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Article published the April 4, 2022
INTRODUCTIONCereal grains such as wheat, sorghum, barley, and corn are commonly used in poultry diets as major sources of energy. Knowledge of the ME content of cereal grains is critical for their efficient and sustainable use and precise poultry feed formulation. Despite several limitations (Mateos et al., 2019; Wu et al., 2020), the AME is the globally accepted system for describing the availabl ...
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Article published the April 1, 2022
1. IntroductionAvailable energy in feed or feed ingredients for poultry can be measured by different systems, with the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) [1], despite its limitations [2,3], being the commonly accepted and extensively used system.Three methods, namely, direct, substitution (or difference), and regression, have been used to determine the AME of ingredients for poultry. In each meth ...
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Article published the April 1, 2022
1. IntroductionOften a seemingly straightforward aspect of nutrition reveals itself to be, upon closer inspection, not so simple after all. An illustration of such a conundrum is the nutrition of the newly hatched broiler chick. Conceptualizing the different challenges faced by the hatchling and solving them should be remarkably simple, but the difficulty lies in the complexity in the development ...
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Article published the December 16, 2021
During the process of digestion and absorption of ingested feed in poultry, significant losses of endogenous amino acids (EAA) occur from various digestive secretions, mucoproteins and the epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Several factors such as the development of GIT and changes in dry matter intake (DMI) with advancing age, type of bird, method of euthanasia and ileal di ...
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Article published the December 16, 2021
I. INTRODUCTIONKnowledge on the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in raw materials is crucial for precise feed formulation, and for more efficient and sustainable use of feed resources. The accuracy of excreta-based digestibility measurements for determining N and AA digestibility may be questionable, due to the variable effects of the caecal microflora on dietary protein utilisation and the contr ...
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Article published the December 6, 2021
Fats and oils are widely used in poultry diets as a source of energy and to increase palatability. Increasing dietary fat level has been reported to improve the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids (Cowieson and Ravindran, 2008). These improvements may be related, in part, to reduced endogenous amino acid (EAA) losses, but the influence of dietary fat on EAA losses has not been studied in c ...
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Article published the November 17, 2021
I. INTRODUCTIONCereal grains are ground prior to feed mixing to reduce the particle size with the aim of modifying their physical characteristics. This facilitates handling, mixing and further processing (extrusion and pelleting) and increases the exposure of nutrients in the endosperm to digestive enzymes (Amerah et al., 2011). Available recommendations regarding optimum particle size are contrad ...
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Article published the November 17, 2021
I. INTRODUCTIONEstimating the available energy of feed ingredients is fundamental to formulating a well-balanced diet and lower the production cost. Measurement of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) is the accepted standard procedure for evaluating the available energy value of ingredients for poultry, as it is simple and straightforward and considers most of the energy losses after digestion and ...
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Article published the July 14, 2021
IntroductionEndogenous protein loss, which links the gut physiology and protein nutrition, has proved to be an alluring subject of research for many years. Historically, the presence of undigested substances of digestive tract origin in the excretory products of animals and its relevance to the biological value of protein has long been known [1–3]. In poultry, the earliest work on the use of ...
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