1. Traditional tethered feeding: Mainly centered on cowshed, feeding, resting and milking cows on the same bed. The management of dairy farms is parallel to each other, and a personnel contract is adopted in the mode of the management contract. That is to say, each person contracted 15-25 cows. The feeding, milking, and excrement of these cows are all under the responsibility of one person. Its advantage is that feeding management can be refined. The disadvantage is that it is laborious, time-consuming, difficult to achieve a high degree of mechanization and low labor productivity.
2. Modernized bulk feeding: Mainly centered on cows, the feeding, rest and milking of dairy cows are divided into different specialty areas. Dairy cows are managed vertically or crosswise, and type of work is contracted out in the way of the management contract. That is to say, the feeding personnel is specially responsible for the feeding of cows, and the milking personnel is specially responsible for the milking of cows and the excrement personnel are specially responsible for the excrement of cows. Its advantages are labor-saving, time-saving, easy to implement a high degree of mechanization, and high labor productivity. The disadvantage is the collectivization of feeding management, which is difficult to take individual care of. The overall layout of dairy farms should be divided into two parts: human (residential), cattle (activity), milk (storage), and feeding, rest and milking areas. To minimize the cross-contamination of dirty and clean roads.
3. Requirements for site selection of dairy farming district: The farming village should be built in a high, dry, leeward sunny, air circulation, solid land, low groundwater level, easy drainage and sewage, an open and flat place with slopes, preferably sandy soil. The water source should be sufficient and the water quality should be good, to ensure the domestic and production water use. The distance between the location of the farming district and the public places such as residential areas, drinking water sources, schools and hospitals should meet the prescribed standards. Generally speaking, it should be in the lower limelight of residential areas, more than 500 meters away from factories in villages and towns. The water quality meets the requirements of "Sanitary Standards for Drinking Water", and it is convenient for transportation and power supply. It is required to be more than 500 meters away from the main traffic roads. Keep away from slaughter, processing and industrial and mining enterprises, especially chemical enterprises. Keep away from the noise.
4. Planning requirements of the dairy farming district: Rational layout and overall arrangement should be based on the principles of adopting measures to local conditions, scientific feeding, environmental protection, and high efficiency. The allocation of sites and buildings should be compact and neat, improve the land-use rate, save the land, and not occupy or occupy less cultivated land. The production area is closed and isolated, and the engineering design and technological process meet the requirements of animal epidemic prevention conditions. The farming district can be divided into the production area, production assistant area, living management area, fecal and urine sewage treatment area, disease and livestock management area, etc. It requires reasonable layout, strict management of zoning and separation of the clean road from sewage and rain pollution, to facilitate epidemic prevention, disinfection and source elimination. If many farms (households) live in the farming district, production management should have unified requirements and standards.
5. Requirements of the cowshed in the dairy farming district: The most suitable temperature of cowshed is 10-18°, which is lower than 0° or higher than 24°. It has a certain impact on dairy cows, especially in high temperature and humidity environment, which has a greater impact on milk production. Semi-open cowshed with roof, open on all sides or north-facing south and front should be adopted. Dairy cowshed can be designed as single-row or double-row type, the general span of single-row cowshed is 5.5-6.0 meters, the general span of double-row cowshed is 11.2-12 meters, and the width of double-row middle passage is 1.5-1.8 meters. The cattle bed should be made into a slope with a slope of 1%-1.5%. The length and width of the cattle bed for adult cattle are 1.8-2.0 meters of land 1.2-1.3 meters. There are excrement ditches on the slope under the bed. There are a fixed cement feeding trough and neck flails in front of the cattle bed. The trough is 0.5 meters wide and 0.25-0.3 meters deep. In front of or behind each cowshed, there should be a playground with a drinking pool, a shelter, and a salt trough. The area of the playground should be no less than 20 to 25° per cow. 6. Anti-epidemic and epidemic (disease) control requirements of dairy farming district: In dairy production, we should adhere to the principle of prevention as the main factor, formulate isolation measures and infectious disease control measures, have regulations for prevention and treatment of common diseases of dairy cows, and have emergency plans for occurrence of infectious diseases, effectively prevent and eliminate epidemic (disease) of dairy cows, and improve the economic benefit of cattle breeding.