in the potential growth rate of broilers with the goal of providing the birds with the economically optimal level of nutrients at all times.
The nutritional requirements of broilers depend on several factors:
- Space (Density).
- Relative humidity
- Wind speed.
- Sanitary conditions (healthy or sick).
- Stress level
- Feed and water consumption.
The nutrient requirements of an animal can be classified into:
- Amino acids.
Maintenance -> Growth -> production
Factors that affect the growth and quality of the broiler.
-The nutritional levels and composition of a diet should be an economic decision made by each company where the highest return on investment, Return on Investment (ROI) or the lowest cost/kg is achieved. Meat to be produced.
-Poultry nutritionists must constantly evaluate their feed and feeding programs in light of the continuing changes in the potential growth rate of broilers with the goal of providing the birds with the optimal economic level of nutrients at all times.
1. In Figures 1 to 6 we can see that broilers in the first 14 days of age have a digestible lysine requirement much higher than the recommendations of genetic companies.
2. This high level of digestible lysine requirement is not necessarily profitable for poultry producers.
3. Each individual company in its experimental farms or using universities must evaluate the level of nutrients in their diets that generates the maximum economic return.
-Pelleted feed needs 10 to 15% more digestible lysine than flour feed.
- The optimum temperature to produce high quality pellets is 80 °C, and the minimum retention time in the conditioner is 30 seconds.
- Increasing the temperature in the conditioner can improve the quality of the granules, it can also lead to biochemical reactions which, in turn, can reduce the availability of nutrients and negatively affect the beneficial effects of the granules. Winowiski (1985).
-Although Cobb's recommendations, See Table 3. For the start of the chicken, it is 1.22% digestible lysine, we see there is a response (not necessarily economic) to digestible lysine levels above the recommendation, figures 4, 5 and 6.
-Modern broilers are highly responsive to amino acid (AA) density in the diet and periodic evaluations of AA requirements are needed due to genetic progress.
From Table 2, we can estimate that for a high performance male chicken the requirements of Digestible Lysine and Metabolizable Energy in the diet are:
Starter (0- 8 days) digestible lysine ----------- 1.455%, 3050 kcal / kg ME.
Growth (9-18 days) digestible lysine --- ------ 1,377%, 3,100 Kcal / kg ME.
Finisher 1 (19 -28 days) digestible lysine ---- 1,246%, 3150 Kcal / ME.
Finisher 2 (29-42 days) digestible lysine -----1,109%, 3,225 Kcal / kg ME.
1. Requirements for high performance females can be 6% lower.
2. There are marked differences between the recommendations of genetic companies, universities, and industrial amino acid suppliers.
Are there significant differences in the nutritional recommendations of the different genetic companies?
Nutritional requirements by sex:
Both sexes have different nutritional requirements. For best economic results, it is advisable to fatten the chicken separately and feed a more nutrient-dense diet to the males to reduce fattening time and improve feed conversion. A cheaper diet can be provided in females to reduce the cost of production.
Androgens (Testicular Hormone) Cause profound changes in metabolism due to their influence on protein synthesis. Androgens in males(Testosterone) decrease the output of nitrogen through the urine and the deposit of this element in the form of protein tissue. This explains the difference in size (sexual dimorphism) between male and female (Paulino Joaquin and Gómez Sobeyda, 1993, Graduate Thesis).
Understanding the physiology of modern broiler growth is a useful tool to efficiently meet the amino acid needs of birds, which are specific for each phase, and in this way, it is possible to carry out adequate nutritional plans, depending on the objectives of production of each company.
Some nutritionists suggest that digestible amino acids and other nutrients can be calculated from a ratio per 1000 Kcal. Of metabolizable energy, assuming that the birds adjust their feed consumption according to the energy density of the ration and the environmental temperature. With the combination of net energy and standardized ileal digestible amino acids we can produce more efficient diets.
Mathematical model for prediction of growth and nutritional requirements:
Computerized growth models can be a useful tool to determine more cost-effective and accurate concentrations and balance of dietary amino acids and other nutrients for broilers. Mathematical modeling methodology can be readily accepted in poultry research and nutrition due to the complexity of estimates of nutrient requirements in practical and economic terms, and the need for some quantitative margin of safety in predicting the performance of poultry. Broilers for decision-making applications in the poultry industry.
A software developed by the Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (Unesp) helps poultry farmers and nutritionists to formulate feed for broilers. Called "Avinesp", the software reports on feed intake, body weight, body composition and nutritional requirements. Variations such as temperature, air speed and humidity are also studied.
Developed by researcher Nilva Kazue Sakomura, from Unesp de Jaboticabal, Avinesp can be accessed at www.gnutrim.org.
Avinesp does not formulate rations. It only calculates the nutritional recommendations in energy and amino acids of the birds. It is necessary to provide information such as the diets prepared, the lineage of the bird and environmental variables such as temperature, humidity and air speed. “You can make a prediction of the behavior of the birds through different nutritional programs, putting in the model the formulas of the diets that you want to simulate. For example, if you intend to euthanize at 42 days, you can simulate the weight of the bird at that time.
Mechanistic simulation models represent a promising tool for nutritionists to maximize yield and profitability in production by simultaneously considering genetic, environmental and nutritional factors to establish nutrient requirements, predict growth and yield under different conditions.
Ideal amino acid profile:
It is important to provide the broiler with the proper balance of digestible AAs. To help achieve this goal, an ideal amino acid profile can be used. This is a system in which the requirement of the main AA is calculated, which can be limiting in feed for the animal species. Then lysine is used as reference AA, with which the proportions of the other amino acids are established.
The amino acid requirements for poultry and pigs were standardized using the ideal protein concept. It represents the correct supply of amino acids (related to the level of Lysine), which allows to simultaneously reduce the levels of proteins in the feed and optimize animal performance. However, in addition to reducing protein from the raw diet, it is also necessary to modulate the ideal protein and adopt agile amino acid nutrition. This adjustment is made according to the livestock context, the criteria to be improved, the age of the animals, the amino acid categories and the specific response to each amino acid.
Animals do not need proteins as such, but rather the amino acids that compose them and a little Nitrogen, to synthesize their own proteins (Dr. Douglas Zaviezo).
Limiting amino acids for broilers:
Limiting AAs are defined as those AAs that are present in feed, in a concentration lower than that required by animals to develop their genetic and productive potential. The degree of limitation of essential AAs depends on the composition of the feed ingredients and the nutritional requirements applied to the formulation. In a Soy-Corn diet the limiting AAs are:
9- Glycine + Serine
-When using meal of animal origin, Isoleucine goes to 4th. Limiting amino acids and valine at 5th. Animal by-products are isoleucine deficient.
-This order can be altered if the animals are challenged by disease or stress, there is a pro-inflammatory response, cytokine release, and the immune system has different nutritional requirements.
-Glycine and serine are amino acids considered extremely important for high-performance broilers, as they are related to uric acid excretion.
- Diets supplemented with Leucine 60% above levels recommended in AMINODat 5.0 at fixed Leucine: Ile and Leu: Val ratios do not or hardly influence molecular pathways of protein synthesis and degradation and do not affect performance in fast-growing broilers during a 35-D growth period ( Poultry science, 2019).
Relative inclusion and main pressure points of the different nutrients in poultry and pig diets:
Pressure points in formulation:
It is a new term that describes the point at which a linear feed formulation program provides a solution at the lowest cost that cannot be made cheaper anymore.
2- Amino acids
4- Pigments (Some countries)
5- Medication (Growth promoters, anticoccidials, antibiotics)
6- Vitamins and minerals.
7- Other additives.
The level of protein in the feed indicates the amount of nitrogen for the animal, but does not take into account the qualitative intake of amino acids. Consequently, certain amino acids can be provided in excess, while others are deficient. This imbalance causes metabolic disorders and results in nitrogen-rich excretions into the environment. On the other hand, the use of industrial amino acids allows controlling the intake of essential amino acids for the animal while reducing excessive levels of protein in the diet without affecting performance.
However, on low-protein diets, a reduced or unbalanced supply of AA in the diet can be detrimental to the immune system. Therefore, an ideal AA dietary profile is crucial for the intestinal health of broilers.
Increased AA levels in low protein diets have been shown to maintain growth and ensure a lower incidence of intestinal disorders and pododermatitis and dermatitis.
Animal production must respond to multifactorial issues: the economy, the environment, the welfare and health of animals and consumers.
Industrial amino acids make it possible to:
- Formulate feed more flexibly.
- Increase the value of raw materials.
- Manage the nutritional value of feed and predict animal performance.
- Establish nutritional strategies that respect the environment and animal welfare.
- Reduce 2 to 3 percentage points of the level of protein in the diet in the future 4 to 5 points.
- Respond to precise functional needs within a challenged health context.
To maximize the benefits of amino acids in the diet of poultry and pigs, it is necessary to understand the response of animals to each amino acid and take into account their interactions.
A balanced and precise supply of amino acids in the feed makes it possible to avoid superfluous dietary intakes. This specifically reduces excessive protein intake, which degrades the quality of the intestinal bacterial flora.
Beyond protein-based synthesis, amino acids such as threonine, valine and arginine play a fundamental role in the development of proteins involved in the immune system and intestinal integrity. The evaluation of their dietary intakes and their precise dosage in feed allows to respond to the specific problems related to animal health that producers face.
-Including the new industrial amino acids: L-valine + L-isoleucine + L-arginine, we can achieve a significant protein reduction in the diet of broilers and reduction of the cost of feed, histidine and glycine + serine are the next amino acids limitations that must be considered.
What are enzymes and how do they work?
Enzymes are natural proteins. They are organic chemical compounds of a protein nature that accelerate the speed of a thermodynamically possible chemical reaction.
Enzymes are secreted by all animals as part of the feeding and digestion process. The stomach, small intestine, and pancreas all secrete a wide range of enzymes to digest carbohydrates (main source of energy), lipids (also a good source of energy), proteins (amino acids), and mineral complexes.
Enzymes literally split or break large compounds (eg, starch) into small pieces (such as maltose and dextrin) and eventually building blocks or units (in the case of starch, glucose being - a simple sugar). These simple compounds are absorbed to be used by the animal for the purpose of maintenance and production. Without the digestion process provided by enzymes, practically no nutrient can be absorbed.
To work, enzymes need two conditions:
First, they need a suitable substrate. Therefore, a protease cannot break down a carbohydrate, nor can a phytase work on a protein. Therefore, there must be a combination between each enzyme and its substrate. The enzyme recognizes and attaches itself to the substrate in a mechanism that resembles the figure of a key analog block. Second, they need a suitable environment in terms of acidity or alkalinity. For example, enzymes secreted in the small intestine work better in a higher pH environment.
The enzymes secreted by the animal are called endogenous. Those added to the animal's diet are called exogenous. Commercial (exogenous) enzymes are used to enhance the natural process of digestion. Examples include amylase (starch), lipase (lipid) and protease (protein). Other enzymes are used to provide substrates for digestion that are not digested by the animal. This includes phytase (phytic phosphorus), xylanase (arabinoxylan), glucanase (Beta-Glucans), mannanase (beta-mannan) fiber components.
Most commercial enzymes have been of the latter form, although amylases and proteases are being used more frequently and successfully.
Exogenous enzymes are also natural proteins, produced by controlled microbial fermentation, and work under the same principles as endogenous enzymes. Like their endogenous counterparts, they also require a suitable substrate and correct pH conditions to exert their full effect. In addition, there are a few other requirements for exogenous enzymes: they must be stable under various feed processing and storage conditions, they must be safe for human operators, and of course, their use must improve profitability for the producer of the enzymes and animals.
Today, we can easily expect a 10% improvement in phosphorus digestibility over a modern phytase. Similarly, a glucanase or xylanase enzyme can improve Metabolizable Energy in feed by 50 kcal/kg, or even more (up to 150 kcal/kg, it is reasonable in low-quality cereals). Lastly, a protease improves protein digestibility by around 2-5% depending on the type of ingredients used. In the animal industry where profit margins are currently
Small, such improvements as those conferred by exogenous enzymes are indeed substantial and attractive.
- A next-generation protease can improve protein digestibility by 16% and decrease soybean meal inclusion by 8%
In conclusion, enzymes are natural, safe, and important for the animal. Supplementation in food improves the process of digestion, and reduces the amount of nutrients excreted in the stool. This, in turn, improves animal performance, profitability and reduces environmental pollution.
Production of enzymes at an industrial level
Contributions of enzymes in the diet:
Use of nutrients in balanced feeds:
• 60-65% Cereals (and fats)
• 20-35% Oilseeds
Digestible Phosphorus / Digestible Calcium:
Dr. Adeola, Dra. Angel and Dr. Ruiz are scientists who are making a great contribution to the digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and the quality of soybean meal in poultry and pigs.
For precision, cost-effective and environmentally friendly nutrition it is necessary to go from available phosphorus and total calcium to fair digestible phosphorus and ileal digestible calcium, the scientific community has a duty to offer this information.
Digestible phosphorus represents that portion of phosphorus in the diet that can be used in the animal's body. For the efficient production of animal products, it is required that the correct amount of nutritionally adequate feed be supplied to the animal. To achieve this goal, the characteristics of digestion and use of this type of feed must be well understood (Olayiwola Adeola, 2013).
Phosphorus is an essential mineral element, which in most vertebrates is the second dietary requirement after calcium. The satisfactory performance, growth, reproduction and welfare of animals depend on an adequate supply of phosphorus in the diet. Approximately 75% of the body's phosphorus is stored in the skeleton as the main component of hydroxyapatite, the main building block of bone (Adeola, 2016).
The dietary imbalance of Calcium and Phosphorus is not only possible due to the deficiency of macrominerals in the feed but also due to the excess of some of them, which leads to interference in the absorption of the other (Williams et al., 2000).
Research where it was observed that the digestibility of Phosphorus and its absorption depends largely on the presence of Calcium in the intestine and calcium absorption, since too much Calcium limits the activity of phytases and the bioavailability of Phosphorus (Angel and Tamin, 2003; Tamin et al., 2004; Selle et al, 2009).
The lack of available information is undoubtedly a clear limitation for an adequate formulation of the requirement of digestible macrominerals and therefore of their relationship, but the revision of formulas to arrive at better approximations will optimize the use of phytases and reduce the amount of skeletal disorders in chickens. If a 100% Ca digestibility is assumed, an error is clearly being made, but if there is also a phytase in the formula, the Total Calcium obtained from the laboratory analysis may be less than that of the formula, which would still be an error. (Ángel, 2017).
Currently there are not enough research works on the digestibility of Calcium present in ingredients used in poultry so that the formulation can evolve towards a system that considers the relationship between the two macrominerals expressed in the same terms (Ca dig / P dig), but Every time there is a greater awareness of the need for this information and more research centers are added to carry out the determinations. Until now, a range of Ca digestibility between 20-30% has been reported for soybeans and corn (Ángel and Tamin, 2003; Tamin et al., 2004; Roulleau, 2014), while for calcium carbonate its digestibility is at least It doubles, but it could even triple, according to the origin, resistance and shape (Anwar et al., 2016; Angel, 2017). The Ca present in phosphates is the one with the highest digestibility, since it can take values between 60 and 68% (Roulleau, 2014).
Before the use of phytases in commercial diets, the interference of Ca with the absorption of P present in phytate was already known. In 1984 Ballam et al. already reported a significant increase in phytate hydrolysis.
- The formation of insoluble complexes of penta calcium phytates makes their digestion difficult because it reduces the possibility of enzymatic action of phytases (Nelson, 1967).
- -Excess calcium reduces the effectiveness of phytase and the absorption of phytic phosphorus by more than 20%.
Interactions of Phytic Acid with protein, minerals and starches highly reactive Ip6 - forms complexes (phytates) with:
a) Binary complexes - proteins with basic residues directly with phosphates at low pHs (b) b) Tertiary bridges - through the ca and basic residues of AAs at pHs> 6 (c).
•Mineral cations (Zn, Cu, Ca, Mn, Mg, Fe).
Calcium carbonate dissociates in the intestine and in a diet with excess calcium it can form calcium soaps with free fatty acids and affect lipid absorption in monogastrics, very favorable in ruminants as bypass fat.
It can also interfere with the absorption of other minerals
Net energy in birds:
Different energy evaluation systems have been used to formulate poultry diets including digestible energy, total digestible nutrients, true metabolizable energy EMv, apparent metabolizable energy (EMa), and effective energy EEF. AME values of raw materials are most often used to formulate poultry diets. The net energy system (NE) is currently used for the formulation of pig and bovine diets and there is interest for its application in the formulation of poultry.
Every energy evaluation system has some limitations. The AME system, for example, depends on the age, the species and the level of feed consumption. The NE system takes AME one step further and incorporates the energy lost in the form of heat when calculating the energy available for the production of meat and eggs. The NE system is therefore the most accurate representation of energy available for productive purposes. NE prediction requires accurate measurement of feed AME value and also accurate measurement of fasting and total heat production using nutritionally balanced diets. Currently, there is limited information on the NE values of various ingredients for poultry feed formulation.
The optimal particle size for broilers is influenced by the shape of the feed, the age and sex of the animal, its health, and the raw materials used. The optimal particle size in corn-based feeds is coarser than that of wheat-based feeds. For starter batches, the appropriate average particle size is in the range of 900µm -1100µm, while adult birds prefer particles between 1,100µm and 1,500µm. For male birds, the optimal particle size is coarser than for females. In general, it is recommended that you start with a finer granulation and increase the particle size throughout the growing period.
A coarse grain size slightly reduces the digestibility of nutrients, but improves the performance of the gizzard and therefore the performance of the animal, thus overcoming the reducing effect of metabolizing energy.
Feed form and recommended particle size by age in broilers:
When feeding mash, special attention should be paid to having a coarse and uniform particle size and distribution. This will generally require grinding the primary cereal grains to a mean diameter of 900- 1000 micron. Where circumstances dictate that a mash (rather than a crumb or pellet) be used, adequate performance can be achieved, especially where maize is the principle cereal. Mash feeds will benefit from the inclusion of some fat or oil in the formulation to reduce dustiness.
Recommended particle size distribution for crumble or pelleted feeds:
Nutrition is the major impacting variable upon broiler productivity, profitability, and welfare.
Knowledge of the make-up of the diet being fed to the birds will mean that farm managers can ensure that:
•Feed levels and consumption will provide adequate levels of daily nutrient intake (feed intake multiplied by nutrient content).
•There is proper and expected balance between feed nutrients.
•Routine laboratory analysis of diets can be usefully interpreted and correct actions taken such as:
-Alerting the provider of possible discrepancies.
-Appropriate management of feed programs.
-Design diets that maximize the profitability of the entire production chain.
-Formulate feed to maximize performance and not to minimize feed cost.
-It is better to invest to win and not save to lose.
An economical diet is not necessarily the one that produces the best economic return to the company.
With the high cost of raw materials, enzymes, industrial amino acids and formulating with ileal digestible phosphorus are very good options to reduce costs without affecting the performance of the animals.
More effective and modern non-linear programming software is needed to achieve optimal feed formulation online in real time.
Non-linear and real-time formulation:
The challenge is no longer to formulate the ration with the lowest cost, but the one that brings the highest economic return to the business (Antonio Mario Penz).
Nutrition will contribute much more to the poultry industry, when we are in possession of real-time information such as weight gain, feed conversion, water consumption, chicken mortality.
Online formulation. That is, today, using knowledge of NIR -Near Infrared Spectroscopy-, it is possible to determine the composition of the ingredients at the moment they go to the mixer and, according to their immediate composition, before the next batch, to identify the differences of the nutritional composition of these ingredients and reformat the next batch according to what is going on before the mixer.
This allows us, instead of creating a safety margin, based on the historical information of the nutritional composition of the ingredients, to reduce this safety margin, ensuring greater precision in the process.
This system allows to identify this margin of safety in real time and, immediately, to change the next mix.
NIR Multi Online Analyzer:
The NIR Multi Online Analyzer monitors and adjusts in real time the quality of the flour in the mill. Automate grinding, create homogeneous products, avoid waste, and improve feed safety transparency.
Note: in a balanced feed factory of the same diet, three types of feed can come out (Dr. Douglas Zaviezo):
1- The one formulated by the nutritionist.
2-The one that comes out of the mixer.
3-The one that reaches the peak of broilers.
It is very important for all poultry companies to reduce this variation through online nutrition in real time.
The feed ingredients used for broiler diets should be fresh and of high quality both in terms of digestibility of nutrients and physical quality. The main ingredients included in broiler diets are:
• Broken Rice
• Soybean meal
• Full fat soya
• Sunflower meal
• Oils and fat
• Sodium bicarbonate
• Mineral and vitamins
• Other additives such as enzymes, mycotoxin binders
Broilers require energy for tissue growth, maintenance, and activity. The major sources of energy in poultry feeds are typically cereal grains (primarily carbohydrate) and fats or oils. Dietary energy levels are expressed in kilocalories (kcal)/kg or kcal/lb of Metabolizable Energy (ME), as this represents the energy available to the broiler.
Feed proteins, such as those found in cereal grains and soybean meal, are complex compounds which are broken down by digestion into amino acids (AA). These AA are absorbed and assembled into body proteins which are used in the construction of body tissue (e.g. muscles, nerves, skin, and feathers). Dietary crude protein levels do not indicate the quality of the proteins in feed ingredients. Dietary protein quality is based on the level, balance and digestibility of essential AA in the final mixed feed.
The modern broiler is responsive to dietary digestible AA density and will respond well, in terms of growth, feed efficiency, and carcass component yield, to diets properly balanced in AA as recommended. Higher levels of digestible AA have been shown to further improve broiler performance and processing yields. However, feed ingredient prices and meat product values will determine the economically appropriate nutrient density to be fed.
Providing the proper levels and balance of macro minerals are important to support growth, skeletal development, the immune system, and FCR, as well as to maintain litter quality. They are particularly important in high-performing broilers. The macro minerals involved are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Calcium and phosphorous are particularly important for proper skeletal development. Excess levels of sodium, phosphorous, and chloride can cause increased water consumption and subsequent litter quality issues.
Trace Minerals and Vitamins:
Trace minerals and vitamins are required for all metabolic functions. The appropriate supplementary levels of these micro-nutrients depend on the feed ingredients used, the feed manufacturing process, feed handling logistics (e.g. storage conditions and length of time in farm feed bins), and local circumstances (e.g. soils can vary in their trace mineral content and feed ingredients grown in some geographic areas may be deficient in some elements). There are usually separate recommendations proposed for some vitamins, depending on the cereal grains (e.g. wheat versus corn) included in the diet.
Broiler growth and feed efficiency are improved by pelleting feed. These performance improvements are attributed to:
•Decreased feed wastage.
•Reduced selective feeding.
•Decreased ingredient segregation.
•Less time and energy expended for eating.
•Destruction of pathogenic organisms.
•Thermal modification of starch and protein.
•Improved feed palatability
Poor quality crumble or pellets will result in reduced feed intake and poorer biological performance. On the farm, attention should be given to managing feed distribution to minimize physical deterioration in crumble and pellets
Restrictions in formulation software can limit your diet options and therefore reduce profitability. The following should be considered to remove restrictions during formulation:
1. Release the minimum and maximum level in the use of commercially available amino acids, maximizing their use.
2. Formulate based on digestible amino acids, with ideal levels of protein.
3. Provide the adequate level of Metabolizable Energy.
4. Eliminate the minimal restriction on crude protein.
5. Eliminate minimal grease or oil restriction.
6. In the near future we will formulate more precise diets in birds with Net Energy, digestible calcium and phosphorus and perhaps digestible sodium, chlorine and potassium.
7. Advanced software that determines nutritional requirements in different microclimates and estimates individual bird variation, in addition to making accurate growth predictions.
8. In ovo sexing already exists.
9. Genetics will continue to advance, it is possible that broiler breeders in the future will be genetically sexed and produce only male chickens and light breeders produce only females.
10. In ovo nutrition, nanonutrition and immunonutrition will bring significant advances in animal nutrition.
11. In the near future we will formulate based on: genetics, genomics, epigenomics and metagenomics of broilers.
12. With precision nutrition and using innovative ingredients of good quality we can predict by 2022 a weight in broilers of 4.0 pounds in 25 days of age.