Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known umbelliferous annual plant of the parsley family. The seed of coriander in the form of whole, ground or extract, are used primarily as a flavoring agent in the food industry or as spice in the kitchen . Recent research demonstrated that herbal extract from some plant can prevent pathogenic microbial growth in poultry intestine . In this study, we hypothesized that coriander extract would have antimicrobial effects on intestinal flora of hens resulting from its effects in vitro. In addition, in order to test this hypothesis that in vitro and in vivo bacterial counts can be influenced by coriander seed extract.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds (Aslanbey breed) were harvested from plants grown in Faculty of Agriculture at Erciyes University in 2012. Test organisms: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecium NJ-1 ATCC and three clinical strains methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), extended spectrum beta lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were used to evaluate antibacterial effects of coriander seed extract in vitro condition using disc diffusion method. Extract Preparation: The extraction of seed was performed using methanol (ME) and petroleum ether (PE) as solvents. The yield of coriander seed was determined to be as 3.0 and 3.3% for ME and PE, respectively. Animal experiments: Ninety laying hens (Hyline-5 White, 58 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 3 layer hens each (18 laying hens per group) and fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 % coriander seeds for 10 weeks. Immediately a section of ileum was removed and transported in Thioglycollate broth (BD, USA) medium. Antibacterial activity assay: Extracts were dissolved in DMSO and 312.5, 625, 1250, 2500 and 5000 μg/ml concentrations were prepared and disc diffusion test was performed according to CLSI standards. All concentrations of extracts were replicated three times and average values were taken. Ileal samples were inoculated into different media.
The PE extract had a higher antibacterial activity against E.coli and S. aureus standard strains compared to methanol extract (p<0.01). However, the ME extracts affected all standard strains. No inhibition zone was detected in the lowest concentration (312.5 μg/ml) of all extracts of coriander seed against S. aureus and E. faecium. The ME, PE and their combinations with cefoxitin were also studied on clinically resistant strain of MRSA, E. coli, K. pneumoniae strains by the disc diffusion method. The inhibition zones were detected in only 1250 μg/ml for ME and PE extracts, no inhibition was detected in 625 μg/ml. The combination of cefoxitin+1250 μg/ml PE showed significantly higher inhibition zone than other groups for K. pneumoniae isolate. The microorganism counts were significantly decreased in the ileum by coriander seed. This decrease was correlated with an increase of proportion of coriander seeds in the diet (p<0.01).
According to literature; there are very few in vitro antimicrobial studies showed the effectiveness of coriander essential oil . In this study, it was found that a synergistic effect, when coriander extracts and cefoxitin used together. This synergistic behavior was determined more visible in clinically resistant K. pneumoniae strain. Recently, herbal extracts are utilized widely, and significant effects are obtained to prevent growth of harmful microorganism in intestine of poultry .
This is the first study where coriander seeds have been found effective in vivo and in vitro against three different clinically resistant strains. Extracts of C. sativum revealed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria in vitro and in vivo conditions. Also, cefoxitin effectiveness increased with coriander extracts. Therefore, coriander seed extracts can be suggested to use as antimicrobial agent against pathogenic and standard strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria.
We would like to thank Erciyes University Agricultural Research, Pharmacy Faculty and Application Center (ERUTAM) for support and animal care. We would also like to thank Mr. Ufuk Ince and Mrs. Selen Ilgun for their technical assistance in the laboratory and Dr. Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel for editing.
Presented at the 11th International Symposium on Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ankara, Turkey, 2015.
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