Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Mycodetox B2 on Production Performance, Organ Weights and Serum Biochemicals During Aflatoxicosis in Growing Japanese Quails

Published on: 3/9/2020
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Abstract

To evaluate the efficacy of Mycodetox B2 in alleviating aflatoxicosis, day-old quail chicks (n=225) were divided into five treatment groups (T1: control; T2: T1+400ppb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); T3: T1+600ppb AFB1; T4: T2+Mycodetox B2; T5: T3+Mycodetox B2). Each diet was fed to three replicates of 15 birds each from 1 to 35 day of age. During overall growth (1-5 weeks), the body weight gain (BWG) of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The BWG in T2 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The BWG of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3 and similar to T1. The overall feed intake (FI) of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The FI of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The FI of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3 and similar to T1. The overall FCR in T1 was fed to three replicates of 15 birds each from 1 to 35 day of age. During overall growth (1-5 weeks), the body weight gain (BWG) of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The BWG in T2 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The BWG of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3 and similar to T1. The overall feed intake (FI) of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The FI of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than T3. The FI of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3 and similar to T1. The overall FCR in T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The FCR in T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3 and similar to T1. The relative weights of liver, kidney and spleen in T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. Moreover, it was lower (P<0.05) in T4 and T5 than T2 and T3. The relative weights of bursa in T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The relative weight of bursas in T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3). The relative weights of heart in T3 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than T1. The relative weight of hearts in T2 was similar to T1. The serum protein, cholesterol and uric acid content of T1 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The serum protein, cholesterol and uric acid of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than T2 and T3. The Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values of T2 and T3 was higher (P<0.05) than T1. The AST and ALT values of T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than T2 and T3 and similar to T1. It was concluded that dietary AFB1 at 400 and 600 ppb level resulted in impaired production performance as assessed through body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency; enlargement of liver, kidneys and spleen, regression of bursa and heart; decreased serum protein, cholesterol, uric acid, and increased AST and ALT activities in Japanese quails. However, dietary inclusion of Mycodetox B2 ameliorated these adverse effects in Japanese quails.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Mycodetox B2, Production performance, Organ weight, Serum biochemicals, Japanese quail.

1. Introduction

As per estimate of FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2004), 25% of the world's crops are affected with mycotoxins each year. Mycotoxicosis is a worldwide problem and is characterized by its nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects in animals and poultry (Patil et al., 2005, 2006, 2014, 2017a, b; Katole et al., 2013; Patial et al., 2013; Patel et al., 2015; Patil and Degloorkar, 2016a, b, 2018; Singh, 2019a-g; Singh et al., 2019a, b, c; Sharma et al., 2019c). Aflatoxicosis in poultry causes lowered performance in terms of reduced body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Patil et al., 2013; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Singh et al., 2015a,b; Singh et al.,2016; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019c), reduced nutrient utilisation (Silambarasan et al., 2013), increased mortality (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Singh, 2019c, d, f), anemia (Singh et al., 2015a, b, 2016), hepatotoxicosis and haemorrhage (Singh et al., 2013a, b; Singh et al., 2015a, b, 2016), gross lesions in organs (Singh et al., 2013a, b; Singh et al., 2015a, b, 2016), altered relative weight of organs (Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Sharma et al., 2015; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019a), altered carcass quality traits (Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2019d), altered biochemistry (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019b) and histopathological lesions in organs (Khatke et al., 2012a; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019c, d, f; Sharma et al., 2019b). It impairs humoral and cellular immune responses in poultry and increases susceptibility to environmental and infectious agents (Khatke et al., 2012a; Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019c, d, f) leading to severe economic losses. For management of aflatoxicosis, diatomaceous earth, sodium bentonite and zeolite either at 0.5% or 1% level alone or in combination were partially effective in ameliorating aflatoxicosis caused by 300 ppb AFB1 in broiler chickens (Silambarasan et al., 2013). Singh et al. (2015b) reported that inclusion of 500 ppm DL-methionine in AFB1 (500 ppb) contaminated diet ameliorated aflatoxicosis in growing Japanese quails. Singh et al. (2015a); Singh et al. (2016) also reported that supplementation of methionine (as DL-methionine) at 500 ppm or its analogue methionine hydroxy analogue at 769 ppm total aflatoxins (500 ppb AFB1) contaminated diet ameliorated aflatoxicosis in growing Japanese quails. Also, in another study, dietary addition of methionine at 0.025 or 0.05% level in the feed of broilers partially ameliorated the adverse effects caused by 1 ppm total aflatoxin (76.45% AFB1, 10.52% AFB2, 9.89% AFG1 and 3.14% AFG2) in coloured broiler chickens (Singh et al., 2013a). Sharma et al. (2014a) reported that supplementation of 40 mg Zn/kg to the AFB1 (250 ppb) contaminated diet ameliorated the ill effects of aflatoxicosis on performance of the birds. Inclusion of MOS and SC @ 0.2% alone or in combination provided moderate protection against the adverse effects of 300 ppb AFB1 in the diet of broiler chickens (Khatke et al., 2012b). MOS appeared to be more efficacious than SC in counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Addition of butylated hydroxyanisole at 1000 and 2000 ppm levels provided partial amelioration of aflatoxicosis caused by 1 ppm total aflatoxin in the feed of broiler chickens (Singh and Mandal, 2013). Based on a decade of research in mycotoxicosis, Mycodetox B2 was formulated and the objective of the present investigation was to test the efficacy of it in alleviating aflatoxicosis in Japanese quails.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Production and Analysis of Aflatoxin

Aflatoxinwas produced using the fungal strain Aspergillus flavus NRRL 6513 that was obtained from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Illinois, USA. To get the fresh spores, the culture was regularly subcultured on potato dextrose agar medium slants and stored at 5°C. Aflatoxin was produced on maize substrate. Fermentations were carried out in batches as per the method of Singh and Shrivastav (2012). The extraction and estimation of aflatoxin B1 was done as per Pons et al. (1966). Aqueous acetone was used for extraction of the toxin. Aflatoxin B1 contents were finally quantified using a UV spectrophotometer.

2.2 Experimental Design

Experimental design was completely randomized design. There were five dietary treatments viz. T1: control; T2: T1+400ppb AFB1; T3: T1+600ppb AFB1; T4: T2+Mycodetox B2; T5: T3+ Mycodetox B2. Each dietary treatment had 3 replicates and each replicate had 15 chicks. The experiment was conducted in Japanese quails from day-old to 5 weeks of age. The various dietary treatments were prepared by mixing mouldy maize to get the desired concentration of 400 and 600 ppb AFB1 and the Mycodetox B2 at the rate of 132 g per quintal of feed. The Mycodetox B2 formulated after a decade of intensive research efforts in mycotoxicosis consisted of sodium bentonite (30.30%), zeolite (30.30%), mannan oligosaccharide (15.15%), methionine (18.94%), butylated hydroxyanisole (3.74%) and Zinc (1.52%).

2.3 Ingredients and Chemical Composition of Basal Feed

A basal diet with maize 54.2, rice bran (deoiled) 2, soybean meal (solvent extracted) 31.15, sunflower meal 2, rapeseed meal 4, fish meal 4, limestone 0.75, dicalcium phosphate 1.4, salt 0.15, DL-methionine 0.06, trace mineral (TM) premix 0.1, vitamin premix 0.165, and choline chloride 0.03 as percentage was formulated. The TM premix supplied Mg 300, Mn 55, I0.4, Fe 56, Zn 30 and Cu 4 mg/kg diet. The vitamin premix supplied vit. A 8250 IU, vit. D3 1200 IU, vit. K 1mg, vit. B1 2mg, vit. B2 4 mg, vit. B12 10 mcg, niacin 60 mg, pantothenic acid 10 mg, choline 500mg, vit. E 40 IU per kg diet. The control diet so formulated contained crude protein 23.95%, metabolisable energy 2795 kcal/kg, calcium 1.05%, available phosphorus 0.47%, lysine 1.2% and methionine 0.50%. The crude protein content as per AOAC (1990) and calcium content as per Talapatra et al. (1940) were estimated, while the concentrations of lysine, methionine, available P and metabolizable energy values were calculated. Weekly individual body weight and feed consumption of each group were recorded and the FCR (feed:gain) was calculated. At the end of fifth week of experimental trial, nine birds per dietary treatment were sacrificed randomly in order to record relative (% body weight) weights of liver, kidney, heart, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The blood samples from each treatment group were collected. The serum was separated and stored at -200C and analyzed for various biochemical parameters using commercial kit manufactured by Span Diagnostics Ltd, SACHIN, Surat.

2.4 Statistical Analysis

The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 16.0). The recorded data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance with comparison among means was made by Duncan‘s multiple range test with significance level of P<0.05.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Production Performance

The data pertaining to production performance traits of quails viz. body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio, as influenced by various dietary treatments at different weeks of age is presented in Table 1.

3.1.1 Body Weight Gain (BWG)

At the first and second weeks, the BWG of control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The BWG of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The BWG of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control. During third and fourth weeks, the BWG of control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. The BWG in groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of T1. During fifth week and overall growth period (1-5 weeks) of trial, the BWG of control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. The BWG in group T2 was higher (P<0.05)than that of T3. The BWG of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3, and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The study revealed that AFB1 contamination of feed at 400 and 600 ppb levels caused decreased (P<0.05) BWG in Japanese quails. Singh et al. (2015a, b); Singh et al. (2016) also reported significantly reduced BWG during aflatoxicosis at 500 ppb level in Japanese quails. Significantly reduced BWG due to 2 ppm (Parlat et al., 1999; Oguz and Parlat, 2004) or 2.5 ppm (Sehu et al., 2005) dietary AFB1 was also reported in Japanese quails. Significantly reduced BWG due to aflatoxicosis in poultry was also reported by several researchers (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Patil et al., 2013; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019c).

3.1.2 Feed Intake (FI)

During first week, the FI of group T2 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T5. The FI of groups T2 to T5 did not vary (P<0.05) from that of control (T1). During second and third weeks, the FI did not differ (P<0.05) due to various dietary treatments. At fourth week, the FI of control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that 600 ppb level of AFB1 resulted in reduction (P<0.05) in FI of Japanese quails. During fifth week and overall growth period (1-5 weeks), the FI of control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than that of AFB1 fed group (T3). The FI of group T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The FI of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of AFB1 fed group T3 and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The FI between groups T4 and T5 was statistically similar. The present study revealed that aflatoxicosis caused by 600 ppb AFB1 resulted in reduced (P<0.05) feed intake of Japanese quails.

This finding was in agreement with those reported by Parlat et al. (1999); Oguz and Parlat (2004) wherein aflatoxicosis caused by feed containing 2 ppm AFB1 resulted in reduced (P<0.05) feed consumption in quails. Sehu et al. (2005) also reported decreased feed consumption due to 2.5 ppm of dietary AFB1 in quails. However, Singh et al. (2015a, b); Singh et al. (2016), reported that 500 ppb AFB1 did not cause significant adverse effect on feed consumption of growing Japanese quails. Significantly reduced feed consumption due to aflatoxicosis in birds was also reported by several researchers (Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012b; Patil et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e, Sharma et al., 2019c).

Table 1: Weekly and cumulative body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of quails

3.1.3 Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)

During first week of age, the FCR of group T1 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that 600 ppb dietary AFB1 reduced (P<0.05) the feed efficiency from first week onward. The FCR of groups T2, T4 and T5 was statistically similar to that of control. At second week of age, the FCR of aflatoxin fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The FCR of group T3 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T2. The FCR in group T4 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T5. The FCR of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of control (T1). During third week of age, the FCR of aflatoxin fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The FCR of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of T1. The FCR between T4 and T5 did not vary significantly. At fourth week of age, the FCR of T1 was statistically similar to those of other treatment groups i.e. T2 to T5. The FCR of groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). At fifth week of age, and overall growth period (1-5 weeks), the FCR in control group (T1) was lower (P<0.05) than those of toxin fed groups (T2 and T3). The overall FCR in groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) and statistically similar to that of control. Significant reduction in feed efficiency due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails was earlier reported in several studies (Singh et al., 2015a; Singh et al., 2015b; Singh et al., 2016). Significant reduction in feed efficiency due to 2 ppm dietary AFB1 was also reported in earlier studies. (Parlat et al., 1999; Oguz and Parlat, 2004). Contrary to this, Sehu et al. (2005) reported no significant reduction due to 2.5 ppm dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Significantly reduced feed efficiency in birds due to aflatoxicosis was also reported by several researchers (Singh et al., 2011; Patil et al., 2013; Silambarasan et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a; Singh et al., 2013b; Khatke et al., 2012b; Shamsudeen et al., 2013; Sharma et al., 2014a; Sharma et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019c).

3.2 Organ Weights

The data pertaining to relative organ weights (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and bursa of Fabricius) expressed as percent live weights of quails was statistically analyzed and presented in Table 2.

3.2.1 Liver

The relative weight of liver in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control group (T1). The relative weights of liver in group T2 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3, indicating that AFB1 at 600 ppb further increased (P<0.05) the relative weight of liver in addition to that caused by 400 ppb AFB1. The relative weight of liver in groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3. Singh et al. (2015b) also reported increased (P<0.05) relative weights of liver due to AFB1 at 500 ppb dietary level in growing Japanese quails. Yavuz et al. (2017) also reported significantly increased relative weight of liver due to dietary 2.0 ppm AFB1 in growing quails from 1 to 21 days of age. Significant increase in relative weights of liver during aflatoxicosis was also reported in several studies (Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Sharma et al., 2015; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Singh, 2019a, b, e).

3.2.2 Kidney

The relative weight of kidney in aflatoxin fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The relative weights of kidney of group T3 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T2. The relative weight of kidney in groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) and statistically similar to that of control (T1). Singh et al. (2015b) also reported increased (P<0.05) relative weights of kidney due to aflatoxicosis caused by 500 ppb level of aflatoxin in the diet of growing Japanese quails from 1 to 35 days of age. Sehu et al. (2005) also reported significant increase in the relative weight of kidney caused by 2.5 ppm AFB1 in the feed of growing Japanese quails. Yavuz et al. (2017) on the other hand, reported no significant difference in the relative weights of kidney due to feeding of 2.0 ppm AFB1 to the growing quails. Similarly, significantly increased relative weight of kidney in broilers caused due to 0.3 to 5.0 ppm dietary AFB1 was also reported in several studies (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Leudox et al., 1999; Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Rosa et al., 2001).

3.2.3 Spleen

The relative weights of spleen in AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was higher (P<0.05) than that of control group (T1). The relative weight of spleen in groups T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3 and statistically similar to that of T1. Singh et al. (2015b) also reported increased relative weight of spleen during aflatoxicosis caused by 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails from 1 to 35 days of age. Similarly, Sehu et al. (2005) also reported significantly increased relative weight of spleen due to 2.5 ppm dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Significant increase in the relative weight of spleen due to dietary AFB1 at 3.0 to 5.0 ppm levels was also reported in several studies (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Rosa et al., 2001). However, Yavuz et al. (2017) reported no significant increase in the relative weight of spleen due to 2.0 ppm dietary AFB1 in growing quails from 1 to 21 days of age.

3.2.4 Bursa of Fabricius

The relative weight of bursa in control (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The relative weight of bursa between groups T3 and T2 was statistically similar. The relative weights of bursa in groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of aflatoxicated groups (T2 and T3) and similar to that of T1. The result revealed that 400 and 600 ppb dietary AFB1 resulted in reduced (P<0.05) relative weight of bursa. This result was in agreement with that of Singh et al. (2015b) who also reported reduced relative weight of bursa due to 500 ppb level of dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Significantly reduced relative weights of bursa due to dietary AFB1 in birds was also reported by several researchers (Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2013b; Shamsudeen et al., 2014; Silambarasan et al., 2015; Sharma et al., 2015; Singh, 2019a, b, e). However, Sapcota et al. (2007) observed no significant effect on the relative weight of bursa due to feeding of 300 ppb dietary AFB1 in broiler chickens.

3.2.5 Heart

The relative weights of heart in groups T3, and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The relative weight of heart of group T2 was statistically similar to that of control (T1). Similarly, Singh et al. (2015b) reported no significant effect on relative weights of heart due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 exposure in growing Japanese quails. Khatke et al. (2012c) also reported no significant effect in the relative weights of heart caused by 300 ppb dietary AFB1 exposure in broiler chickens. Contrary to this, several researchers (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Leudox et al., 1999) reported increased relative weights of heart due to 3.5 to 5.0 ppm dietary AFB1 exposure in broiler chickens. In the present study, 600 ppb dietary AFB1 resulted in significant reduction in relative weights of heart. Addition of Mycodetox B2 could not reverse the relative weights of heart equal to that of control, however, gross and histopathology revealed that inclusion of Mycodetox B2 to the AFB1 contaminated feed ameliorated the ill effects on heart (Singh, 2019d).

3.3 Biochemical Parameters

The average values of various biochemical parameters (serum protein, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, AST and ALT) as influenced by various dietary treatments was statistically analyzed and presented in Table 3.

Table 2: Effect of aflatoxin on relative weight of organs (% live weight) of Japanese quails fed various dietary treatments

Table 3: Effect of aflatoxin on biochemical parameters of Japanese quails fed various dietary treatments

 

 3.3.1 Serum Protein

The serum protein content of control group (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The serum protein content of T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The protein content of groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) and statistically similar to that of T1. The result showed that 400 and 600 ppb dietary AFB1 caused reduction (P<0.05) in protein content compared to that of control. Singh et al. (2015b) also reported significant decrease in protein content due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Reduced protein content in birds due to aflatoxicosis was also reported in several studies (Kubena et al., 1990; Harvey et al., 1993; Kubena et al., 1993; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Okotie-Eboh et al., 1997; Keçeci et al., 1998; Leudox et al., 1999; Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Rosa et al., 2001; Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012c; Patil et al., 2013; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019b).

3.3.2 Glucose

The glucose content due to various treatment groups did not vary significantly among different treatments. Thus, 400 and 600 ppb dietary AFB1 did not produce any effect on serum glucose concentration of growing Japanese quails. Similarly, no significant effect on glucose concentration due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails was earlier reported by Singh et al. (2015b). However, significant reduction in glucose content due to dietary AFB1 (3.5 to 5.0 ppm) was earlier reported in several studies in broiler chickens (Kubena et al., 1993; Okotie-Eboh et al., 1997; Leudox et al., 1999).

3.3.3 Cholesterol

The cholesterol content in control group (T1) was higher (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The cholesterol content of T2 was higher (P<0.05) than that of T3. The cholesterol content of T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3; and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The result indicated that 400 and 600 ppb dietary AFB1 resulted in reduction (P<0.05) of cholesterol content in Japanese quails. Singh et al. (2015b) also observed decreased (P<0.05) cholesterol content due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails from 1 to 35 days of age. Significantly reduced cholesterol content due to AFB1 (0.25 to 5.0 ppm) contaminated feed was earlier reported in several studies (Kubena et al., 1990; Kubena et al., 1993; Okotie-Eboh et al., 1997; Bailey et al., 1998; Kubena et al., 1998; Keçeci et al., 1998; Leudox et al., 1999; Santurio et al., 1999; Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Singh et al., 2011; Khatke et al., 2012c; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019b).

3.3.4 Uric Acid

The uric acid content of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3) was lower (P<0.05) than that of T1. The uric acid content between groups T2 and T3 was statistically similar. The uric acid content in groups T4 and T5 was higher (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3; and statistically similar to that of control (T1). This result was in agreement with that of Singh et al. (2015b) wherein significant reduction in uric acid content was reported due to 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Kececi et al. (1998); Bailey et al. (1998) also reported significant decrease in uric acid content due to 2.5 and 5.0 ppm dietary AFB1, respectively in broiler chickens. A significant decrease in the uric acid concentration in birds due to aflatoxicosis was also reported by several other researchers (Bailey et al., 1998; Kececi et al., 1998; Singh et al., 2011; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e; Sharma et al., 2019b). Santurio et al. (1999), on the other hand, reported increased content of uric acid due to feeding of 3.0 ppm AFB1 in broiler chickens.

3.3.5 Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)

The AST activity of control group (T1) was lower (P<0.05) than those of AFB1 fed groups (T2 and T3). The AST activity of group T2 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3. The AST activity of T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than those of T2 and T3; and statistically similar to that of control (T1). The AST activity between groups T4 and T5 did not differ significantly. Singh et al. (2015b) also reported significant increase in AST activity due to feeding of 500 ppb dietary AFB1 in growing Japanese quails. Significant increase in the AST activity during aflatoxicosis was also reported by Basmacioglu et al. (2005) when broiler chickens were fed 2.0 ppm AFB1 contaminated feed. Significant increase in the AST activity during aflatoxicosis in birds was also reported by several researchers (Kermanshahi et al., 2009; Shi et al., 2009; Singh et al., 2011; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019 a, b, e). Contrary to this, Kubena et al. (1993); Raju and Devegowda (2000) reported decreased activity of AST caused by 3.5 and 0.3 ppm dietary AFB1, respectively. Increase in the AST and ALT activity during aflatoxicosis could be an indicator of liver damage (Kubena et al., 1990). The increase in AST and ALT activities due to dietary AFB1 could be attributed to hepatocyte degeneration and subsequent leakage of enzymes into the circulation.

3.3.6 Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)

The ALT activity of control group (T1) was lower (P<0.05) than 600 ppb aflatoxin fed group (T3). The ALT activity between groups T1 and T2 did not vary significantly. The ALT activity in T4 and T5 was lower (P<0.05) than that of T3; and statistically similar to that of control (T1). Singh et al. (2015b) also reported significantly increased ALT activity due to 500 ppb dietary aflatoxin exposure in growing Japanese quails. Similarly, Santurio et al. (1999); Khatke et al. (2012c) also reported significantly increased ALT activity due to 3.0 ppm and 0.3 dietary AFB1, respectively in broiler chickens. Significantly increased ALT activity in birds during aflatoxicosis was also reported by several researchers (Raju and Devegowda, 2000; Shi et al., 2009; Singh et al., 2011; Singh and Mandal, 2013; Singh et al., 2013a, b; Sharma et al., 2014b; Silambarasan et al., 2016; Singh, 2019a, b, e).

4. Conclusion

It was concluded that aflatoxin contaminated feed at 400 and 600 ppb levels resulted in impaired production performance assessed through body weight gain, feed intake, feed utilization efficiency; enlargement of liver, kidney and spleen, regression of bursa and heart; decreased serum protein, cholesterol, uric acid, and increased level of AST and ALT activities in Japanese quails up to 5 weeks of age. However, the dietary inclusion of Mycodetox B2 ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on production performance, organ weights and biochemical parameters in Japanese quails.

 

This article was originally published in Journal of Poultry Science and Technology | April-June, 2019 | Volume 07 | Issue 02 | Pages 56-65.

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