Infectious bronchitis, newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, avian influenza, and pneumovirus are the viruses that more frequently affect the respiratory tract of chickens. Because of the tendency to change its antigenic properties, viral diseases are predominantly present in most poultry producing areas of the world. New serotypes and variant strains of respiratory viruses are reported in several countries. Current commercially available vaccines do not always provide protection against new field isolates. NCD & IBV virus causes severe tissue damage and immunosuppression in chicken (Zhang et al., 2022).
Alternate Strategies for management of viral respiratory diseases
There is resurgence of interest towards use of phytogenics as an alternative to conventional treatment of various viral diseases (Awad et al., 2019). Viral respiratory outbreaks has brought serious economic losses to the poultry industry that result from the decline of weight gain, decreased egg production, eggshell quality, feed efficiency, false layers, and secondary bacterial infections (Cavanagh, 2007). At present, vaccination is still the major efficient measure to prevent and control the disease.
Natural plant compounds have been found to be effective against a variety of viral infections. Many researchers have reported antiviral efficacy of plant extracts and essential oils.(Wani et al., 2021) Botanical oleoresins and essential oils was found to have virucidal activity against NDV and IBV infection both in vitro and in vivo [Jackwod et al., 2010].
Some plant extracts, including Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris, Desmodium canadense extracts [Lelesius et al, 2019], Astragalus polysaccharides [Zhang et al., 2018], Glycyrrhiza radix [Li et al., 2009], and Forsythia suspensa (Li et al., 2011) have shown effectiveness against IBV, ILT, NDV in vitro. Garlic extract successfully inhibited IBV in the replication phase in chicken embryos (Tabassom et al., 2016).
Animunin- Natural antiseptic and respiratory tonic
Animunin is a phytogenic formulation (M/SIndianHerbs,India) constituted by principal phyto-bioactives viz. Thymol, cineole, eucalyptol and other essential oils having antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Animunin protects poultry respiratory system from infections and maintain its functioning in a natural way.
Researchers have reported antiviral efficacy of Animunin (Gangwaret al., 2022) against NDV and IBDV. In one of the study at Dept. at Veterinary Pathology College of Veterinary Science & AH, DUVASU, efficacy of natural respiratory antiseptic (Animunin) (M/S Indian Herbs Specialities, India) was evaluated for its antiviral and anti- inflammatory potential against NDV and IBDV. Researchers have determined differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1ß, TNFα and oxidative genes SOD, Catalase in chicken embryo fibroblast culture (CEF) by using real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). In this study, phytogenic formulation-Animunin was diluted to 5 concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 mg/ml) with culture media and 100 µl were added to each 96 well culture plates containing CEF cells. In one group, CEF cells were kept as negative control. Cytopathic effect (CPE) were determined and maximum concentration that caused no toxicity (TC0) was observed, and it was 10mg/ml.
Researchers (Neeraj Gangwar1, Ajay Singh2, Soumen Choudhary,DUVASU, Mathura) reported that cytopathic effect (CPE) was much pronounced (rounding of cells, granulation and separation) in IBD and IBDV virus infected cell lines. Animunin treated cell lines exhibited significant reduction in cytopathic effects.
Relative quantification of genes related to inflammation and oxidative stress (IL 1ß, TNF α ,SOD, Catalase) revealed that IL 1ß, TNF α are highly upregulated in positive / virus infected control cell lines, however normalization of genes were evident in Animunin treated cell lines. SOD, Catalase activity is highly upregulated in Animunin treated cell lines than virus infected cell lines. The novel findings of the study are presented and published in IPSF, 2022 and study investigators concluded their findings that Animunin is having antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties (P240, IPSF, 2022).