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In vivo amino acid digestibility is inversely correlated to the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor contents of commercial solvent extracted soybean meal

Published: February 22, 2023
By: Nelson Ruiz* 1, Carl Parsons 2, Benjamin Parsons 3, Keshun Liu 4 / 1 Nelson Ruiz Nutrition, LLC; 2 Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois; 3 Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas; 4 Grain Chemistry and Utilization Laboratory, National Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit, USDA.
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between in vivo amino acid digestibility and protease inhibitors in commercial soybean meal (CSBM). A total of 12 CSBM samples were analyzed for: (1) trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) utilizing the new official AOCS method (Ba 12a-2020). (2) chymotrypsin inhibitor activity (CIA) by the latest optimized method of Liu (2022. J. Food Sci. https://doi.org//10.1111/17503841.16141), and (3) in vivo amino acid (AA) digestibility determined utilizing the precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay as described by Corray et al. (2018. Poult. Sci. 97:3987-3991). Linear and quadratic regressions of digestible AA coefficients on TIA and the summation of TIA and CIA (TIA+CIA) were conducted using PROC GLM in SAS (2013). The TIA ranged from 3.53 to 12.82 units inhibited (UI)/mg of CSBM. The TIA+CIA ranged from 8.74 to 23.40 UI/mg of CSBM. All 17 determined digestible AA coefficients for each of the 12 CSBM samples were negatively correlated with TIA and TIA+CIA values. For TIA, linear regression R-square values ranged from 0.48 (r= -0.69) for digestible lysine to 0.72 (r= -0.85) for digestible serine (P< 0.05). There was no significant quadratic effect of TIA vs. digestible AA for all AA. For TIA+CIA, linear regression R-square values ranged from 0.41 (r= -0.64) for digestible cysteine to 0.77 (r= -0.88) for digestible serine (P< 0.05); there was no significant quadratic effect of TIA+CIA vs. digestible AA for all AA. Given the fact that TIA values above 5.37 UI/mg of CSBM which is approximately equivalent to 3.58 mg trypsin inhibited (TId)/g of CSBM) were associated with rapid feed passage syndrome outbreaks in the field as previously reported in broilers and broiler breeders [2005 Poult. Sci. 84(Suppl. 1):70; 2008 Poult. Sci. 87(Suppl. 1):30], these data suggest that TIA and TIA+CIA contents in CSBM lots are partially responsible for the indigestible AA fraction in CSBM, and that TIA and CIA are relevant in the formulation of CSBM in broiler and broiler breeder feeds.
Key Words: Soybean meal, Trypsin inhibitor activity, Chymotrypsin inhibitor activity, Amino acid digestibility, Rapid feed passage.
Presented at the International Poultry Scientific Forum, during IPPE 2023, at the Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta.
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